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Beverages, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 12 articles

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Article
Copper(II) and Sulfur Dioxide in Chardonnay Juice and Shiraz Must: Impact on Volatile Aroma Compounds and Cu Forms in Wine
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040070 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
This work outlines the influence of Cu(II) and SO2 concentrations in Chardonnay juice or Shiraz must on the respective wine composition. Analyses were conducted pre- and post-fermentation, after cold stabilization, after bentonite treatment (Chardonnay only), at bottling, and 15 months after bottling. [...] Read more.
This work outlines the influence of Cu(II) and SO2 concentrations in Chardonnay juice or Shiraz must on the respective wine composition. Analyses were conducted pre- and post-fermentation, after cold stabilization, after bentonite treatment (Chardonnay only), at bottling, and 15 months after bottling. The quantification of total Cu was conducted by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and free Cu by stripping potentiometry. Low molecular weight sulfur compounds, volatile aldehyde compounds, and general volatile compounds, including esters and terpenes, were quantified with gas-chromatography- or liquid-chromatography-QQQ-mass spectrometry. For Chardonnay, increased Cu concentration in the juice resulted in higher concentrations of Cu in the respective wine, while Shiraz wines showed no significant difference. Increased Cu addition to Chardonnay juice also produced significantly higher concentrations of H2S, 3-methylbutanal, and methional, but lower concentrations of methanethiol and phenylacetaldehyde, while SO2 addition increased 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde, and decreased methanethiol production from post-fermentation to post-bottle aging. For the Shiraz, SO2 led to higher concentrations of H2S, and both SO2 and Cu addition increased the concentrations of hexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and phenylacetaldehyde in wine, but this effect diminished after cold stabilization. This study shows that SO2 and Cu in grape juice/must can have long-term implications for wine composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Article
Red Rooibos Tea Stimulates Osteoblast Mineralization in a Dose-Dependent Manner
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040069 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Most studies show a positive association between higher tea intake and bone mineral density (BMD), while associations with fracture are inconclusive. Although a few studies have investigated the potential effects of rooibos tea on the bone cell metabolism, only 1 or 2 doses [...] Read more.
Most studies show a positive association between higher tea intake and bone mineral density (BMD), while associations with fracture are inconclusive. Although a few studies have investigated the potential effects of rooibos tea on the bone cell metabolism, only 1 or 2 doses were tested or specific flavonoids were evaluated in isolation. A dose-response study is needed to comprehensively identify whether a level that modulates bone cell activity is associated with dietary or supplemental levels of red rooibos (RR) tea. We investigated if RR tea stimulates mineralization in a dose-dependent manner. Mineralization was induced in Saos-2 cells in the presence of RR tea (0.1–10 µg/mL of polyphenols) or control (dH2O) for 5 days. Cell activity, mRNA, protein expression and activity of key regulators of mineralization were measured. A positive dose-dependent relationship was observed between RR tea concentration and mineralization accompanied with similar trends in cell activity. With high concentrations of tea, protein expression of enzymes directly regulating mineralization (ALP and NPP1) were unchanged but ALP activity was significantly elevated. Osteopontin (OPN) was significantly downregulated midway through mineralization while sclerostin (SOST) was upregulated in response to higher concentrations of RR tea. In conclusion, RR tea stimulated osteoblast mineralization in a dose-dependent manner and were accompanied with downregulation of OPN, increased ALP activity, and increased cell activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity Research and Bioactive Compounds in Beverages)
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Article
Polyphenol Characterization in Red Beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) Leaf Extracts
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040068 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
The red aqueous beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) leaf extracts were investigated for their polyphenol contents using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and semipreparative HPLC. Polyphenols were extracted, clarified, and concentrated using a multistep process including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), cross-flow microfiltration (CFM), and reverse osmosis (RO). [...] Read more.
