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Article

Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits LPS Activity in Macrophages

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both investigators contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Durazzo
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
High-fat diets (HFD) increase lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in the blood and may contribute to systemic inflammation with obesity. We hypothesized that dietary milk sphingomyelin (SM), which reduces lipid absorption and colitis in mice, would reduce inflammation and be mediated through effects on gut health and LPS activity. C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat, high-cholesterol diets (HFD, n = 14) or the same diets with milk SM (HFD-MSM, 0.1% by weight, n = 14) for 10 weeks. HFD-MSM significantly reduced serum inflammatory markers and tended to lower serum LPS (p = 0.08) compared to HFD. Gene expression related to gut barrier function and macrophage inflammation were largely unchanged in colon and mesenteric adipose tissues. Cecal gut microbiota composition showed greater abundance of Acetatifactor genus in mice fed milk SM, but minimal changes in other taxa. Milk SM significantly attenuated the effect of LPS on pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Milk SM lost its effects when hydrolysis was blocked, while long-chain ceramides and sphingosine, but not dihydroceramides, were anti-inflammatory. Our data suggest that dietary milk SM may be effective in reducing systemic inflammation through inhibition of LPS activity and that hydrolytic products of milk SM are important for these effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: sphingomyelin; sphingolipids; ceramide; sphingosine; milk; dairy; obesity; inflammation; gut; macrophage sphingomyelin; sphingolipids; ceramide; sphingosine; milk; dairy; obesity; inflammation; gut; macrophage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Norris, G.H.; Porter, C.M.; Jiang, C.; Blesso, C.N. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits LPS Activity in Macrophages. Beverages 2017, 3, 37. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages3030037

AMA Style

Norris GH, Porter CM, Jiang C, Blesso CN. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits LPS Activity in Macrophages. Beverages. 2017; 3(3):37. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages3030037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Norris, Gregory H., Caitlin M. Porter, Christina Jiang, and Christopher N. Blesso 2017. "Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits LPS Activity in Macrophages" Beverages 3, no. 3: 37. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages3030037

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