Next Issue
Volume 8, March
Previous Issue
Volume 7, September

Hydrology, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this study, after presenting a detailed description of the Serchio River RiverBank Filtration (RBF) site (Lucca, Italy), we used a multidisciplinary approach to estimate the increase in aquifer recharge and the ratio of bank filtrate to ambient groundwater abstracted at the drinking water wells. Based on chemical mixing, a precautionary amount of abstracted Serchio River water is estimated to be on average 85% of the total amount of water abstracted in a year (~16 Mm3). As in several cases of surface water/groundwater interactions, the induced recharge component in RBF schemes is not duly acknowledged; we suggest making clear reference to the fact that the bank filtration is not completely due to natural recharge, but may partly/almost completely be human-made by defining this managed aquifer recharge technique as induced RBF. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on River Flow Regimes in the Upstream of Awash Basin, Ethiopia: Based on IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Climate Change Scenarios
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040098 - 20 Dec 2020
Viewed by 575
Abstract
The Awash River Basin is the most irrigated area in Ethiopia, which is facing critical water resources problems. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of climate change on river flows in the upper Awash Subbasin, Ethiopia, using the [...] Read more.
The Awash River Basin is the most irrigated area in Ethiopia, which is facing critical water resources problems. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of climate change on river flows in the upper Awash Subbasin, Ethiopia, using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) hydrological model. The ensemble of two global climate models (CSIRO-Mk3-6-0 and MIROC-ESM-CHEM with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for climate data projections (the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s) and historical climate data from 1981–2010 was considered. Bias-corrections were made for both the GCM data. SWAT model was calibrated and validated to simulate future hydrologic variables in response to changes in rainfall and temperature. The results showed that the projected climate change scenarios were an increase in rainfall for the period of the 2020s but reduced for the periods of 2050s and 2080s. The annual mean temperature increases, ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 °C under RCP4.5 and 0.6 to 1.2 °C under RCP8.5 for all time slices. In the 2020s, annual mean rainfall increases by 5.77% under RCP4.5 and 7.80% under RCP8.5, while in 2050s and 2080s time slices, rainfall decrements range from 3.31 to 9.87% under RCP4.5 and 6.80 to 16.22% under RCP8.5. The change in rainfall and temperature probably leads to increases in the annual streamflow by 5.79% for RCP4.5 and 7.20% for RCP8.5 in the 2020s, whereas decreases by 10.39% and 11.45% under RCP4.5; and 10.79% and −12.38% for RCP8.5 in 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, in the 2020s, an increment of annual runoff was 10.73% for RCP4.5 and 12.08% for RCP8.5. Runoff reduces by 12.03% and 4.12% under RCP4.5; and 12.65% and 5.31% under RCP8.5 in the 2050s and the 2080s, respectively. Overall, the results revealed that changes in rainfall and temperature would have significant impacts on the streamflow and surface runoff, causing a possible reduction in the total water availability in the subbasin. This study provides useful information for future water resource planning and management in the face of climate change in the upper Awash River basin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of the Recent Evolution of the Streamflow in a Near-Natural System: A Case Study in the Headwaters of the Mero Basin (Galicia, Spain)
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040097 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Observational trend analysis is fundamental for documenting changes in river flows and placing extreme events in their longer-term historical context. Observations from near-natural catchments, i.e., with little or no alteration by humans, are of great importance in detecting and attributing streamflow trends. The [...] Read more.
Observational trend analysis is fundamental for documenting changes in river flows and placing extreme events in their longer-term historical context. Observations from near-natural catchments, i.e., with little or no alteration by humans, are of great importance in detecting and attributing streamflow trends. The purpose of this study is to analyze the annual and seasonal trends of stream discharge (mean, low and high flows) in a headwater catchment in NW Spain, i.e., in the wettest corner of the Iberian Peninsula. The results showed no significant decrease in the mean annual stream discharge. However, significantly lower summer and autumn mean stream discharge and an increase in low flow period were detected, in addition to lesser autumn high flow. The rainfall pattern followed an upward trend, but was not significant. This different pattern shown by rainfall and discharge indicates that is not sufficient to explain the observed trend in stream discharge. Air temperature, most notably by enhancing evapotranspiration, may explain the altered patterns of stream discharge. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Importance of the Induced Recharge Term in Riverbank Filtration: Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemical, and Numerical Modelling Investigations
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040096 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 652
Abstract
While ensuring adequate drinking water supply is increasingly being a worldwide challenging need, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes may provide reliable solutions in order to guarantee safe and continuous supply of water. This is particularly true in riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes. Several studies [...] Read more.
While ensuring adequate drinking water supply is increasingly being a worldwide challenging need, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes may provide reliable solutions in order to guarantee safe and continuous supply of water. This is particularly true in riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes. Several studies aimed at addressing the treatment capabilities of such schemes, but induced aquifer recharge hydrodynamics from surface water bodies caused by pumping wells is seldom analysed and quantified. In this study, after presenting a detailed description of the Serchio River RBF site, we used a multidisciplinary approach entailing hydrodynamics, hydrochemical, and numerical modelling methods in order to evaluate the change in recharge from the Serchio river to the aquifer due to the building of the RBF infrastructures along the Serchio river (Lucca, Italy). In this way, we estimated the increase in aquifer recharge and the ratio of bank filtrate to ambient groundwater abstracted at such RBF scheme. Results highlight that in present conditions the main source of the RBF pumping wells is the Serchio River water and that the groundwater at the Sant’Alessio plain is mainly characterized by mixing between precipitation occurring in the higher part of the plain and the River water. Based on chemical mixing, a precautionary amount of abstracted Serchio River water is estimated to be on average 13.6 Mm3/year, which is 85% of the total amount of water abstracted in a year (~16 Mm3). RBF is a worldwide recognized MAR technique for supplying good quality and reliable amount of water. As in several cases and countries the induced recharge component is not duly acknowledged, the authors suggest including the term “induced” in the definition of this type of MAR technique (to become then IRBF). Thus, clear reference may be made to the fact that the bank filtration is not completely due to natural recharge, as in many cases of surface water/groundwater interactions, but it may be partly/almost all human-made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigating Tradeoffs between Agricultural Development and Environmental Flows under Climate Change in the Stung Chinit Watershed, Cambodia
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040095 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
The interlinkages between water for irrigation and for fish habitat are complex. This is particularly true in the Stung Chinit, a tributary to one of the most robust fisheries in the world, where livelihoods rely heavily on rice production and fishing and there [...] Read more.
