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Beverages, Volume 10, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Health-related nutritional human studies rely on the validity of dietary data provided by study participants. Reliable biomarkers for food intake help objectify data collected by food frequency questionnaires. They facilitate the monitoring of compliance with the study requirements, e.g., abstinence from food, help clean biased data, and remove non-compliant individuals. Biomarker candidates are often revealed by sophisticated metabolomics analyses of body fluids, e.g., urine or plasma, collected from case and control study populations. However, validation for using a biomarker candidate in real-life scenarios is seldomly executed. Coffee is a food item of high interest because of the abundance of bioactive compounds and the regularity of life-time consumption by a large part of the population. View this paper
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11 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Tea and Kombucha from Rhizophora mucronata Leaves
by Yunita Eka Puspitasari, Emmy Tuenter, Annelies Breynaert, Kenn Foubert, Herawati Herawati, Anik Martinah Hariati, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am, Tess De Bruyne and Nina Hermans
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010022 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1402
Abstract
A decoction of Rhizophora mucronata Lam. mangrove bark is used as an antidiabetic treatment in Asia. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage, which is also claimed to be antidiabetic. In this work, the potency of R. mucronata leaves as α-glucosidase inhibitor was studied [...] Read more.
A decoction of Rhizophora mucronata Lam. mangrove bark is used as an antidiabetic treatment in Asia. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage, which is also claimed to be antidiabetic. In this work, the potency of R. mucronata leaves as α-glucosidase inhibitor was studied to assess whether it could be a suitable alternative to the use of R. mucronata bark. α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were determined for three extracts prepared from R. mucronata leaves, being the unfermented tea of R. mucronata leaves, the fermented kombucha tea and an 80% methanolic extract of the residual R. mucronata leaves. Flavonoid glycosides were identified in tea powder, kombucha tea and in the crude methanolic extract. Both the unfermented tea and the kombucha tea after 7 days of fermentation inhibited α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.12 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 0.09 ± 0.04 mg/mL, respectively. The methanolic extract showed a stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activity compared to the kombucha tea and tea powder with an IC50 value of 0.0435 ± 0.0007 mg/mL. Acarbose, used as a positive control, inhibited α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 2.4 ± 0.2 mg/mL. It was found that the three types of preparations of R. mucronata all were potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ways to Achieve Healthy and Sustainable Diets)
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13 pages, 2193 KiB  
Article
White Sparkling Wine Proteins and Glycoproteins and Their Behavior in Foam Expansion and Stability
by Giovanna Lomolino, Simone Vincenzi, Stefania Zannoni, Mara Vegro and Alberto De Iseppi
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010021 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The volume and stability of wine foams are influenced by many components of the matrix, especially proteins. However, the synergistic or inhibiting effects among these protein fractions, as well as their interactions with other wine components, are still under study. The present research [...] Read more.
The volume and stability of wine foams are influenced by many components of the matrix, especially proteins. However, the synergistic or inhibiting effects among these protein fractions, as well as their interactions with other wine components, are still under study. The present research aims to understand the individual and cooperative effects of different wine proteins and glycoproteins on the volume and stability of foams. To address this objective, different protein fractions were purified from a Chardonnay white wine and tested in different model wine conditions (with/without ethanol), along with a commercial yeast-based oenological additive. Different fractions were considered, including total protein fraction (FT), Mannoproteins (MP), and non-mannosylated proteins (NMP), as well as a protein fraction soluble in ammonium sulfate (FSA). These protein fractions were characterized, and their foaming properties were evaluated using a modified Rudin apparatus. The results showed that FT exhibited higher foam expansion (FE%) compared to its subfractions (NMP and MP) that, when tested individually, did not guarantee optimal foam formation. This suggests that foaming properties are enhanced when both glycosylated and non-glycosylated proteins are present in the system. Additionally, the foaming behavior was influenced by the presence of ethanol in the model wine. The FSA fraction demonstrated high foam expansion and stability, with ethanol enhancing foam expansion but reducing stability. A commercial yeast-based oenological additive, mainly containing glycoproteins, was also tested and behaved similarly to MP. This study provides valuable insights for sparkling wine producers to optimize practices for enhancing product quality and confirm previous research regarding the role of the synergy between MP and NMP in wine foam formation and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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13 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Craft Brewery Wastewater Treatment in a Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell Stack
by Olivia Zapata-Martínez, Denys Villa-Gomez, Raul Tapia-Tussell, Jorge Dominguez-Maldonado, Galdy Hernández-Zárate, Elda España-Gamboa, Rubí Valdez-Ojeda and Liliana Alzate-Gaviria
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010020 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Craft breweries release wastewater into the environment, posing serious environmental concerns. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an attractive technology that has been used in industrial wastewater treatment. This study used a scalable system of nine MFCs (stacked) to treat 150 L of craft [...] Read more.
