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Bioengineering, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The use of electrospun fibers for neural repair is advantageous since fibers can be fabricated to mimic the native nervous system extracellular matrix and provide contact guidance for infiltrating glia and regenerating axons. The various characteristics of electrospun fibers, such as fiber alignment, diameter, surface nanotopography, surface chemistry, and therapeutic delivery, can be modified to achieve a desired glial cell response to injury. Here, we show that changing the diameter of aligned electrospun fibers can enhance the uniaxial elongation of glia, which is shown to improve glial-cell-mediated neurite extension. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Systematical Engineering of Synthetic Yeast for Enhanced Production of Lycopene
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010014 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Synthetic biology allows the re-engineering of biological systems and promotes the development of bioengineering to a whole new level, showing great potential in biomanufacturing. Here, in order to make the heterologous lycopene biosynthesis pathway compatible with the host strain YSy 200, we evolved [...] Read more.
Synthetic biology allows the re-engineering of biological systems and promotes the development of bioengineering to a whole new level, showing great potential in biomanufacturing. Here, in order to make the heterologous lycopene biosynthesis pathway compatible with the host strain YSy 200, we evolved YSy200 using a unique Synthetic Chromosome Rearrangement and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) system that is built in the Sc2.0 synthetic yeast. By inducing SCRaMbLE, we successfully identified a host strain YSy201 that can be served as a suitable host to maintain the heterologous lycopene biosynthesis pathway. Then, we optimized the lycopene biosynthesis pathway and further integrated into the rDNA arrays of YSy201 to increase its copy number. In combination with culturing condition optimization, we successfully screened out the final yeast strain YSy222, which showed a 129.5-fold increase of lycopene yield in comparison with its parental strain. Our work shows that, the strategy of combining the engineering efforts on both the lycopene biosynthesis pathway and the host strain can improve the compatibility between the heterologous pathway and the host strain, which can further effectively increase the yield of the target product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Yeast to Biotechnology)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Collagen in Airway Mechanics
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010013 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Collagen is the most abundant airway extracellular matrix component and is the primary determinant of mechanical airway properties. Abnormal airway collagen deposition is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of airway disease. Thus, understanding how collagen affects healthy airway tissue mechanics is essential. [...] Read more.
Collagen is the most abundant airway extracellular matrix component and is the primary determinant of mechanical airway properties. Abnormal airway collagen deposition is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of airway disease. Thus, understanding how collagen affects healthy airway tissue mechanics is essential. The impact of abnormal collagen deposition and tissue stiffness has been an area of interest in pulmonary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we discuss (1) the role of collagen in airway mechanics, (2) macro- and micro-scale approaches to quantify airway mechanics, and (3) pathologic changes associated with collagen deposition in airway diseases. These studies provide important insights into the role of collagen in airway mechanics. We summarize their achievements and seek to provide biomechanical clues for targeted therapies and regenerative medicine to treat airway pathology and address airway defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Collagen)
Open AccessArticle
RNU (Foxn1RNU-Nude) Rats Demonstrate an Improved Ability to Regenerate Muscle in a Volumetric Muscle Injury Compared to Sprague Dawley Rats
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010012 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Products developed for skeletal muscle regeneration frequently incorporate allogeneic and xenogeneic materials to elicit a regenerative response to heal skeletal muscle wounds. To avoid graft rejection in preclinical studies, immunodeficient rodents are used. Whether the immunodeficiency alters the host response to the material [...] Read more.