The interlinkages between water for irrigation and for fish habitat are complex. This is particularly true in the Stung Chinit, a tributary to one of the most robust fisheries in the world, where livelihoods rely heavily on rice production and fishing and there is pressure to increase rice production with increased irrigation. This study assesses the tradeoffs between various management options and irrigation strategies in the Stung Chinit watershed under multiple projections of climate change. Due to the relative demands for instream flows and rice, if dry season rice is widely promoted, flows will be severely impacted. However, implementing a flow requirement protects these flows, while only causing minor shortages to rice when planted once or twice per year. These shortages may be alleviated with improved cooperation, management and shifting rice irrigation practices. While climate change will lead to warming temperatures and potentially higher demands for irrigation, the larger threat to rice and ecosystems appears to be water management (or lack thereof). This study suggests that there is sufficient water in the system to expand the irrigated area by 10%, grow rice twice per year and protect downstream flows under climate change; however, well-coordinated management is required to achieve this. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Groundwater and Solute Budget (A Case Study from Sabkha Matti, Saudi Arabia)
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040094 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Sabkha Matti is the largest inland sabkha (2950 km2) in the Arabian Peninsula. The drainage area supporting this sabkha is >250,000 km2 and is the discharge point for part of the ten thousand meter thick regional groundwater systems ranging in [...] Read more.
Sabkha Matti is the largest inland sabkha (2950 km2) in the Arabian Peninsula. The drainage area supporting this sabkha is >250,000 km2 and is the discharge point for part of the ten thousand meter thick regional groundwater systems ranging in age from Precambrian through Miocene in the Rub’ al Khali structural basin. A hydrologic budget was constructed for this sabkha, where water fluxes were calculated on the basis of hydraulic gradient and conductivities measured in both shallow and deep wells. The evaporation rates from the surface of the sabkha were estimated from the published data and indicate that almost all the annual rainfall is lost by surface evaporation. The water flux multiplied by its solute concentration showed that nearly all the solutes in the sabkha were derived by upward leakage from the underlying regional aquifers rather than the weathering of the aquifer framework, from precipitation, or from other sources. Steady-state estimates within a rectilinear control volume of the sabkha indicate that about 1 m3/year of water enters by lateral groundwater flow, 2 m3/year of water exits by lateral groundwater flow, 20 m3/year enters by upward leakage, 780 m3/year enters by recharge from rainfall, and 780 m3/year is lost by evaporation. The proposed conceptual model of the hydrology for sabkha Matti is assumed to apply to the rest of the inland sabkhas of the Arabia Peninsula and to many ancient environments of deposition observed in the geologic record. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Resolution-Dependent Perspectives on Caribbean Hydro-Climate Change
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040093 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Near-surface winds around the mountainous Caribbean islands contribute to orographic lifting and thermal diurnal rainfall that requires mesoscale analysis. Here, a new perspective is presented via high-resolution satellite and reanalysis products. Singular value decomposition is applied to 5 km cold-cloud duration satellite data [...] Read more.
Near-surface winds around the mountainous Caribbean islands contribute to orographic lifting and thermal diurnal rainfall that requires mesoscale analysis. Here, a new perspective is presented via high-resolution satellite and reanalysis products. Singular value decomposition is applied to 5 km cold-cloud duration satellite data to understand the leading mode of seasonal hydro-climate variability and its regional controls. The spatial loadings reflect wet islands in a dry marine climate, while temporal amplitude is modulated by the large-scale zonal circulation. When summer-time trade winds weaken, daytime confluence around Caribbean islands enlarges, gathering and lifting more moisture. In addition to the static geographic forcing, transient easterly waves impart the majority of marine rainfall between June and September. Higher resolution products capture the thermal orographic effect and reveal upward trends in island rainfall and soil moisture over the satellite era, while lower resolution products miss this effect. The climate of mountainous Caribbean islands is trending toward increased runoff and soil moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Rainfall-Induced Floods in Small Catchments (the Polomet’ River, North-West Russia) Using Rain Gauge and Radar Data
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040092 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
In recent years, rain floods caused by abnormal rainfall precipitation have caused several damages in various part of Russia. Precise forecasting of rainfall runoff is essential for both operational practice to optimize the operation of the infrastructure in urbanized territories and for better [...] Read more.