Craft breweries release wastewater into the environment, posing serious environmental concerns. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an attractive technology that has been used in industrial wastewater treatment. This study used a scalable system of nine MFCs (stacked) to treat 150 L of craft brewery wastewater (CBW). The CBW had 1831 ± 85 mg COD (chemical oxygen demand) L−1. The hydraulic retention time was 5 days, with a COD removal percentage of 93 ± 1.8%. The total internal resistance of the stack was 204.8 ± 5.2 Ω at 26 ± 2 °C without the use of a metal catalyst; the reduction of oxygen was the limiting process. Finally, the sequence of treatments applied with this proposed system demonstrated its self-sustainability, which could be a viable option for the real-life conditions of this kind of wastewater. Further research is needed. Full article
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19 pages, 1458 KiB  
Article
Understanding Sparkling Wine Consumers and Purchase Cues: A Wine Involvement Perspective
by Gary J. Pickering and Belinda Kemp
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010019 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Research on sparkling wine (SW) consumers, their market segmentation, and how they use purchase cues is relatively sparse compared to that for table wine, despite the substantial growth in sparkling wine in recent years. We address these gaps and particularly how the importance [...] Read more.
Research on sparkling wine (SW) consumers, their market segmentation, and how they use purchase cues is relatively sparse compared to that for table wine, despite the substantial growth in sparkling wine in recent years. We address these gaps and particularly how the importance of SW purchase cues varies with wine involvement in an online survey of SW consumers from Ontario, Canada (n = 1011). Thirty intrinsic and extrinsic purchase cues were rated for importance (n = 609), and wine involvement was determined using the shortened version of the wine involvement scale. Overall, consumers rated (in descending order) price, flavour, quality, country, and sweetness level as the most important purchase cues, whereas several extrinsic factors, including bottle colour and shape, awards won, and vintage were of low importance. Females were 1.4 times more likely than males to cite target end use as the most important purchase cue. We further show that SW consumers can be segmented into three wine involvement categories (low, medium, high) which vary across multiple demographic, consumption, knowledge, and preference measures (n = 1003). Notably, the importance of six purchase cue categories (manufacture, price, endorsements, parentage, prestige/reputation, and place) varied with wine involvement (n = 609). These findings provide timely guidance for marketers and retailers seeking to align their products and communications with the needs and perceptions of SW consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Economy and Consumption)
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13 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Consumer Acceptance and Physicochemical Properties of a Yogurt Beverage Formulated with Upcycled Yogurt Acid Whey
by Viral Shukla, Marcela Villarreal and Olga I. Padilla-Zakour
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010018 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Drinkable yogurts are low-viscosity beverages often created by diluting yogurt with water or high-value-fluid milk. Yogurt acid whey, a typically discarded byproduct of the Greek yogurt industry, may serve as an upcycled ingredient for these types of products with minimal processing. In this [...] Read more.
Drinkable yogurts are low-viscosity beverages often created by diluting yogurt with water or high-value-fluid milk. Yogurt acid whey, a typically discarded byproduct of the Greek yogurt industry, may serve as an upcycled ingredient for these types of products with minimal processing. In this study, differing concentrations of acid whey (35%, 40%, and 45% w/w) were added to a mango yogurt beverage with 0.2% and 0.4% w/w stabilizer and analyzed for physicochemical properties over a 40-day period. The analysis indicated that the percentage of acid whey was positively correlated with both viscosity and water-holding capacity. A hedonic sensory analysis of the beverages indicated positive consumer acceptance of such upcycled products, with enhanced acceptance at 25–35% addition. This study demonstrates the potential for consumer acceptance of yogurt beverages upcycled with native-acid whey, providing insights into sustainable practices within the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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14 pages, 3524 KiB  
Article
The Survival of Salmonella enterica Strains in Ready-to-Eat Fruit Purees under Different Storage Temperatures
by Maria Belén Bainotti, Pilar Colás-Medà, Inmaculada Viñas, Salvador Garza and Isabel Alegre
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010017 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Salmonella enterica, known for its resilience to acidic environments, has been linked to foodborne outbreaks of illness from fruit derivatives. This study aimed to assess the survival of five serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in various fruit purees subjected to different [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica, known for its resilience to acidic environments, has been linked to foodborne outbreaks of illness from fruit derivatives. This study aimed to assess the survival of five serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in various fruit purees subjected to different storage temperatures. Among the studied serovars, S. enteritidis exhibited the most significant population decrease in all fruit purees. In contrast, S. Agona, S. Gaminara, S. Michigan, and S. Montevideo survived in peach puree at 4 °C for at least 3 days, and S. Agona, S. Gaminara, and S. Montevideo maintained their initial levels in pear puree under the same time/temperature conditions. However, none of the strains were detectable in plum and black currant purees after 2 days at 4, 15, or 25 °C. These findings highlight variations in the behaviour of S. enterica serovars within different fruit purees. Likewise, low-temperature conditions prolonged the survival of the tested strains in all fruit purees analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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23 pages, 3759 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Malting Suitability and Brewing Quality of Different Rice Cultivars
by Bernardo P. Guimaraes, Florian Schrickel, Nils Rettberg, Shannon R. M. Pinson, Anna M. McClung, Kaushik Luthra, Griffiths G. Atungulu, Xueyan Sha, Christian de Guzman and Scott Lafontaine
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010016 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 3219
Abstract
Nineteen globally diverse rice cultivars were analyzed for various chemical parameters important to malting, including germination energy, protein, apparent amylose content, and gelatinization temperatures (GT). The rice cultivars were then malted, and congress mashes were produced. Several parameters important to brewing were then [...] Read more.
