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Review

Preventing and Mitigating Alcohol Toxicity: A Review on Protective Substances

1
Facultät für Physik, Technische Universtiät, 85748 München, Germany
2
London Business School, London NW1 4SA, UK
3
Independent Scholar, 36201 Vigo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
This review covers three fundamental aspects of alcohol consumption and research efforts around the prevention and mitigation of its toxic effects in the human body. First, the sociocultural aspects of alcohol consumption are analysed, including drinking habits and strategies to combat intoxication. Second, we briefly introduce the biochemical aspects of ethanol metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to its degradation, particularly the activation of toxic response pathways. Finally, we review current evidence and research efforts for finding compounds and substances able to prevent and mitigate the toxic effects of alcohol when over-indulgence has occurred. The toxic effects appear as a time-evolution process based on the stage of intoxication. We explore different compounds and formulations traditionally used to combat alcohol toxicity, as well as state-of-the-art research in the topic for novel molecules and formulations. Although we aimed to categorise which compounds are more effective for a particular level of alcohol intoxication, it is impossible to fully prevent or mitigate toxicity effects by only the compounds in isolation, further research is required to establish the long-term prevention and mitigation from the clinical point of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; toxicity; mitigation; hangover; protecitve; drinks alcohol; toxicity; mitigation; hangover; protecitve; drinks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez-Hurtado, J.L.; Calo-Fernandez, B.; Vazquez-Padin, J. Preventing and Mitigating Alcohol Toxicity: A Review on Protective Substances. Beverages 2018, 4, 39. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages4020039

AMA Style

Martinez-Hurtado JL, Calo-Fernandez B, Vazquez-Padin J. Preventing and Mitigating Alcohol Toxicity: A Review on Protective Substances. Beverages. 2018; 4(2):39. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages4020039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinez-Hurtado, Juan L., Bruno Calo-Fernandez, and Jose Vazquez-Padin. 2018. "Preventing and Mitigating Alcohol Toxicity: A Review on Protective Substances" Beverages 4, no. 2: 39. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages4020039

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