In recent years, rain floods caused by abnormal rainfall precipitation have caused several damages in various part of Russia. Precise forecasting of rainfall runoff is essential for both operational practice to optimize the operation of the infrastructure in urbanized territories and for better practices on flood prevention, protection, and mitigation. The network of rain gauges in some Russian regions are very scarce. Thus, an adequate assessment and modeling of precipitation patterns and its spatial distribution is always impossible. In this case, radar data could be efficiently used for modeling of rain floods, which were shown by previous research. This study is aimed to simulate the rain floods in the small catchment in north-west Russia using radar- and ground-based measurements. The investigation area is located the Polomet’ river basin, which is the key object for runoff and water discharge monitoring in Valdai Hills, Russia. Two datasets (rain gauge and weather radar) for precipitation were used in this work. The modeling was performed in open-source Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model with three types of input data: rain gauge, radar, and gauge-adjusted radar data. The simulation efficiency is assessed using the coefficient of determination R2, Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE), by comparing the mean values to standard deviations for the calculated and measured values of water discharge. The SWAT model captures well the different phases of the water regime and demonstrates a good quality of reproduction of the hydrographs of the river runoff of the Polomet’ river. In general, the best model performance was observed for rain gauge data (NSE is up to 0.70 in the Polomet’river-Lychkovo station); however, good results have been also obtained when using adjusted data. The discrepancies between observed and simulated water flows in the model might be explained by the scarce network of meteorological stations in the area of studied basin, which does not allow for a more accurate correction of the radar data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Impacts of Serial Correlation and Shift on the Streamflow Variability within the Climate Regions of Contiguous United States
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040091 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
The spatiotemporal hydrologic variability over different regions of the contiguous United States poses the risk of droughts and floods. Understanding the historic variations in streamflow can help in accessing future hydrologic conditions. The current study investigates the historic changes in the streamflow within [...] Read more.
The spatiotemporal hydrologic variability over different regions of the contiguous United States poses the risk of droughts and floods. Understanding the historic variations in streamflow can help in accessing future hydrologic conditions. The current study investigates the historic changes in the streamflow within the climate regions of the continental United States. The streamflow records of 419 unimpaired streamflow stations were grouped into seven climate regions based on the National Climate Assessment, to evaluate the regional changes in both seasonal streamflow and yearly streamflow percentiles. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt’s test were utilized to evaluate the streamflow variability as a gradual trend and abrupt shift, respectively. The Walker test was performed to test the global significance of the streamflow variability within each climate region based on local trend and shift significance of each streamflow station. The study also evaluated the presence of serial correlation in the streamflow records and its effects on both trend and shift within the climate regions of the contiguous United States for the first time. Maximum variability in terms of both trend and shift was observed for summer as compared to other seasons. Similarly, a greater number of stations showed streamflow variability for 5th and 50th percentile streamflow as compared to 95th and 100th percentile streamflow. It was also observed that serial correlation affected both trends and steps, while accounting for the lag-1 autocorrelation improved shift results. The results indicated that the streamflow variability has more likely occurred as shift as compared to the gradual trend. The outcomes of the current result detailing historic variability may help to envision future changes in streamflow. The current study may favor the water managers in developing future decisions to resolve the issues related to the streamflow variability in flood and drought-prone regions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Transport and Deposition of Microplastics and Mesoplastics along the River Course: A Case Study of a Small River in Central Italy
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040090 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The release of plastics in freshwater is an increasing concern for ecosystem safety worldwide. There is a large knowledge gap on plastic pollution in Mediterranean freshwater, especially regarding surveys along entire river courses, partly due to the absence of guidelines for standardized monitoring [...] Read more.
The release of plastics in freshwater is an increasing concern for ecosystem safety worldwide. There is a large knowledge gap on plastic pollution in Mediterranean freshwater, especially regarding surveys along entire river courses, partly due to the absence of guidelines for standardized monitoring of plastics. The present study analyzes the plastic distribution from source to mouth, also according to the River Continuum Concept, of the environmental matrices (water and sediments) and biota (caddisfly cases) of the Mediterranean River Mignone and their cause-effect relationship. The results of the water quality indices (Extended Biotic Index and Fluvial Functionality Index) were compared with the plastic concentrations observed in the water and sediments to explore what relationship there might be and to understand if the indices could be a proxy of the plastic pollution. Our results showed a significant prevalence of blue fibers, the concentration of which in water and sediment is positively associated. Plastic concentration at each site was not accurately detected by the water quality indices. These results may suggest that the factors considered by water quality indices are not able to detect the contamination of plastic pollution. It is mandatory to identify new tools for assessing the plastic impacts on river ecosystems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Urbanization on Large Wood Sizes and Associated Recruitment Zones
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040089 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Although the presence of large wood (LW) has long been recognized to enhance watershed function, land use impact on LW remains poorly understood. Using a series of six watersheds, we investigate the relationships between LW recruitment zones, LW size, and LW jam occurrence [...] Read more.
Although the presence of large wood (LW) has long been recognized to enhance watershed function, land use impact on LW remains poorly understood. Using a series of six watersheds, we investigate the relationships between LW recruitment zones, LW size, and LW jam occurrence and land use. Although the results in general show urban land use to severely limit LW, they also stress that agricultural land use may be positively correlated to LW. Occurrence of potentially productive LW recruitment zones is nevertheless best correlated to total forest land cover and forested riparian area. However, the lack of mature forest due to previous widespread deforestation linked to historical agricultural land use is likely a limiting legacy effect. Since the pattern of land use seen in the study area is typical of much of the developed world, our results suggest the limiting of LW may be a major way in which watersheds are impacted in many regions. Accordingly, reintroduction of LW represents a significant opportunity to restore watersheds on a broad scale. Specifically, we propose a mix of passive conservation and active restoration of LW sources and that the targeting of these tactics be planned using the spatial analysis methods of this study. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using Stable Isotopes to Determine the Water Balance of Utah Lake (Utah, USA)
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040088 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 597
Abstract
To investigate the hydrology of Utah Lake, we analyzed the hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) stable isotope composition of water samples collected from the various components of its system. The average δ2H and δ18O values [...] Read more.