Nineteen globally diverse rice cultivars were analyzed for various chemical parameters important to malting, including germination energy, protein, apparent amylose content, and gelatinization temperatures (GT). The rice cultivars were then malted, and congress mashes were produced. Several parameters important to brewing were then assessed in the malts and worts (i.e., extract, soluble protein, free amino nitrogen (FAN), GT, etc.). The rice malts produced were saccharified to varying degrees, had high limit dextrinase activities, and contained sufficient FAN/protein concentrations. This suggests their potential to yield robust fermentations in beer styles with high adjunct inclusions without requiring additional nitrogen supplementation. Rice cultivars with purple-pigmented bran were found to yield unique wort colors and could serve as novel natural gluten-free colorants for future recipes. Overall, these findings suggest that malted rice could offer a more local and gluten-free source of starch for brewers and beverage/food producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section—2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Soft Drink Addiction Scale: Reliability and Validity Analysis in Young Mexican People
by Cesar Campos-Ramírez, Nicolas Camacho-Calderon, Maria Elena Villagran-Herrera, Adriana Aguilar-Galarza, Miriam Aracely Anaya-Loyola and Jorge Palacios-Delgado
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010015 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1777
Abstract
It has been proposed that the consumption of foods high in sugar or fat may cause addictive behavior. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate a soft drink addiction scale that can be used in future studies and to strengthen [...] Read more.
It has been proposed that the consumption of foods high in sugar or fat may cause addictive behavior. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate a soft drink addiction scale that can be used in future studies and to strengthen the proposal of food addiction with the hypothesis that people with high consumption of soft drinks have similar characteristics to people who consume abuse drugs. A non-probabilistic convenience sample of 394 Mexican participants answered a soft drinks’ consumption frequency questionnaire, an addiction scale, and a self-efficacy scale for soft drinks’ consumption. Additionally, anthropometric measurements were taken. The addiction scale showed three factors with an adequate reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.903), as well as construct validity and criterion validity with the self-efficacy scale and total body fat percentage on soft drinks, mainly those with substantial caloric content. Additionally, the results showed a predictive value for soft drink consumption, strengthening its validity. This scale is useful to identify and evaluate the characteristic patterns of a substance addiction. The total reliability indicates that the items as a whole are correlated with each other and that the scale is stable to be used over time. This is the first study that evaluates the addictive characteristics of soft drink consumption through a scale, and it represents an advance in the exploration of the behavioral sciences field and an important tool for the creation of public health policies, mainly in countries with a high consumption of these beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
12 pages, 235 KiB  
Review
Value Addition and Coconut-Based Beverages: Current Perspectives
by Salvatore Parisi, Carmelo Parisi and Suni Mary Varghese
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010014 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1859
Abstract
(1) Background: The definition of value addition is based on the process or processes which are used to transform, physically, the initial raw material into the final food or non-food article. Diversification can enhance the possibility of increased gains. The aim of this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The definition of value addition is based on the process or processes which are used to transform, physically, the initial raw material into the final food or non-food article. Diversification can enhance the possibility of increased gains. The aim of this work is to give a reliable description of value addition when speaking of coconut-based beverages among all possible derivatives. (2) Methods: A systematic review in which the main papers on the argument have been critically examined and discussed. (3) Results: Processing degree is a consequence of consumers’ requests. Three different drivers for value addition have been considered: packaging, durability, and size options; sensorial features; and sustainability. The results of this investigation have highlighted the added value of several products because of recyclable packaging materials, intermediate- or long-durability expectations, different available sizes, and good or excellent sensorial performances. (4) Conclusions: There are different value-added coconut-based beverages with interesting perspectives. On the other hand, sustainability and eco-friendly policies may be a problem for those products that are produced similarly to non-coconut-based beverages. The opportunity presented by certified organic and/or fair-trade products could help the coconuts industry in the near future. More research is still needed on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
21 pages, 1653 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Xinomavro Red Wine Aging with Various Wood Chips Using Pulsed Electric Field
by Artemis K. Toulaki, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Dimitrios Kalompatsios, Eleni Bozinou, Kosmas Roufas, George I. Mantanis, Vassilis G. Dourtoglou and Stavros I. Lalas
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010013 - 24 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
This study explored the potential of pulsed electric field (PEF) as an alternative wine-aging method in four Xinomavro red wines with the implementation of several wood chips (apricot, peach, apple, cherry, acacia, and oak trees). The evolution of total polyphenol content (TPC) and [...] Read more.