The red aqueous beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) leaf extracts were investigated for their polyphenol contents using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and semipreparative HPLC. Polyphenols were extracted, clarified, and concentrated using a multistep process including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), cross-flow microfiltration (CFM), and reverse osmosis (RO). On the basis of analytical and semipreparative chromatographic techniques, 12 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified for the first time: 2 anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside), 5 phenolic acids (protocatechuic, the three caffeoylquinic isomers, and coumaroylquinic acid), and 5 flavonols (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin aglycone, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside). From the concentrated extract, it was possible to recover for anthocyanins (28.4 ± 0.3 µmol L−1 cyanidin equivalents) the two glycosides of cyanidin, for flavonols (1587 ± 3 µmol L−1 quercetin equivalents) the two glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and for phenolic acids (3650 ± 10 µmol L−1 gallic acid equivalents) chlorogenic and protocatechuic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Article
Precision of a Small Brew House by Determining the Repeatability of Different Brews to Guarantee the Product Stability of the Beer
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040067 - 01 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
The most important success factors of a brewery are to brew a high-standard beer and to sell this product successfully on the market. Especially, guaranteeing an objective product quality is a difficult task, in terms of beer quality, for craft brewers. Following these [...] Read more.
The most important success factors of a brewery are to brew a high-standard beer and to sell this product successfully on the market. Especially, guaranteeing an objective product quality is a difficult task, in terms of beer quality, for craft brewers. Following these product stability parameters is not only necessary to secure the expiry date but also with regard to the repeatability of the brews (from batch to batch). To evaluate the precision of a small brew house (1 hL), three different beer types, lager beer (Pilsener), pale ale (Kölsch), and wheat beer (Weißbier) were repeatedly produced and analyzed. It was found that small fluctuations in the wort preparation, in terms of time or analysis, have no noticeable difference on the sensory characteristics of the final product. Nevertheless, strict adherence to the brew recipe and raw material monitoring are necessary in order to keep these deviations as minimal as possible. Finally, this study verified that microbrews can be repeated so that the consumers will not detect any differences with their five senses in the end. Full article
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Article
Statistical Modelization of the Descriptor “Minerality” Based on the Sensory Properties and Chemical Composition of Wine
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040066 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
When speaking of “minerality” in wines, it is common to find descriptive terms in the vocabulary of wine tasters such as flint, match smoke, kerosene, rubber eraser, slate, granite, limestone, earthy, tar, charcoal, graphite, rock dust, wet stones, salty, metallic, steel, ferrous, etc. [...] Read more.
When speaking of “minerality” in wines, it is common to find descriptive terms in the vocabulary of wine tasters such as flint, match smoke, kerosene, rubber eraser, slate, granite, limestone, earthy, tar, charcoal, graphite, rock dust, wet stones, salty, metallic, steel, ferrous, etc. These are just a few of the descriptors that are commonly found in the tasting notes of wines that show this sensory profile. However, not all wines show this mineral trace at the aromatic and gustatory level. This study has used the statistical tool partial least squares regression (PLS) to mathematically model the attribute of “minerality” of wine, thereby obtaining formulas where the chemical composition and sensory attributes act jointly as the predictor variables, both for white wines and red wines, so as to help understand the term and to devise a winemaking approach able to endow wines with this attribute if desired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Article
Effect of Maize as Adjunct and the Mashing Proteolytic Step on the Brewer Wort Composition
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040065 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
The partial substitution of barley malt has been one of the main strategies of breweries to reduce production costs. In Brazil, as in other countries, maize is a raw material that is used mostly for this purpose. Aiming for strategic cost management, some [...] Read more.