To investigate the hydrology of Utah Lake, we analyzed the hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) stable isotope composition of water samples collected from the various components of its system. The average δ2H and δ18O values of the inlets are similar to the average values of groundwater, which in turn has a composition that is similar to winter precipitation. This suggests that snowmelt-fed groundwater is the main source of Utah Valley river waters. In addition, samples from the inlets plot close to the local meteoric water line, suggesting that no significant evaporation is occurring in these rivers. In contrast, the lake and its outlet have higher average δ-values than the inlets and plot along evaporation lines, suggesting the occurrence of significant evaporation. Isotope data also indicate that the lake is poorly mixed horizontally, but well mixed vertically. Calculations based on mass balance equations provide estimates for the percentage of input water lost by evaporation (~47%), for the residence time of water in the lake (~0.5 years), and for the volume of groundwater inflow (~700 million m3) during the period April to November. The short water residence time and the high percentage of total inflow coming from groundwater might suggest that the lake is more susceptible to groundwater pollution than to surface water pollution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Drainage Network Patterns Determinism: A Comparison in Arid, Semi-Arid and Semi-Humid Area of Morocco Using Multifactorial Approach
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040087 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Drainage network patterns influence the hydrological response of the watersheds and must be taken into account in the management of the water resource. In this context, it is important to identify the factors that control the configuration of drainage networks in and beyond [...] Read more.
Drainage network patterns influence the hydrological response of the watersheds and must be taken into account in the management of the water resource. In this context, it is important to identify the factors that control the configuration of drainage networks in and beyond specific climatic conditions. Here, we study 318 basins spread over three sectors (arid, semi-arid, and semi-humid) of Morocco where seven drainage network patterns have been identified. From each basin, 14 parameters were extracted, describing the relief, geology, morphometry, drainage network, land cover, precipitation, and time of concentration (Tc). Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) processing were performed on the entire database and on each sector separately. The results show that the drainage network pattern is a feature of the landscape that contributes significantly to the variance of the basins. They suggest that the distribution of network patterns is controlled by the relationship between the different parameters, mainly those related to the relief, more than by the variations of each parameter taken individually. The network discrimination rate is 63.8%, which improves when each sector is treated separately. Confusion in discrimination are similar across all sectors and can be explained by similar conditions (active tectonic, deformation, and uplift) or transitions from one network pattern to another, due to the landscape evolution of certain sectors. A contribution of climatic variables appears locally but was attributed to a statistical coincidence, these parameters presenting a distribution close to that of the relief and geology variables. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Coastal Wetland Restoration Plan on the Water Balance Components of Heeia Watershed, Hawaii
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040086 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Optimal restoration and management of coastal wetland are contingent on reliable assessment of hydrological processes. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to assess the impacts of a proposed coastal wetland restoration plan on the water balance [...] Read more.
Optimal restoration and management of coastal wetland are contingent on reliable assessment of hydrological processes. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to assess the impacts of a proposed coastal wetland restoration plan on the water balance components of the Heeia watershed (Hawaii). There is a need to optimize between water needs for taro cultivation and accompanying cultural practices, wetland ecosystem services, and streamflow that feeds downstream coastal fishponds and reefs of the Heeia watershed. For this, we completed two land use change scenarios (conversion of an existing California grassland to a proposed taro field and mangroves to a pond in the wetland area) with several irrigation water diversion scenarios at different percent of minimum streamflow values in the reach. The irrigation water diversion scenarios aimed at achieving sustainable growth of the taro crop without compromising streamflow value, which plays a vital role in the health of a downstream fishpond and coastal environment of the watershed. Findings generally suggest that the conversion of a California grassland to a patched taro field is expected to decrease the baseflow value, which was a major source of streamflow for the study area, due to soil layer compaction, and thus decrease in groundwater recharge from the taro field. However, various taro irrigation water application and management scenarios suggested that diverting 50% of the minimum streamflow value for taro field would provide sustainable growth of taro crop without compromising streamflow value and environmental health of the coastal wetland and downstream fishponds. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mathematical Modeling of Watersheds as a Subsidy for Reservoir Water Balance Determination: The Case of Paranoá Lake, Federal District, Brazil
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040085 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Paranoá Lake, Federal District (DF), Brazil, is one of the most important urban lakes in the country and it receives inputs from basins with different characteristics, from natural and preserved to intensely urbanized and agricultural areas. The study of the hydrological processes in [...] Read more.
Paranoá Lake, Federal District (DF), Brazil, is one of the most important urban lakes in the country and it receives inputs from basins with different characteristics, from natural and preserved to intensely urbanized and agricultural areas. The study of the hydrological processes in these basins, as well as the water balance in each of them, is fundamental for planning current and future water uses in Paranoá Lake. Using an extensive database (35 years) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, we modelled five sub-basins. The outflow rates of the model for each sub-basin served as input for determining the water balance of Paranoá Lake, which recently became part of the DF public water supply system. Despite extensive flow monitoring in the main lake tributaries, about 20% of the lake basin is composed of direct contribution or non-monitored tributaries. Additionally, the lake outflow is composed of a spillway and a hydropower generation unit that does not have proper flow measurements, and thus a correct basin hydrological simulation is essential for water balance aiming to water management scenarios. The results show an average long-term balance of 18.073 m3/s, with minimum flows around 13 m3/s and maximum flows close to 30 m3/s. This is a pioneering study that associates the extensive monitored database and the hydrological simulation of all affluent basins with the water balance of Paranoá Lake. The results obtained are essential to water management and hydrodynamic modeling of the lake. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pseudo-Spatially-Distributed Modeling of Water Balance Components in the Free State of Saxony
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040084 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Highly-resolved data on water balance components (such as runoff or storage) are crucial to improve water management, for example, in drought or flood situations. As regional observations of these components cannot be acquired adequately, a feasible solution is to apply water balance models. [...] Read more.