This study explored the potential of pulsed electric field (PEF) as an alternative wine-aging method in four Xinomavro red wines with the implementation of several wood chips (apricot, peach, apple, cherry, acacia, and oak trees). The evolution of total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory properties of the wines were investigated. Sensory evaluation revealed that PEF treatment increased volatile compound extraction from each wood chip, thereby enhancing the overall quality of the wines. The utilization of acacia tree wood chips in Goumenissa wine led to a notable increase of 10.84% in TPC from the control sample, reaching 2334.74 mg gallic acid equivalents/L. A notable outcome was that PEF decreased TPC, a trend that was also verified through correlation analyses. The highest positive impact of PEF was observed in peach tree wood chips in Goumenissa wine, with a significant increase of 11.05% in TPC. The results from the volatile compound analysis revealed an increase in alcohols and esters from 0.24% to 23.82%, with the highest proportion found in 2-phenylethanol (16.92 mg/L) when utilizing peach tree wood chips in the production of Amyndeo wine. This study could provide a benchmark for rapid, efficient, and cost-effective wine aging through the implementation of the PEF process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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16 pages, 1886 KiB  
Review
Validation of N-Methylpyridinium as a Feasible Biomarker for Roasted Coffee Intake
by Beate Brandl, Coline Czech, Susanne I. Wudy, Anja Beusch, Hans Hauner, Thomas Skurk and Roman Lang
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010012 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Health-related nutritional human studies rely on the validity of dietary data provided by study participants. Reliable biomarkers for food intake help objectify data collected by food frequency questionnaires. They facilitate the monitoring of compliance with the study requirements, e.g., abstinence from food, help [...] Read more.
Health-related nutritional human studies rely on the validity of dietary data provided by study participants. Reliable biomarkers for food intake help objectify data collected by food frequency questionnaires. They facilitate the monitoring of compliance with the study requirements, e.g., abstinence from food, help clean biased data, and remove non-compliant individuals. Biomarker candidates are often revealed by sophisticated metabolomics analyses of body fluids, e.g., urine or plasma, collected from case and control study populations. However, validation for using a biomarker candidate in real-life scenarios is seldomly executed. Coffee is a food item of high interest because of the abundance of bioactive compounds and the regularity of life-time consumption by a large part of the population. Coffee has been found to positively impact cardiovascular risk, type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. Coffee and its health implications, therefore, are of high interest. A suitable dietary biomarker for coffee consumption is desirable for the clear classification of study participants as coffee drinkers or non-coffee drinkers to enable correlation of physiological response to dietary habits, e.g., coffee consumption. Here, we propose the roast coffee compound N-methylpyridinium (NMP) as a promising biomarker of pragmatic use to distinguish a coffee drinker from a non-coffee drinker. NMP is an easily accessible analytical target from the plasma and urine matrix that can help determine precedent exposure to roasted coffee products. We review the published information on the coffee compound N-methylpyridinium in foods, coffee, and plasma/urine after coffee consumption, and evaluate the data in the context of the proposed food biomarker criteria “plausibility”, “time- and dose–response”, “robustness”, “reliability”, “stability”, “analytical performance”, and “reproducibility”. An additional data set is acquired to fill the gaps in the literature. In summary, we conclude that the abundance of NMP can serve as a reliable analytical tool to verify recent consumption of roasted coffee. The use of NMP appears limited to being qualitative, as NMP abundance in coffee and human biosamples is affected by several parameters, e.g., the roasting conditions and the volume and time of coffee consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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10 pages, 1415 KiB  
Article
A Rapid Method to Predict Beer Shelf Life Using an MS-Based e-Nose
by Ana Carolina de Lima, Laura Aceña, Montserrat Mestres and Ricard Boqué
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010011 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1565
Abstract
A rapid and efficient technique was applied, which used an electronic nose based on a mass detector (MS-based e-nose) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction sampling and chemometric tools to classify beer samples between fresh and aged and between samples contained in aluminium cans [...] Read more.