The partial substitution of barley malt has been one of the main strategies of breweries to reduce production costs. In Brazil, as in other countries, maize is a raw material that is used mostly for this purpose. Aiming for strategic cost management, some large breweries have adopted a reduction in the time and energy costs of the process. As an example, changes have been made to the traditional mashing curves by reducing the times or omitting the proteolytic step. The objective of this work was to compare the physical and chemical aspects of sweet and bitter worts prepared through experimental design with and without the addition of maize as adjunct, as well as the execution or not of the proteolytic step in mashing. Color, total acidity, extract, total reducing sugars, total phenolic compounds, and proteins content were evaluated. In addition, the antioxidant activity was determined. The wort obtained with maize and not submitted to the proteolytic step presented a bright color as well as reduced phenolic compounds, protein, and antioxidant activity. Comparatively, the action of proteases in the wort resulted in a greater release of total reducing sugars, a more intense color, and a higher content of total nitrogen and phenolic compounds. The results indicate that despite being an alternative to reduce costs in the brewing process, the use of the adjunct and the exclusion of the proteolytic step of mashing will imply a poor wort in regards to nutrition, which can compromise the activity of the yeast during the process and therefore affect the quality of the final product. Full article
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Article
Formation, Tentative Mass Spectrometric Identification, and Color Stability of Acetaldehyde-Catalyzed Condensation of Red Radish (Raphanus sativus) Anthocyanins and (+) Catechin
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040064 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Red radish anthocyanins are relatively stable due to the acylation of anthocyanins with organic and phenolic acid moieties. The objective of this study was to create and identify a novel ethyl-bridged acylated anthocyanin with a stable violet color from red radishes in the [...] Read more.
Red radish anthocyanins are relatively stable due to the acylation of anthocyanins with organic and phenolic acid moieties. The objective of this study was to create and identify a novel ethyl-bridged acylated anthocyanin with a stable violet color from red radishes in the presence of acetaldehyde and catechin. After incubation at ambient temperature for one week at 21 °C the reaction mixture with acetaldehyde and catechin turned from bright red to a vivid purple color. The newly formed compounds were tentatively identified with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Color stability (CIE L*C*h) was monitored over six months at 21 °C and anthocyanin stability was evaluated by HPLC. Next, radishes were fermented by Zymomonas mobilis, a high acetaldehyde producing bacteria. Natural sources of catechin were used to replace the catechin standard, but the same purple color did not appear with the addition of cocoa powder or fava beans. The ethyliden-bridged radish anthocyanins possess excellent color stability and could serve as a natural food colorant. Full article
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Article
Quality Green Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Clones Marked through Novel Traits
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040063 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Tea clones and seed varieties released from Tocklai Tea Research Institutes are suitable primarily for manufacturing black tea (CTC/orthodox) while green tea manufactured from these clones are poor in quality. This led to identifying germplasm suitable for manufacturing green tea of high quality. [...] Read more.
Tea clones and seed varieties released from Tocklai Tea Research Institutes are suitable primarily for manufacturing black tea (CTC/orthodox) while green tea manufactured from these clones are poor in quality. This led to identifying germplasm suitable for manufacturing green tea of high quality. Physiological parameters on net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, water-use efficiency, leaf temperature, and carboxylation efficiency of six selected germplasm (DH 1 and 2, DH 3 and 4, DH 5 and 6, DL 13, DL 25, and DL 39) were measured in first flush, second flush, rain flush, and autumn flush. Seasonal Yield, biochemical (L-theanine to total polyphenol ratio), and taster’s score were compared among seasons. Two protocols were used for green tea manufacturing, i.e., roasting and steaming. Significant differences in net photosynthesis (pn), stomatal conductance (gs), carboxylation efficiency (ci/ca), and yield were observed between flushes. Among the six test clones, the L-theanine to total polyphenol ratio found was highest in DH 5 and 6 in the roasting method. Structural and cluster analysis revealed that the DH clones genotypically occupied the same position as that of the popular green tea clone Longjing 43 of China and Yabukita of Japan, indicating suitability of these germplasm to develop new green tea clones. Clones DH 5 and 6 are suitable for green tea manufacturing and they can be released to the industry as new green tea clones. As far as manufacturing protocol is concerned, the roasting method of tea manufacturing was found superior over steaming. Full article
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Review
Emerging Technologies Based on Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Quality and Consumer Preference of Beverages
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040062 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
Beverages is a broad and important category within the food industry, which is comprised of a wide range of sub-categories and types of drinks with different levels of complexity for their manufacturing and quality assessment. Traditional methods to evaluate the quality traits of [...] Read more.