Highly-resolved data on water balance components (such as runoff or storage) are crucial to improve water management, for example, in drought or flood situations. As regional observations of these components cannot be acquired adequately, a feasible solution is to apply water balance models. We developed an innovative approach using the physically-based lumped-parameter water balance model BROOK90 (R version) integrated into a sensor network platform to derive daily water budget components for catchments in the Free State of Saxony. The model is not calibrated, but rather uses available information on soil, land use, and precipitation only. We applied the hydro response units (HRUs) approach for 6175 small and medium-sized catchments. For the evaluation, model output was cross-evaluated in ten selected head catchments in a low mountain range in Saxony. The mean values of Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) for the period 2005–2019 to these catchments are 0.63 and 0.75, for daily and monthly discharge simulations, respectively. The simulated evapotranspiration and soil wetness are in good agreement with the SMAP_L4_GPH product in April 2015–2018. The study can be enhanced by using different data platforms as well as available information on study sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Water Balance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Minimum Water Level in Lakes and Reservoirs Based on Their Morphological and Hydrological Features
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040083 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The sustainable management of lakes and reservoirs requires the determination of their minimum environmental water level. Even though the assessment of minimum water level depends on a number of biotic and abiotic factors of the lake ecosystem, in many cases these factors are [...] Read more.
The sustainable management of lakes and reservoirs requires the determination of their minimum environmental water level. Even though the assessment of minimum water level depends on a number of biotic and abiotic factors of the lake ecosystem, in many cases these factors are not entirely known and, furthermore, their evaluation is usually a challenging and laborious task. On the other hand, the lakes/reservoirs may comprise an important water resource to meet the requirements arising from economic activities. In this paper, the morphological and hydrological features of four lakes of northern Greece were analysed in order to assess their minimum environmental water level. The hydromorphological analysis was based on the relationship of the lake surface area and volume with water level as well as the water inflow from the lake’s hydrological catchment area, considering as the lake’s critical volume storage, the annual water volume flowing into a lake from its hydrological catchment area with a probability of exceedance 50% of a long time series of hydrological years. By combining morphological and hydrological features, the proposed methodology aimed to extend the analysis based solely on morphological features, and assess more comprehensively the minimum environmental water level in the four lakes, ensuring also the rising from the minimum level to the maximum (overflow) level for most of the hydrological years. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Significance and Causality in Continuous Wavelet and Wavelet Coherence Spectra Applied to Hydrological Time Series
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040082 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Wavelet transform, wavelet spectra, and coherence are popular tools for studying fluctuations in time series in the form of a bidimensional time and scale representation. We discuss two aspects of wavelet analysis—namely the significance and stochastic/deterministic character of the wavelet spectra. Real-time series [...] Read more.
Wavelet transform, wavelet spectra, and coherence are popular tools for studying fluctuations in time series in the form of a bidimensional time and scale representation. We discuss two aspects of wavelet analysis—namely the significance and stochastic/deterministic character of the wavelet spectra. Real-time series of discharge, sodium, and sulfate concentrations in the alpine Rhône River, Switzerland, are used to illustrate these issues. First, the consequences of using an arbitrary stochastic process (usually, AR (1)) instead of the best-fitted general ARMA process in the evaluation of the significance of wavelet spectra are analyzed. Using a general ARMA instead of AR (1) decreases the significance level of the differences in wavelet power spectra (WPS) of ARMA and AR (1) compared to the WPS of the time series in all cases studied and points to a possible systematic overestimation of significance in many published studies. Besides, the significance of particular patches in the spectra is affected by multiple testing. A (conservative) way to circumvent this problem, using global wavelet spectra and global coherence spectra, is evaluated. Finally, we discuss the issue of causality and investigated it in the three measured time series mentioned above. Even if the use of the best fitted ARMA pointed to no deterministic features being present in the corrected series studied (i.e., stochastic processes are dominant in the three data series), coherence spectra between variables allowed to reveal cause-effect relationships between two “coherent” variables and/or the existence of a common effect on both variables. Therefore, such type of analysis provides a useful tool to better understand data causal relationships. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Meeting SDG6 in the Kingdom of Tonga: The Mismatch between National and Local Sustainable Development Planning for Water Supply
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040081 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 challenges small island developing states such as the Kingdom of Tonga, which relies on variable rainwater and fragile groundwater lenses for freshwater supply. Meeting water needs in dispersed small islands under changeable climate and frequent extreme events is [...] Read more.
UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 challenges small island developing states such as the Kingdom of Tonga, which relies on variable rainwater and fragile groundwater lenses for freshwater supply. Meeting water needs in dispersed small islands under changeable climate and frequent extreme events is difficult. Improved governance is central to better water management. Integrated national sustainable development plans have been promulgated as a necessary improvement, but their relevance to island countries has been questioned. Tonga’s national planning instrument is the Tonga Strategic Development Framework, 2015–2025 (TSDFII). Local Community Development Plans (CDPs), developed by rural villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Divisions, are also available. Analyses are presented of island water sources from available census and limited hydrological data, and of the water supply priorities in TSDFII and in 117 accessible village CDPs. Census and hydrological data showed large water supply differences between islands. Nationally, TDSFII did not identify water supply as a priority. In CDPs, 84% of villages across all Island Divisions ranked water supply as a priority. Reasons for the mismatch are advanced. It is recommended that improved governance in water in Pacific Island countries should build on available census and hydrological data and increased investment in local island planning processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Predicting Runoff Chloride Concentrations in Suburban Watersheds Using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040080 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Road salts in stormwater runoff, from both urban and suburban areas, are of concern to many. Chloride-based deicers [i.e., sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)], dissolve in runoff, travel downstream in the aqueous phase, percolate [...] Read more.
Road salts in stormwater runoff, from both urban and suburban areas, are of concern to many. Chloride-based deicers [i.e., sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)], dissolve in runoff, travel downstream in the aqueous phase, percolate into soils, and leach into groundwater. In this study, data obtained from stormwater runoff events were used to predict chloride concentrations and seasonal impacts at different sites within a suburban watershed. Water quality data for 42 rainfall events (2016–2019) greater than 12.7 mm (0.5 inches) were used. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed, using measured rainfall volume, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sodium, chloride, and total nitrate concentrations. Water quality data were trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm. The model was then applied to six different sites. The new ANN model proved accurate in predicting values. This study illustrates that road salt and deicers are the prime cause of high chloride concentrations in runoff during winter and spring, threatening the aquatic environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Water Quality Parameters in Shatt AL-Arab, Southern Iraq, Using Spatial Analysis
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040079 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 548
Abstract
The present work illustrates the potential application of techniques of spatial analysis via geographic information systems (GIS) to categorize the distribution of temporal and spatial of water prediction characteristics to determine the water quality parameters of the Shatt Al-Arab River (SAA), southern Iraq. [...] Read more.