A rapid and efficient technique was applied, which used an electronic nose based on a mass detector (MS-based e-nose) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction sampling and chemometric tools to classify beer samples between fresh and aged and between samples contained in aluminium cans or glass bottles, and to predict the shelf life of beer. The mass spectra obtained from the MS-based e-nose contained details about volatile compounds and were recorded as the abundance of each ion at different mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. The analysis was performed on 53 naturally aged samples for eleven months without light and with a controlled temperature of around 14 °C ± 0.5 °C. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data and showed a grouping of samples between fresh and aged. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) allowed the discrimination of fresh from aged beers but could not discriminate between the samples according to the type of packaging. Finally, partial least squares regression (PLSR) proved to be an effective method for predicting beer shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Malting, Brewing and Beer)
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18 pages, 876 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Coffee Quality Attributes by Combining Processing Methods and Varieties
by Emiliano Teran
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010010 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1903
Abstract
The intricate framework of attributes that define coffee quality, from varietals to processing methods, presents a comprehensive array of sensory experiences that influence consumption patterns. This research delves into the complex relationship between the characteristics of coffee beans, specifically varietal distinctions, applied processing [...] Read more.
The intricate framework of attributes that define coffee quality, from varietals to processing methods, presents a comprehensive array of sensory experiences that influence consumption patterns. This research delves into the complex relationship between the characteristics of coffee beans, specifically varietal distinctions, applied processing methodologies, and the resulting sensory attributes, across both Arabica and Robusta species. Utilizing comprehensive linear mixed model analyses, this study examines the sensory intricacies, with a notable emphasis on flavor, aroma, and acidity, and their correlation with different countries of origin. Drawing from a diverse dataset that encompasses various global regions, our findings underscore the pivotal role of regional nuances in shaping the sensory evaluation of coffee. While Arabica beans exhibited certain distinct sensory attributes anchored to specific processing methods and regions, Robusta beans presented variations that were more nuanced. The results align with the existing literature, emphasizing the integral role of regional influences in coffee evaluations. This study reveals that specific Arabica varieties, such as Bourbon and Pacamara, enhance flavor when processed using the ‘Natural/Dry’ method. Meanwhile, certain Robusta beans processed with one of the methods showcased improved flavor scores. These insights provide the coffee industry with targeted strategies, reshaping cultivation and processing to meet discerning consumer preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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20 pages, 3268 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effect of Adding Selected Herbs, Spices, and Fruits to Fermented Olympus Mountain Tea (Sideritis scardica) Kombucha Sweetened with Thyme Honey: Assessment of Physicochemical and Functional Properties
by Ioannis Geraris Kartelias, Ioannis Panagiotakopoulos, Constantina Nasopoulou and Haralabos Christos Karantonis
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010009 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2087
Abstract
This study examined the effects of adding herbs, spices, and fruits into fermented Olympus Mountain tea (Sideritis scardica) kombucha using thyme honey as a sweetener. This study evaluated how these additions affected the tea’s physical, chemical, and functional characteristics. Two different [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of adding herbs, spices, and fruits into fermented Olympus Mountain tea (Sideritis scardica) kombucha using thyme honey as a sweetener. This study evaluated how these additions affected the tea’s physical, chemical, and functional characteristics. Two different enrichments were proposed: a “Golden Mountain tea and honey Kombucha” (KG) with fresh ginger, turmeric powder, and lemon zest and juice and a “Red Mountain tea and honey Kombucha” (KR) with dried hibiscus calyces, rose petals, and lavender blossoms. In KR, the levels of vitamin C increased from 33.2 ± 2.7 to 48.4 ± 4.5. Additionally, the levels of calcium increased from 31.0 ± 1.2 to 55.7 ± 1.2, while the levels of potassium practically doubled from 64.7 ± 0.6 to 115.7 ± 2.5. An increased potassium concentration was observed in KG, and ionic iron was found for the first time after both enrichments. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, along with antioxidant capacity, as assessed by the ABTS and DPPH methods, were found to be substantially enhanced in KR. In KG, the total phenolic content increased, together with antioxidant activity, as assessed by ABTS. Enrichment with hibiscus calyces, rose petals, and lavender blossoms significantly increased inhibitory effects against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. On the other hand, enrichment with ginger, turmeric, and lemon zest and juice decreased inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and increased those against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. KR had the strongest enzyme-inhibiting activity, with its α-glucosidase-inhibiting activity increased by approximately 18 times. Therefore, enrichment with selected herbs, spices, and fruits can transform fermented Olympus Mountain tea kombucha sweetened with honey into a novel beverage with enhanced functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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20 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Unmalted Cereals, Oenological Yeasts, and In-Bottle Sugar Addition as Synergic Strategies to Enhance the Quality of Craft Beers
by Antonietta Baiano, Anna Fiore, Barbara la Gatta, Vittorio Capozzi, Nicola De Simone, Carmela Gerardi and Francesco Grieco
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010008 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Craft beer quality is the result of the complex interactions among ingredients. The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of combinations of cereal mixtures, yeast strains, and sucrose added for the refermentation in bottle on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics [...] Read more.