Products developed for skeletal muscle regeneration frequently incorporate allogeneic and xenogeneic materials to elicit a regenerative response to heal skeletal muscle wounds. To avoid graft rejection in preclinical studies, immunodeficient rodents are used. Whether the immunodeficiency alters the host response to the material in skeletal muscle has not been studied. In this study, we hypothesized that an allogeneic acellular skeletal muscle grafts implanted in an immunodeficient rat (RNU, Foxn1-deficient) would exhibit better new muscle fiber formation compared to grafts implanted in immunocompetent Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Decellularized SD skeletal muscle matrix (DMM) was implanted in the gastrocnemius (N = 8 rats/group). 56 days after surgery, animal gait was examined and animals were euthanized. Muscle force was assessed and fiber number as well as immune cell infiltrate was measured by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Animal gait and percent recovery of muscle force were unchanged in both groups, but newly regenerated muscle fibers increased in RNU rats. Macrophage staining for CD68 was higher in RNU rats than in SD rats. These data show differences in muscle regeneration between animal models using the same biomaterial treatment, but these differences could not be ascribed to the immune response. Overall, our data provide awareness that more studies are needed to understand how host responses to biomaterials differ based on the animal model used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Extending In-Plane Impedance Measurements from 2D to 3D Cultures: Design Considerations
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010011 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently emerged as tools for biologically modelling the human body. As 3D models make their way into laboratories there is a need to develop characterisation techniques that are sensitive enough to monitor the cells in real time and [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently emerged as tools for biologically modelling the human body. As 3D models make their way into laboratories there is a need to develop characterisation techniques that are sensitive enough to monitor the cells in real time and without the need for chemical labels. Impedance spectroscopy has been shown to address both of these challenges, but there has been little research into the full impedance spectrum and how the different components of the system affect the impedance signal. Here we investigate the impedance of human fibroblast cells in 2D and 3D collagen gel cultures across a broad range of frequencies (10 Hz to 5 MHz) using a commercial well with in-plane electrodes. At low frequencies in both 2D and 3D models it was observed that protein adsorption influences the magnitude of the impedance for the cell-free samples. This effect was eliminated once cells were introduced to the systems. Cell proliferation could be monitored in 2D at intermediate frequencies (30 kHz). However, the in-plane electrodes were unable to detect any changes in the impedance at any frequency when the cells were cultured in the 3D collagen gel. The results suggest that in designing impedance measurement devices, both the nature and distribution of the cells within the 3D culture as well as the architecture of the electrodes are key variables. Full article
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Open AccessReview
In Situ “Humanization” of Porcine Bioprostheses: Demonstration of Tendon Bioprostheses Conversion into Human ACL and Possible Implications for Heart Valve Bioprostheses
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010010 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
This review describes the first studies on successful conversion of porcine soft-tissue bioprostheses into viable permanently functional tissue in humans. This process includes gradual degradation of the porcine tissue, with concomitant neo-vascularization and reconstruction of the implanted bioprosthesis with human cells and extracellular [...] Read more.
This review describes the first studies on successful conversion of porcine soft-tissue bioprostheses into viable permanently functional tissue in humans. This process includes gradual degradation of the porcine tissue, with concomitant neo-vascularization and reconstruction of the implanted bioprosthesis with human cells and extracellular matrix. Such a reconstruction process is referred to in this review as “humanization”. Humanization was achieved with porcine bone-patellar-tendon-bone (BTB), replacing torn anterior-cruciate-ligament (ACL) in patients. In addition to its possible use in orthopedic surgery, it is suggested that this humanization method should be studied as a possible mechanism for converting implanted porcine bioprosthetic heart-valves (BHV) into viable tissue valves in young patients. Presently, these patients are only implanted with mechanical heart-valves, which require constant anticoagulation therapy. The processing of porcine bioprostheses, which enables humanization, includes elimination of α-gal epitopes and partial (incomplete) crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Studies on implantation of porcine BTB bioprostheses indicated that enzymatic elimination of α-gal epitopes prevents subsequent accelerated destruction of implanted tissues by the natural anti-Gal antibody, whereas the partial crosslinking by glutaraldehyde molecules results in their function as “speed bumps” that slow the infiltration of macrophages. Anti-non gal antibodies produced against porcine antigens in implanted bioprostheses recruit macrophages, which infiltrate at a pace that enables slow degradation of the porcine tissue, neo-vascularization, and infiltration of fibroblasts. These fibroblasts align with the porcine collagen-fibers scaffold, secrete their collagen-fibers and other extracellular-matrix (ECM) components, and gradually replace porcine tissues degraded by macrophages with autologous functional viable tissue. Porcine BTB implanted in patients completes humanization into autologous ACL within ~2 years. The similarities in cells and ECM comprising heart-valves and tendons, raises the possibility that porcine BHV undergoing a similar processing, may also undergo humanization, resulting in formation of an autologous, viable, permanently functional, non-calcifying heart-valves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Next Generation of Prosthetic Heart Valves)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Network Based on Sulfonated Polyhydroxyalkanoate and Tannic Acid Derivative
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010009 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
A novel generation of gels based on medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s, mcl-PHAs, were developed by using ionic interactions. First, water soluble mcl-PHAs containing sulfonate groups were obtained by thiol-ene reaction in the presence of sodium-3-mercapto-1-ethanesulfonate. Anionic PHAs were physically crosslinked by [...] Read more.