Beverages is a broad and important category within the food industry, which is comprised of a wide range of sub-categories and types of drinks with different levels of complexity for their manufacturing and quality assessment. Traditional methods to evaluate the quality traits of beverages consist of tedious, time-consuming, and costly techniques, which do not allow researchers to procure results in real-time. Therefore, there is a need to test and implement emerging technologies in order to automate and facilitate those analyses within this industry. This paper aimed to present the most recent publications and trends regarding the use of low-cost, reliable, and accurate, remote or non-contact techniques using robotics, machine learning, computer vision, biometrics and the application of artificial intelligence, as well as to identify the research gaps within the beverage industry. It was found that there is a wide opportunity in the development and use of robotics and biometrics for all types of beverages, but especially for hot and non-alcoholic drinks. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge and clarity within the industry, and research about the concepts of artificial intelligence and machine learning, as well as that concerning the correct design and interpretation of modeling related to the lack of inclusion of relevant data, additional to presenting over- or under-fitted models. Full article
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Article
Sugary Kefir: Microbial Identification and Biotechnological Properties
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040061 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem composition of three different fruit kefir grains used for the fermentation of apple juice (NAJ), cherry juice (SCN), and a solution of sugary water, enriched with plums (BSS). Methods: Yeast and [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem composition of three different fruit kefir grains used for the fermentation of apple juice (NAJ), cherry juice (SCN), and a solution of sugary water, enriched with plums (BSS). Methods: Yeast and bacterial populations were enumerated using classical microbiological techniques, clustered by RAPD-PCR genotyping, and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S-rRNA gene and the V1-V3 region of 16S-rRNA gene, respectively. The caseinolytic/lipolytic activities and the production of antimicrobial compounds were assessed by well diffusion assays. The proteolytic and lipolytic capacity were further assessed by SDS-PAGE and titrimetric assay, respectively. Results: Yeast and bacterial populations were enumerated at 6.28, 6.58, and 6.41 log CFU/g and at 4.32, 4.85, and 4.34 log CFU/g, regarding BSS, NAJ, and SCN, respectively. Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated all three sugary kefir grains; Kluyveromyces marxianus formed a secondary microbiota in BSS and NAJ. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens dominated NAJ and SCN; Lactobacillus rhamnosus dominated BSS. Four bacteria and nine yeast isolates exhibited proteolytic activity. Forty bacteria and 45 yeast isolates possessed lipolytic activity. No antibacterial activity was detected. Conclusions: Prevalence of yeast over bacterial populations was evident in all samples assessed. Several bacterial and yeast strains exhibited proteolytic and lipolytic activities, making them suitable candidates for inclusion in starter cultures for milk and sugary kefir fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for Their Production)
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Article
Boltzmann-Based Empirical Model to Calculate Volume Loss during Spirit Ageing
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040060 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The Boltzmann equation is applied to fit data of volume loss for evaporation (in %) during spirit ageing in northern white oak (Quercus Alba) standard barrels of 205 L (+/− 10 L) using a temperature and humidity controlled cellar. The Boltzmann [...] Read more.
The Boltzmann equation is applied to fit data of volume loss for evaporation (in %) during spirit ageing in northern white oak (Quercus Alba) standard barrels of 205 L (+/− 10 L) using a temperature and humidity controlled cellar. The Boltzmann equation satisfactory fitted to the experimental data of the volume loss against temperature at constant humidity. Two parameters of the Boltzmann equation showed a linear dependency on the relative humidity of the air, while the other two parameters exhibited a constant value independently of the air humidity. The found empirical mathematical model can be used to calculate the volume loss for evaporation of spirits (40% v/v of ethanol) during ageing in terms of relative humidity (range: 40%–95%) and temperature (range: 10–30 °C) with significant accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distilled Beverages: Science and Technology Across the Supply Chain)
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Editorial
Wine Traceability
Beverages 2019, 5(4), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040059 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
This Special Issue concerns wine traceability, a central theme in the current world market where consumers are increasingly demanding the quality and origin of food and drink [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Traceability )
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