Craft beer quality is the result of the complex interactions among ingredients. The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of combinations of cereal mixtures, yeast strains, and sucrose added for the refermentation in bottle on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the resulting beers in order to maximize their antioxidant content and overall quality. More in depth, brewing trials were carried out with 16 combinations of 2 cereal mixtures (made of 60% malted barley/40% unmalted durum or soft wheat), 4 oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (17290 and 14061 isolated from Negroamaro; 9502 and 9518 from Susumaniello musts), and 2 concentrations of sucrose for refermentation (6 and 9 g/L). If maximizing the total phenolic content is the goal, the best beers were those obtained from the mixtures containing durum wheat and fermented by S. cerevisiae 17290 and 14061. Instead, the best sensory results were obtained from brewing the mixture containing the unmalted common wheat and fermented by S. cerevisiae 9518 thanks to their persistent foam; high turbidity, alcohol content, effervescence, and body; and low saltiness and sourness. The physico-chemical and sensory quality of beers were mainly affected by the cereal mixtures and secondarily by yeasts. The quantity of sucrose added for refermentation affected only CO2, residual sugar, and foam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section—2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 2369 KiB  
Article
Effect of UV-C Radiation and Thermal Treatment on Volatile Compounds, Physicochemical, Microbiological and Phytochemical Parameters on Apple Juice (Malus domestica) with Raspberry (Rubus idaleus L.)
by Aztrid E. Estrada-Beltrán, Nora A. Salas-Salazar, Armando Quintero-Ramos, Rafael A. Parra-Quezada, Mayra C. Soto-Caballero, María J. Rodríguez-Roque, América Chávez-Martínez and María A. Flores-Cordova
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010007 - 11 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Volatile compounds contribute to aroma and flavor, these being the main sensory attributes in food acceptance. This work addresses the physicochemical, volatile compounds, polyphenols, and flavonoids content and, antioxidant activity of apple-raspberry (90/10%) juice treated by thermal and ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) alone or [...] Read more.
Volatile compounds contribute to aroma and flavor, these being the main sensory attributes in food acceptance. This work addresses the physicochemical, volatile compounds, polyphenols, and flavonoids content and, antioxidant activity of apple-raspberry (90/10%) juice treated by thermal and ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) alone or in combination with moderate heat-treatment. Nineteen volatile compounds were identified which experienced changes depending on the treatment. Compounds such as α-ionone and β-ionone, that contribute to raspberries characteristic aroma, were present in a greater concentration in the UV-C treatment and lower in the thermal treatment. Likewise, 2-methyl butyl acetate, which give a fruity-sweet aroma typical of apples was present in a greater concentration in the UV-C treatment. Regarding polyphenol content, control and combined treatment presented the greater concentrations. However, after twenty days of storage, control and combined treatment presented the lower flavonoid concentration. Nevertheless, at this time, treatments showed no variations in antioxidant activity. Yeast and mold and total aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic counts were reduced in the heat and combined treatments. In conclusion, UV-C and moderate heat might successfully be used to process a stable apple-raspberry juice while maintaining its quality and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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19 pages, 4605 KiB  
Article
Pilot Scale Continuous Pulsed Electric Fields Treatments for Vinification and Stabilization of Arinto and Moscatel Graúdo (Vitis vinifera L.) White Grape Varieties: Effects on Sensory and Physico-Chemical Quality of Wines
by Filipa Vinagre Marques Silva, Riccardo Borgo, Andrea Guanziroli, Jorge M. Ricardo-da-Silva, Mafalda Aguiar-Macedo and Luis M. Redondo
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010006 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of white grapes (Arinto, Moscatel Graúdo also known as Moscatel de Setúbal) before pressing for must extraction (1.2 and 1.6 kV/cm) and before bottling for finished wine physical stabilization (10 kV/cm) was implemented in a pilot-scale winery to [...] Read more.
Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of white grapes (Arinto, Moscatel Graúdo also known as Moscatel de Setúbal) before pressing for must extraction (1.2 and 1.6 kV/cm) and before bottling for finished wine physical stabilization (10 kV/cm) was implemented in a pilot-scale winery to produce about 540 L of wine for each variety. PEF was applied at these two different stages of wine production, and its effects on the sensory and physico-chemical quality of the wines were investigated. The sensory triangle tests revealed no significant change in both wine varieties’ colour, odour, and taste with PEF extraction and PEF stabilization treatments. However, for colour coordinates assessed with a spectrophotometer, a significant increase in CIE b* colour coordinate was registered for PEF-extracted Arinto and Moscatel wine samples, showing a development of a more intense yellow colour. Concerning physico-chemical quality parameters, the PEF extraction increased both wine varieties’ turbidity and pH, although total acidity was not affected. The total phenols also increased in Arinto with extraction. The second PEF treatment applied for wine stabilization did not affect any of the quality parameters, except total phenols, which decreased in Moscatel wine. The results encourage the application of PEF in the wineries at different stages of vinification of white wine grape varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation of Beverages by Continuous Pasteurization Technologies)
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10 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Influence of Somatic Cell Removal on Milk Quality and Yield
by Ruthele Moraes do Carmo, Luiz Eduardo Costa do Nascimento, Paulo Victor Toledo Leão, Guilherme Henrique de Paula, Mariana Borges de Castro Dias, Patrick Bezerra Fernandes, Abner Alves Mesquita, Edmar Soares Nicolau, Melina Maria Rodrigues Rezende, Weilla Araujo de Sousa, Esther Cristina Neves Medeiros da Silva and Marco Antônio Pereira da Silva
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010005 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1690
Abstract
This investigation aimed to assess how the somatic cell count (SCC) impacts milk production and the physicochemical quality of milk, including the effects of centrifugation and microfiltration on SCCs and the yield of fresh cheese. Milk production was analysed at different somatic cell [...] Read more.
This investigation aimed to assess how the somatic cell count (SCC) impacts milk production and the physicochemical quality of milk, including the effects of centrifugation and microfiltration on SCCs and the yield of fresh cheese. Milk production was analysed at different somatic cell counts (SCCs) to observe how centrifugation and microfiltration affected the removal of SCs from the milk and the yield of fresh cheese. Tukey’s test was employed at a 5% significance level to compare the chemical composition of the milk, milk production, and fresh cheese yield when using microfiltered and/or centrifuged milk. Milk with an SCC of ≤200,000 somatic cells (SCs) per mL exhibited higher yields. Although centrifugation and microfiltration influenced milk fat content, total dry extract and SCC, they did not impact fresh cheese yield. It is important to note that these processes reduced the fat content and SCC, making skim milk a potential option for future research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
12 pages, 2586 KiB  
Article
The Kavalactone Content and Profile of Fiji Kava Sold on the Local Market
by Tibor Pasinszki and Deepti Darshani Devi
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010004 - 25 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
Kava is the traditional intoxicating beverage of the Pacific with mild sedative and muscle relaxant effects, which are attributed to a group of compounds known as kavalactones. This paper aims to evaluate the quality of kava sold in the local markets of Fiji [...] Read more.
Kava is the traditional intoxicating beverage of the Pacific with mild sedative and muscle relaxant effects, which are attributed to a group of compounds known as kavalactones. This paper aims to evaluate the quality of kava sold in the local markets of Fiji through the quantification of the six major kavalactones in kava root bundles and powdered kava packages using ethanolic extracts and HPLC. It was found in this work that kava root bundles contain mainly noble kava roots with a total kavalactone content of 8–13%; kavain had the highest concentration among kavalactones and kavain, methysticin, and yangonin together represented 69–71% of the total kavalactone content. Adulteration via mixing noble kava roots with those of non-noble kava with a relatively high dihydrokavain and dihydromethysticin content has also been observed. Powdered kava products were found to contain lower amounts of kavalactones (3–5%) with a less favorable kavalactone profile than those of root bundles, possibly due to mixing roots, rhizomes, and/or basal stems. The findings of this work, namely the variation in kavalactone content and profile in marketed products, indicate the need for rigorous quality control and quality indicators on kava commodities. Suggestions to include quantitative measures in the previously proposed chemical standardization code are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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16 pages, 1435 KiB  
Article
Dissolved Oxygen Removal in Wines by Gas Sparging, Its Optimization and Chemical Impact
by Rubén del Barrio-Galán, Ignacio Nevares, Silvia Pérez-Magariño and Maria del Alamo-Sanza
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010003 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Sparging is a technique to remove an excess of dissolved oxygen from the wine with inerting gases before bottling to avoid negative consequences for its chemical and sensory properties. However, its effectiveness on these properties has not been studied in depth. This work [...] Read more.