The present work illustrates the potential application of techniques of spatial analysis via geographic information systems (GIS) to categorize the distribution of temporal and spatial of water prediction characteristics to determine the water quality parameters of the Shatt Al-Arab River (SAA), southern Iraq. Eight main water quality parameters and three heavy metals were measured from December 2018 to October 2019. The total dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and total hardness were compared with previous data that were measured from 2014 to 2018 based on data availability. The geochemical characteristics were also investigated to analyze water quality parameters. The study was performed by selecting eleven stations according to the nature areas of SAA. Water samples were acquired from the eleven stations for four seasons (winter of 2018 through autumn of 2019). Results revealed that total dissolved solids ranged between 950 to 8500 mg/L, total hardness varied from 400 to 2394 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), the sulfate ranged from 149 to 1602 mg/L, and chloride ranged from 330 to 3687 mg/L. The results showed that SAA had high salinity with a low hazard of sodicity. The SAA waters mainly fall below the Dolomite-Magnesite tie-lines which indicated the dissolution of carbonate rocks. This research also found that the study area confined from Al-Maqal station to Abu Flus port station where the salty marine water coming from the Arabian Gulf remains for longer periods. The SAA is not suitable for drinking and irrigation water according to Iraqi and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. This study suggested building a blocking dam downstream of the SAA to prevent salty water from coming back from Arabian Gulf. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship. Case Study: Depth-Duration Ratio in a Semi-Arid Zone in Mexico
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040078 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves describe the relationship between rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and return period. They are commonly used in the design, planning and operation of hydrologic, hydraulic, and water resource systems. Considering the intense rainfall presence with flooding occurrences, limited data used to [...] Read more.
Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves describe the relationship between rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and return period. They are commonly used in the design, planning and operation of hydrologic, hydraulic, and water resource systems. Considering the intense rainfall presence with flooding occurrences, limited data used to develop IDF curves, and importance to improve the IDF design for the Ensenada City in Baja California, this research study aims to investigate the use and combinations of pluviograph and daily records, to assess rain behavior around the city, and select a suitable method that provides the best results of IDF relationship, consequently updating the IDF relationship for the city for return periods of 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The IDF relationship is determined through frequency analysis of rainfall observations. Also, annual maximum rainfall intensity for several duration and return periods has been analyzed according to the statistical distribution of Gumbel Extreme Value (GEV). Thus, Chen’s method was evaluated based on the depth-duration ratio (R) from the zone, and the development of the IDF relationship for the rain gauges stations was focused on estimating the most suitable (R) ratio; chosen from testing several methods and analyzing the rain in the region from California and Baja California. The determined values of the rain for one hour and return period of 2 years (P12) obtained were compared to the values of some cities in California and Baja California, with a range between 10 and 16.61 mm, and the values of the (R) ratio are in a range between 0.35 and 0.44; this range is close to the (R) ratio of 0.44 for one station in Tijuana, a city 100 km far from Ensenada. The values found here correspond to the rainfall characteristics of the zone; therefore, the method used in this study can be replicated to other semi-arid zones with the same rain characteristics. Finally, it is suggested that these results of the IDF relationship should be incorporated on the Norm of the State of Baja California as the recurrence update requires it upon recommendation. This study is the starting point to other studies that imply the calculation of a peak flow and evaluation of hydraulic structures as an input to help improve flood resilience in the city of Ensenada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modelling of Rainfall Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Analytical Protocol to Estimate the Relative Importance of Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors in Influencing Runoff Quality in the Bumbu Watershed, Papua New Guinea
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040077 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 815
Abstract
The wellbeing, socio-economic viability and the associated health of the inhabitant species of any ecosystem are largely dependent on the quality of its water resources. In this regard, we developed a protocol to measure the potential impact of various environmental and anthropogenic factors [...] Read more.
The wellbeing, socio-economic viability and the associated health of the inhabitant species of any ecosystem are largely dependent on the quality of its water resources. In this regard, we developed a protocol to measure the potential impact of various environmental and anthropogenic factors on runoff quality at 22 water sampling sites across the Bumbu Watershed in Papua New Guinea. For this purpose, we utilized Digital Elevation Models and several GIS techniques for delineation of stream drainage patterns, classification of the watershed based on Land Use/Land Cover, spatial interpolation of rainfall patterns and computation of the corresponding factor runoff. Our study concludes that a variety of potential challenges to surface water quality are possible such as natural geologic and geochemical inputs, runoff accumulation of precipitation and organic matter pollutants. The developed protocol can also accommodate socio-economic factors such as community and household health, sanitation and hygiene practices, pollution and waste disposal. This research lays the foundation for further development of an all-inclusive correlational analysis between the relative importance values of the factors influencing runoff and spatially distributed water quality measurements in the Bumbu basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Hydrology: The New Paradigm in Resilient Water Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Partitioning of Rainfall and Sprinkler-Irrigation by Crop Canopies: A Global Review and Evaluation of Available Research
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040076 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 562
Abstract
The role of crop canopies in the global water cycle is a topic of increasing international interest. How much rain and sprinkler-irrigation water are returned to the atmosphere or reach the soils beneath crop canopies, and the pathways of those water inputs at [...] Read more.
