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Article

Polyphenol Characterization in Red Beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) Leaf Extracts

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Groupe Chimie de l’Eau et des Substances Naturelles (GCESNA), Groupe de Nutrition, Technologie Alimentaire, Biochimie et Microbiologie (GNTA-BM), Département de Formation et de Recherche en Génie Chimique et Agroalimentaire (DFR-GCAA), Institut National Polytechnique Houphouët-Boigny (INP-HB), Yamoussoukro BP 1093, Côte d’Ivoire
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Department of Sciences and Technologies, Advanced Teachers’ Training College of Abidjan (ENS), 08 BP 10 Abidjan 08, Côte d’Ivoire
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Plateforme polyphenols, UMR 1083 Sciences pour l’œnologie, INRA, 2 Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier CEDEX 1, France
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UMR GPEB—Génie des Procédés Eau et Bioproduits, CIRAD, TA 40/16, 73 Avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France
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Equipe AD2EM (Phytochimie), Institut des Sciences Moléculaires de Marseille, UMR CNRS 6263, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Saint-Jerôme, Université Paul Cézanne, Avenue Escadrille Niemen, Case 461, 13397 Marseille CEDEX 20, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 17 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
The red aqueous beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) leaf extracts were investigated for their polyphenol contents using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and semipreparative HPLC. Polyphenols were extracted, clarified, and concentrated using a multistep process including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), cross-flow microfiltration (CFM), and reverse osmosis (RO). On the basis of analytical and semipreparative chromatographic techniques, 12 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified for the first time: 2 anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside), 5 phenolic acids (protocatechuic, the three caffeoylquinic isomers, and coumaroylquinic acid), and 5 flavonols (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin aglycone, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside). From the concentrated extract, it was possible to recover for anthocyanins (28.4 ± 0.3 µmol L−1 cyanidin equivalents) the two glycosides of cyanidin, for flavonols (1587 ± 3 µmol L−1 quercetin equivalents) the two glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and for phenolic acids (3650 ± 10 µmol L−1 gallic acid equivalents) chlorogenic and protocatechuic acids. View Full-Text
Keywords: HPLC-DAD; HPLC-ESI-MS; polyphenols; anthocyanins; leaves; Carapa procera HPLC-DAD; HPLC-ESI-MS; polyphenols; anthocyanins; leaves; Carapa procera
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adjé, F.A.; Koffi, E.N.; Koné, K.Y.; Meudec, E.; Adima, A.A.; Lozano, P.R.; Lozano, Y.F.; Gaydou, E.M. Polyphenol Characterization in Red Beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) Leaf Extracts. Beverages 2019, 5, 68. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040068

AMA Style

Adjé FA, Koffi EN, Koné KY, Meudec E, Adima AA, Lozano PR, Lozano YF, Gaydou EM. Polyphenol Characterization in Red Beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) Leaf Extracts. Beverages. 2019; 5(4):68. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040068

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adjé, Félix A., Emmanuel N. Koffi, Kisselmina Y. Koné, Emmanuelle Meudec, Augustin A. Adima, Paul R. Lozano, Yves F. Lozano, and Emile M. Gaydou 2019. "Polyphenol Characterization in Red Beverages of Carapa procera (D.C.) Leaf Extracts" Beverages 5, no. 4: 68. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040068

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