A novel generation of gels based on medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s, mcl-PHAs, were developed by using ionic interactions. First, water soluble mcl-PHAs containing sulfonate groups were obtained by thiol-ene reaction in the presence of sodium-3-mercapto-1-ethanesulfonate. Anionic PHAs were physically crosslinked by divalent inorganic cations Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+ or by ammonium derivatives of gallic acid GA-N(CH3)3+ or tannic acid TA-N(CH3)3+. The ammonium derivatives were designed through the chemical modification of gallic acid GA or tannic acid TA with glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMA). The results clearly demonstrated that the formation of the networks depends on the nature of the cations. A low viscoelastic network having an elastic around 40 Pa is formed in the presence of Ca2+. Although the gel formation is not possible in the presence of GA-N(CH3)3+, the mechanical properties increased in the presence of TA-N(CH3)3+ with an elastic modulus G’ around 4200 Pa. The PHOSO3/TA-N(CH3)3+ gels having antioxidant activity, due to the presence of tannic acid, remained stable for at least 5 months. Thus, the stability of these novel networks based on PHA encourage their use in the development of active biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production, Volume 3)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Collagen-Based Biomaterials in Chronic Wound Healing and Sports Medicine Applications
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010008 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Advancements in tissue engineering have taken aim at treating tissue types that have difficulty healing naturally. In order to achieve improved healing conditions, the balance of exogenous matrix, cells, and different factors must be carefully controlled. This review seeks to explore the aspects [...] Read more.
Advancements in tissue engineering have taken aim at treating tissue types that have difficulty healing naturally. In order to achieve improved healing conditions, the balance of exogenous matrix, cells, and different factors must be carefully controlled. This review seeks to explore the aspects of tissue engineering in specific tissue types treated in sports medicine and advanced wound management from the perspective of the matrix component. While the predominant material to be discussed is collagen I, it would be remiss not to mention its relation to the other contributing factors to tissue engineered healing. The main categories of materials summarized here are (1) reconstituted collagen scaffolds, (2) decellularized matrix tissue, and (3) non-decellularized tissue. These three groups are ordered by their increase in additional components beyond simply collagen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Collagen)
Open AccessArticle
Use of Stacked Layers of Electrospun L-Lactide/Glycolide Co-Polymer Fibers for Rapid Construction of Skin Sheets
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010007 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
This paper describes a novel method for the rapid construction of skin, using multiple layers of aligned electrospun fibers as starting scaffolds. Scaffolds were spun from biodegradable L-lactide/glycolide (molar ratio 10:90) with predominantly parallel arrays of fibers attached peripherally to thin 304 stainless [...] Read more.
This paper describes a novel method for the rapid construction of skin, using multiple layers of aligned electrospun fibers as starting scaffolds. Scaffolds were spun from biodegradable L-lactide/glycolide (molar ratio 10:90) with predominantly parallel arrays of fibers attached peripherally to thin 304 stainless steel layer frames. Each layer frame was held between two thicker support frames. Human skin cells were seeded onto multiple (three–nine) scaffolds. Dermal fibroblasts were seeded on both sides of each scaffold except for one on which keratinocytes were seeded on one side only. Following 48 h of culture, the scaffolds and layer frames were unmounted from their support frames, stacked, with keratinocytes uppermost, and securely held in place by upper and lower support frames to instantly form a multilayered “dermis” and a nascent epidermis. The stack was cultured for a further 5 days during which time the cells proliferated and then adhered to form, in association with the spun fibers, a mechanically coherent tissue. Fibroblasts preferentially elongated in the dominant fiber direction and a two-dimensional weave of alternating fiber and cell alignments could be constructed by selected placement of the layer frames during stacking. Histology of the 7-day tissue stacks showed the organized layers of fibroblasts and keratinocytes immuno-positive for keratin. Electron microscopy showed attachment of fibroblasts to the lactide/glycolide fibers and small-diameter collagen fibers in the extracellular space. This novel approach could be used to engineer a range of tissues for grafting where rapid construction of tissues with aligned or woven layers would be beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Gelatin Hydrogels Cross-Linked with Microbial Transglutaminase as Engineered Skeletal Muscle Substrates
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010006 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Engineered in vitro models of skeletal muscle are essential for efficiently screening drug safety and efficacy. However, conventional culture substrates poorly replicate physical features of native muscle and do not support long-term culture, which limits tissue maturity. Micromolded gelatin hydrogels cross-linked with microbial [...] Read more.
Engineered in vitro models of skeletal muscle are essential for efficiently screening drug safety and efficacy. However, conventional culture substrates poorly replicate physical features of native muscle and do not support long-term culture, which limits tissue maturity. Micromolded gelatin hydrogels cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase (gelatin-MTG hydrogels) have previously been shown to induce C21C2 myotube alignment and improve culture longevity. However, several properties of gelatin-MTG hydrogels have not been systematically characterized, such as changes in elastic modulus during incubation in culture-like conditions and their ability to support sarcomere maturation. In this study, various gelatin-MTG hydrogels were fabricated and incubated in ambient or culture-like conditions. Elastic modulus, mass, and transmittance were measured over a one- or two-week period. Compared to hydrogels in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or ambient air, hydrogels in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 5% CO2 demonstrated the most stable elastic modulus. A subset of gelatin-MTG hydrogels was micromolded and seeded with C2C12 or primary chick myoblasts, which aligned and fused into multinucleated myotubes with relatively mature sarcomeres. These data are important for fabricating gelatin-MTG hydrogels with predictable and stable mechanical properties and highlight their advantages as culture substrates for engineering relatively mature and stable muscle tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
Collagen Mimetic Peptides
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010005 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Since their first synthesis in the late 1960s, collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) have been used as a molecular tool to study collagen, and as an approach to develop novel collagen mimetic biomaterials. Collagen, a major extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, plays vital roles in [...] Read more.
Since their first synthesis in the late 1960s, collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) have been used as a molecular tool to study collagen, and as an approach to develop novel collagen mimetic biomaterials. Collagen, a major extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, plays vital roles in many physiological and pathogenic processes. Applications of CMPs have advanced our understanding of the structure and molecular properties of a collagen triple helix—the building block of collagen—and the interactions of collagen with important molecular ligands. The accumulating knowledge is also paving the way for developing novel CMPs for biomedical applications. Indeed, for the past 50 years, CMP research has been a fast-growing, far-reaching interdisciplinary field. The major development and achievement of CMPs were documented in a few detailed reviews around 2010. Here, we provided a brief overview of what we have learned about CMPs—their potential and their limitations. We focused on more recent developments in producing heterotrimeric CMPs, and CMPs that can form collagen-like higher order molecular assemblies. We also expanded the traditional view of CMPs to include larger designed peptides produced using recombinant systems. Studies using recombinant peptides have provided new insights on collagens and promoted progress in the development of collagen mimetic fibrillar self-assemblies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Collagen)
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Open AccessReview
Electrospun Fiber Scaffolds for Engineering Glial Cell Behavior to Promote Neural Regeneration
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010004 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Electrospinning is a fabrication technique used to produce nano- or micro- diameter fibers to generate biocompatible, biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fiber scaffolds are advantageous for neural regeneration because they mimic the structure of the nervous system extracellular matrix and provide [...] Read more.
Electrospinning is a fabrication technique used to produce nano- or micro- diameter fibers to generate biocompatible, biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fiber scaffolds are advantageous for neural regeneration because they mimic the structure of the nervous system extracellular matrix and provide contact guidance for regenerating axons. Glia are non-neuronal regulatory cells that maintain homeostasis in the healthy nervous system and regulate regeneration in the injured nervous system. Electrospun fiber scaffolds offer a wide range of characteristics, such as fiber alignment, diameter, surface nanotopography, and surface chemistry that can be engineered to achieve a desired glial cell response to injury. Further, electrospun fibers can be loaded with drugs, nucleic acids, or proteins to provide the local, sustained release of such therapeutics to alter glial cell phenotype to better support regeneration. This review provides the first comprehensive overview of how electrospun fiber alignment, diameter, surface nanotopography, surface functionalization, and therapeutic delivery affect Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in the central nervous system both in vitro and in vivo. The information presented can be used to design and optimize electrospun fiber scaffolds to target glial cell response to mitigate nervous system injury and improve regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
Collagen Structure-Function Mapping Informs Applications for Regenerative Medicine
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010003 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Type I collagen, the predominant protein of vertebrates, assembles into fibrils that orchestrate the form and function of bone, tendon, skin, and other tissues. Collagen plays roles in hemostasis, wound healing, angiogenesis, and biomineralization, and its dysfunction contributes to fibrosis, atherosclerosis, cancer metastasis, [...] Read more.
Type I collagen, the predominant protein of vertebrates, assembles into fibrils that orchestrate the form and function of bone, tendon, skin, and other tissues. Collagen plays roles in hemostasis, wound healing, angiogenesis, and biomineralization, and its dysfunction contributes to fibrosis, atherosclerosis, cancer metastasis, and brittle bone disease. To elucidate the type I collagen structure-function relationship, we constructed a type I collagen fibril interactome, including its functional sites and disease-associated mutations. When projected onto an X-ray diffraction model of the native collagen microfibril, data revealed a matrix interaction domain that assumes structural roles including collagen assembly, crosslinking, proteoglycan (PG) binding, and mineralization, and the cell interaction domain supporting dynamic aspects of collagen biology such as hemostasis, tissue remodeling, and cell adhesion. Our type III collagen interactome corroborates this model. We propose that in quiescent tissues, the fibril projects a structural face; however, tissue injury releases blood into the collagenous stroma, triggering exposure of the fibrils’ cell and ligand binding sites crucial for tissue remodeling and regeneration. Applications of our research include discovery of anti-fibrotic antibodies and elucidating their interactions with collagen, and using insights from our angiogenesis studies and collagen structure-function model to inform the design of super-angiogenic collagens and collagen mimetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Collagen)
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Open AccessReview
Spinal Deformities and Advancement in Corrective Orthoses
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010002 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Spinal deformity is an abnormality in the spinal curves and can seriously affect the activities of daily life. The conventional way to treat spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and spondylolisthesis, is to use spinal orthoses (braces). Braces have been used for centuries [...] Read more.
Spinal deformity is an abnormality in the spinal curves and can seriously affect the activities of daily life. The conventional way to treat spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and spondylolisthesis, is to use spinal orthoses (braces). Braces have been used for centuries to apply corrective forces to the spine to treat spinal deformities or to stabilize the spine during postoperative rehabilitation. Braces have not modernized with advancements in technology, and very few braces are equipped with smart sensory design and active actuation. There is a need to enable the orthotists, ergonomics practitioners, and developers to incorporate new technologies into the passive field of bracing. This article presents a review of the conventional passive braces and highlights the advancements in spinal orthoses in terms of improved sensory designs, active actuation mechanisms, and new construction methods (CAD/CAM, three-dimensional (3D) printing). This review includes 26 spinal orthoses, comprised of passive rigid/soft braces, active dynamics braces, and torso training devices for the rehabilitation of the spine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Breast Cancer Cell Cultures on Electrospun Poly(ε-Caprolactone) as a Potential Tool for Preclinical Studies on Anticancer Treatments
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bioengineering8010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 669
Abstract
During anticancer drug development, most compounds selected by in vitro screening are ineffective in in vivo studies and clinical trials due to the unreliability of two-dimensional (2D) in vitro cultures that are unable to mimic the cancer microenvironment. Herein, HCC1954 cell cultures on [...] Read more.
During anticancer drug development, most compounds selected by in vitro screening are ineffective in in vivo studies and clinical trials due to the unreliability of two-dimensional (2D) in vitro cultures that are unable to mimic the cancer microenvironment. Herein, HCC1954 cell cultures on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) were characterized by morphological analysis, cell viability assays, histochemical staining, immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR. Our data showed that electrospun PCL allows the in vitro formation of cultures characterized by mucopolysaccharide production and increased cancer stem cell population. Moreover, PCL-based cultures were less sensitive to doxorubicin and electroporation/bleomycin than those grown on polystyrene plates. Collectively, our data indicate that PCL-based cultures may be promising tools for preclinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering)
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