The role of crop canopies in the global water cycle is a topic of increasing international interest. How much rain and sprinkler-irrigation water are returned to the atmosphere or reach the soils beneath crop canopies, and the pathways of those water inputs at the soil, are linked to agricultural productivity and sustainability. This concise-format review synthesized and evaluated the available, limited, observational data (138 studies) on cropland throughfall, stemflow, and/or interception for >60 crop species covering all major climate types to obtain a global analysis of rainfall and sprinkler-irrigation partitioning by crop canopies. Partitions normalized per unit rain/sprinkler-irrigation (relative fractions, %) vary greatly across crop types with the interquartile range of throughfall, stemflow, and interception being 58–83%, 2–26%, and 11–32%, respectively. Stemflow data distribution across crop types is more often different than for throughfall and interception, contributing to overall variations in the partitioning of rain and irrigation observed to date. Partitions per storm also differ depending on the magnitude of rain or sprinkler-irrigation events and the stage of crop growth. Furthermore, throughfall and stemflow input patterns at the soil surface and subsurface may erode soils through different physical processes (i.e., throughfall droplet impact/splash versus scouring by stemflow); however, more research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and overall impacts. Finally, comparative analyses of partitions among croplands, shrublands, and forests indicate that crop canopies partition rain inputs differently and that there is a lack of studies in croplands. Hence, we suggest that future effort should be directed to the partitioning of rainfall and sprinkler-irrigation by canopies in agricultural settings. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A New Physically-Based Spatially-Distributed Groundwater Flow Module for SWAT+
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040075 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven [...] Read more.
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven watersheds can sometimes be poor due to a simplistic representation of groundwater processes. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new physically-based spatially-distributed groundwater flow module called gwflow for the SWAT+ watershed model. The module is embedded in the SWAT+ modeling code and is intended to replace the current SWAT+ aquifer module. The model accounts for recharge from SWAT+ Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), lateral flow within the aquifer, Evapotranspiration (ET) from shallow groundwater, groundwater pumping, groundwater–surface water interactions through the streambed, and saturation excess flow. Groundwater head and groundwater storage are solved throughout the watershed domain using a water balance equation for each grid cell. The modified SWAT+ modeling code is applied to the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) (327 km2) in southern Georgia, USA for demonstration purposes. Using the gwflow module for the LREW increased run-time by 20% compared to the original SWAT+ modeling code. Results from an uncalibrated model are compared against streamflow discharge and groundwater head time series. Although further calibration is required if the LREW model is to be used for scenario analysis, results highlight the capabilities of the new SWAT+ code to simulate both land surface and subsurface hydrological processes and represent the watershed-wide water balance. Using the modified SWAT+ model can provide physically realistic groundwater flow gradients, fluxes, and interactions with streams for modeling studies that assess water supply and conservation practices. This paper also serves as a tutorial on modeling groundwater flow for general watershed modelers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Snow Distribution and River Flows in a Snow-Dominated Mountainous Watershed in the Western Hindukush–Himalaya, Afghanistan
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040074 - 06 Oct 2020
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Projected snow cover and river flows are important for planning and managing water resources in snow-dominated basins of the Himalayas. To quantify the impacts of climate change in the data scarce Panjshir River basin of Afghanistan, this study simulated present and future snow [...] Read more.
Projected snow cover and river flows are important for planning and managing water resources in snow-dominated basins of the Himalayas. To quantify the impacts of climate change in the data scarce Panjshir River basin of Afghanistan, this study simulated present and future snow cover area (SCA) distributions with the snow model (SM), and river flows with the snowmelt runoff model (SRM). The SRM used the degree-day factor and precipitation gradient optimized by the SM to simulate river flows. Temperature and precipitation data from eight kinds of general circulation models (GCMs) were used for bias correction. The SM and SRM were first calibrated and validated using 2009–2015 data, and then bias-corrected future climate data were input to the models to simulate future SCA and river flows. Under both the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, the annual average SCA and river flow were projected to decrease in the mid and late 21st century, although seasonal increases were simulated in some instances. Uncertainty ranges in projected SCA and river flow under RCP 8.5 were small in the mid 21st century and large in the late 21st century. Therefore, climate change is projected to alter high-altitude stream sources in the Hindukush mountains and reduce the amount of water reaching downstream areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Effects on Water Resources Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity Analysis of the Rainfall–Runoff Modeling Parameters in Data-Scarce Urban Catchment
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040073 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
Rainfall–runoff phenomena are among the main processes within the hydrological cycle. In urban zones, the increases in imperviousness cause increased runoff, originating floods. It is fundamental to know the sensitivity of parameters in the modeling of an urban basin, which makes the calibration [...] Read more.
Rainfall–runoff phenomena are among the main processes within the hydrological cycle. In urban zones, the increases in imperviousness cause increased runoff, originating floods. It is fundamental to know the sensitivity of parameters in the modeling of an urban basin, which makes the calibration process more efficient by allowing one to focus only on the parameters for which the modeling results are sensitive. This research presents a formal sensitivity analysis of hydrological and hydraulic parameters—absolute–relative, relative–absolute, relative–relative sensitivity and R2—applied to an urban basin. The urban basin of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, in Mexico is an area prone to flooding caused by extreme precipitation events. The basin has little information in which the records (with the same time resolution) of precipitation and hydrometry match. The basin model representing an area of 355.07 km2 was characterized in the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). The sensitivity analysis was performed for eight hydrological parameters and one hydraulic for two precipitation events and their impact on the depths of the Sabinal River. Based on the analysis, the parameters derived from the analysis that stand out as sensitive are the Manning coefficient of impervious surface and the minimum infiltration speed with R2 > 0.60. The results obtained demonstrate the importance of knowing the sensitivity of the parameters and their selection to perform an adequate calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modelling of Rainfall Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Propagating Dam Breach Parametric Uncertainty in a River Reach Using the HEC-RAS Software
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040072 - 03 Oct 2020
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Dam break studies consist of two submodels: (a) the dam breach submodel which derives the flood hydrograph and (b) the hydrodynamic submodel which, using the flood hydrograph, derives the flood peaks and maximum water depths in the downstream reaches of the river. In [...] Read more.