Sparging is a technique to remove an excess of dissolved oxygen from the wine with inerting gases before bottling to avoid negative consequences for its chemical and sensory properties. However, its effectiveness on these properties has not been studied in depth. This work investigates the effectiveness of different inerting gases (N2, CO2, and argon) in removing dissolved oxygen in different volumes of a model wine. The efficacy of these gases was also studied in white and red wine, as was their effect on the physicochemical characteristics. Sparging with N2 in the model wine gave the best results in terms of cost–benefits, and with CO2 the worst. The scaling in tanks of different sizes allowed us to establish that the N2 expenditure ranged between 0.09 L and 0.23 L of gas per liter of model wine, establishing an index (Lgas/Lwine) that can be very useful for wineries to remove the dissolved oxygen. Sparging treatments in white and red wine showed very similar results to the model wine. The effect on the chemical properties of the wines was, in some cases, different for white and red wine and for each gas used. The incorporation of oxygen and the subsequent sparging produced a significant loss of some volatile compounds of sensory interest and increased the content of others that have a negative sensory effect. In addition, it had a negative effect on the chromatic properties of red wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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11 pages, 741 KiB  
Communication
Preliminary Evaluation of Minor Cereals as Non-Traditional Brewing Raw Materials
by Francesca Nocente, Elena Galassi, Federica Taddei, Chiara Natale and Laura Gazza
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010002 - 20 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Recently, “minor” cereals have been gaining interest due to their distinctive characteristics, not only in terms of nutritional and health potential, but also because of their hardiness. To date, the use of several of these cereals for the production, both at artisan and [...] Read more.
Recently, “minor” cereals have been gaining interest due to their distinctive characteristics, not only in terms of nutritional and health potential, but also because of their hardiness. To date, the use of several of these cereals for the production, both at artisan and industrial level, of foods such as pasta and bakery products has already been well established, whereas their investigation for the production of malt and beer has been more limited. In this work, a preliminary analysis of the malting aptitude of einkorn, tritordeum, food-grade sorghum and teff was evaluated. Grain quality parameters that influence the processes of malting and transformation into alcoholic beverages were evaluated, i.e., thousand-kernel weight, test weight, total protein and starch content, falling number, germination capacity, germination energy and amylase activity. Grain analyses showed, on average, satisfactory values for alcoholic fermented beverage production in all the cereal species examined (mainly in tritordeum), whereas the amylase activity of the malts produced was lower than that revealed in barley malt. Fermented drinks derived from these minor cereals, therefore, could be interesting for the light and gluten-free beer markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Malting, Brewing and Beer)
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16 pages, 2082 KiB  
Article
Insight into Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anti-Diabetic Properties of Rosehip (Rosa canina L.)-Based Tisanes with Addition of Hibiscus Flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
by Dušan Vasić, Jelena S. Katanić Stanković, Tijana Urošević, Maja Kozarski, Nenad Naumovski, Haroon Khan and Jelena Popović-Djordjević
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages10010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Tisane is a fruit or herbal infusion, commonly referred to as herbal tea. These products are consumed as part of a balanced diet, which is closely related to the trend of a healthier lifestyle. In this work, tisanes prepared from rosehip (R), and [...] Read more.
Tisane is a fruit or herbal infusion, commonly referred to as herbal tea. These products are consumed as part of a balanced diet, which is closely related to the trend of a healthier lifestyle. In this work, tisanes prepared from rosehip (R), and herbal mixtures containing rosehip/hibiscus flowers (R/H) and rosehip/hibiscus flowers/saffron (R/H/S) were studied. Rosehip was dried by the convective drying method at 40, 50 and 60 °C. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total flavonol content (TFlC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS∙+ assays) and in vitro inhibitory potential toward α-amylase of tisanes were examined. The highest TPC (based on dry weight (dw)) was measured in tisane obtained from rosehip dried at 60 °C (37.84 mg GAE/g dw). Tisanes prepared from a R/H/S mixture had the highest values of TFC (4.66–6.13 mg QUE/g dw), TFlC (2.67–3.98 mg QUE/g dw) and TAC (1.35–2.27 mg Cy 3-glc/g dw). The highest DPPH scavenging activity (53.42 mg TE/g dw) was measured in rosehip (dried at 60 °C) tisane, whereas tisane prepared from a rosehip (dried at 60 °C)/hibiscus mixture expressed the best ABTS∙+ scavenging activity (107.44 mg TE/g dw). All tisane samples expressed high inhibitory potential toward α-amylase, with the highest activity of 85.03% and 89.90%, measured for tisanes prepared from rosehip/hibiscus flowers mixture (rosehip dried at 50 and 60 °C, respectively). Full article
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