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Article

Copper(II) and Sulfur Dioxide in Chardonnay Juice and Shiraz Must: Impact on Volatile Aroma Compounds and Cu Forms in Wine

1
National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
2
School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
3
Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Laboratory of Oenology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 4 December 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
This work outlines the influence of Cu(II) and SO2 concentrations in Chardonnay juice or Shiraz must on the respective wine composition. Analyses were conducted pre- and post-fermentation, after cold stabilization, after bentonite treatment (Chardonnay only), at bottling, and 15 months after bottling. The quantification of total Cu was conducted by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and free Cu by stripping potentiometry. Low molecular weight sulfur compounds, volatile aldehyde compounds, and general volatile compounds, including esters and terpenes, were quantified with gas-chromatography- or liquid-chromatography-QQQ-mass spectrometry. For Chardonnay, increased Cu concentration in the juice resulted in higher concentrations of Cu in the respective wine, while Shiraz wines showed no significant difference. Increased Cu addition to Chardonnay juice also produced significantly higher concentrations of H2S, 3-methylbutanal, and methional, but lower concentrations of methanethiol and phenylacetaldehyde, while SO2 addition increased 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde, and decreased methanethiol production from post-fermentation to post-bottle aging. For the Shiraz, SO2 led to higher concentrations of H2S, and both SO2 and Cu addition increased the concentrations of hexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and phenylacetaldehyde in wine, but this effect diminished after cold stabilization. This study shows that SO2 and Cu in grape juice/must can have long-term implications for wine composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; sulfur dioxide; low molecular weight sulfur compounds; volatile aldehyde compounds; Chardonnay; Shiraz copper; sulfur dioxide; low molecular weight sulfur compounds; volatile aldehyde compounds; Chardonnay; Shiraz
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Kontoudakis, N.; Blackman, J.W.; Clark, A.C. Copper(II) and Sulfur Dioxide in Chardonnay Juice and Shiraz Must: Impact on Volatile Aroma Compounds and Cu Forms in Wine. Beverages 2019, 5, 70. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040070

AMA Style

Zhang X, Kontoudakis N, Blackman JW, Clark AC. Copper(II) and Sulfur Dioxide in Chardonnay Juice and Shiraz Must: Impact on Volatile Aroma Compounds and Cu Forms in Wine. Beverages. 2019; 5(4):70. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Xinyi, Nikolaos Kontoudakis, John W. Blackman, and Andrew C. Clark 2019. "Copper(II) and Sulfur Dioxide in Chardonnay Juice and Shiraz Must: Impact on Volatile Aroma Compounds and Cu Forms in Wine" Beverages 5, no. 4: 70. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages5040070

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