Dam break studies consist of two submodels: (a) the dam breach submodel which derives the flood hydrograph and (b) the hydrodynamic submodel which, using the flood hydrograph, derives the flood peaks and maximum water depths in the downstream reaches of the river. In this paper, a thorough investigation of the uncertainty observed in the output of the hydrodynamic model, due to the seven dam breach parameters, is performed in a real-world case study (Papadiana Dam, located at Tavronitis River in Crete, Greece). Three levels of uncertainty are examined (flow peak of the flood hydrograph at the dam location, flow peaks and maximum water depths downstream along the river) with two methods: (a) a Morris-based sensitivity analysis for investigating the influence of each parameter on the final results; (b) a Monte Carlo-based forward uncertainty analysis for defining the distribution of uncertainty band and its statistical characteristics. Among others, it is found that uncertainty of the flow peaks is greater than the uncertainty of the maximum water depths, whereas there is a decreasing trend of uncertainty as we move downstream along the river. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Land–Ocean–Atmosphere Influences on Groundwater Variability in the South Atlantic–Gulf Region
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040071 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
Climate association between Groundwater Storage (GWS) and sea level changes have been missing from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, demanding a requisite study of their linkage and responses. Variability in the Hydrologic Unit Code—03 region, i.e., one of the major U.S. watersheds [...] Read more.
Climate association between Groundwater Storage (GWS) and sea level changes have been missing from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, demanding a requisite study of their linkage and responses. Variability in the Hydrologic Unit Code—03 region, i.e., one of the major U.S. watersheds in the southeast caused by Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, was identified. Furthermore, the SST regions were identified to assess its relationship with GWS, sea level, precipitation, and terrestrial water storage. Temporal and spatial variability were obtained utilizing the singular value decomposition statistical method. A gridded GWS anomaly from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was used to understand the relationship with sea level and SST. The negative pockets of SST were negatively linked with GWS. The identification of teleconnections with groundwater may substantiate temporal patterns of groundwater variability. The results confirmed that the SST regions exhibited El Niño Southern Oscillation patterns, resulting in GWS changes. Moreover, a positive correlation between GWS and sea level was observed on the east coast in contrast to the southwestern United States. The findings highlight the importance of climate-driven changes in groundwater attributing changes in sea level. Therefore, SST could be a good predictor, possibly utilized for prior assessment of variabilities plus groundwater forecasting. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis under the Effects of Climate Change, Hydraulic Fracturing and its Associated Activities: A Case Study from Northwestern Alberta, Canada
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040070 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 620
Abstract
This study assessed how hydraulic fracturing (HF) (water withdrawals from nearby river water source) and its associated activities (construction of well pads) would affect surface water and groundwater in 2021–2036 under changing climate (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios of the CanESM2) in a shale [...] Read more.
This study assessed how hydraulic fracturing (HF) (water withdrawals from nearby river water source) and its associated activities (construction of well pads) would affect surface water and groundwater in 2021–2036 under changing climate (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios of the CanESM2) in a shale gas and oil play area (23,984.9 km2) of northwestern Alberta, Canada. An integrated hydrologic model (MIKE-SHE and MIKE-11 models), and a cumulative effects landscape simulator (ALCES) were used for this assessment. The simulation results show an increase in stream flow and groundwater discharge in 2021–2036 under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios with respect to those under the base modeling period (2000–2012). This occurs because of the increased precipitation and temperature predicted in the study area under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The results found that HF has very small (less than 1%) subtractive impacts on stream flow in 2021–2036 because of the large size of the study area, although groundwater discharge would increase minimally (less than 1%) due to the increase in the gradient between groundwater and surface water systems. The simulation results also found that the construction of well pads related to HF have very small (less than 1%) additive impacts on stream flow and groundwater discharge due to the non-significant changes in land use. The obtained results from this study provide valuable information for effective long-term water resources decision making in terms of seasonal and annual water extractions from the river, and allocation of water to the oil and gas industries for HF in the study area to meet future energy demand considering future climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Geology and Aquifer Sensitivity of Quaternary Glacial Deposits Overlying a Portion of the Mahomet Buried Bedrock Valley Aquifer System
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hydrology7040069 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 405
Abstract
To characterize the distribution of Holocene and Late Quaternary deposits and to assess the contamination potential of the Mahomet Aquifer, surficial geologic and aquifer sensitivity maps of the Gibson City East 7.5-Minute Quadrangle were created. Geologic data, extent, and thickness of the geologic [...] Read more.
To characterize the distribution of Holocene and Late Quaternary deposits and to assess the contamination potential of the Mahomet Aquifer, surficial geologic and aquifer sensitivity maps of the Gibson City East 7.5-Minute Quadrangle were created. Geologic data, extent, and thickness of the geologic materials were coupled with LiDAR topographic data and analyzed using ESRI’s ArcGIS 10.6.1. Aquifer sensitivity to contamination was calculated based on the depth to the first aquifer unit, aquifer thickness, and the lithology of the aquifer materials. The surficial geologic mapping identified five lithostratigraphic units: the Cahokia Formation, the Equality Formation, the Henry Formation, and the Yorkville and Batestown Members of the Lemont Formation. The southeast to northwest trending Illiana Morainic System is the most prominent feature in the study area and delineates the maximum extent of the glaciers during the Livingston Phase of glaciation. Postglacial deposits of the Cahokia Formation, alluvium, interfinger, and overlie with glacial outwash of the Henry Formation along channels and drainage ways downslope of the moraine. The areas of least sensitivity are located over the Illiana Morainic System, whereas the greatest potential to contamination occurs where the thickest deposits of the Henry Formation and Cahokia Formation lie at or just below the land surface. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop