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Beverages, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Barbera d’Asti, Barbera d’Asti superiore, and Nizza are DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines produced in Piemonte (Italy) from the Barbera grape variety. Differences in terms of purity, ageing, and zone of production make Nizza, which follows the most stringent rules, the one with the highest market value. To guarantee producers and consumers, authentication methods must be developed to distinguish among the different designations. As the production zones completely overlap, we checked whether the metals content allowed distinction, using ICP elemental analysis and multivariate data analysis to study the authentication and traceability of samples from the three designations of 2015 vintage. The results show that—as far as elemental distribution in wine is concerned—work in the cellar, rather than geographic provenance, is crucial for the [...] Read more.
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Article
Investigation of Alcohol Factor Influence in Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and in the Time-Intensity Profile of Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Commercial Pilsen Beers Samples
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040073 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
In recent years, non-alcoholic beers have presented a growth considered satisfactory and exciting for the brewing industry. Such growth is allied to a change in the consumer profile, in addition to changes in traffic laws. However, the consumer seeks a product considered healthier, [...] Read more.
In recent years, non-alcoholic beers have presented a growth considered satisfactory and exciting for the brewing industry. Such growth is allied to a change in the consumer profile, in addition to changes in traffic laws. However, the consumer seeks a product considered healthier, but as tasty as the original. Thus, this study aimed to identify the influence of the alcoholic factor in sensory profile, through quantitative descriptive analysis and time intensity analysis of Pilsen beer samples. An acceptance test with 120 consumers of beer was performed. A quantitative descriptive analysis was carried out by 11 trained assessors to determine the sensory profile of beers. For identification of influences of alcohol factor in the dynamic profile of alcoholic flavor and bitter taste the time-intensity analysis were realized. The results demonstrate that alcohol factor influences both the quantitative descriptive profile and dynamic profile, in addition the correlations between the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) and hedonic data show that the alcoholic flavor and the alcoholic aroma are attributes that contribute positively to acceptance of samples. In view of the results, studies such as the present are of great importance for the improvement of product quality, directly reflecting a greater acceptance of beer consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Communication
Investigating the Potential of an In-Situ Method for Monitoring the Malting of Barley Using Solid Phase Microextraction with a Portable Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Instrument
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040072 - 20 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
An improved understanding of the malting process could have a significant impact on the efficient production of quality malt for the brewing industry. Analysis of volatile organic compounds produced during the malting process is one approach towards achieving this goal. In-situ methods avoid [...] Read more.
An improved understanding of the malting process could have a significant impact on the efficient production of quality malt for the brewing industry. Analysis of volatile organic compounds produced during the malting process is one approach towards achieving this goal. In-situ methods avoid the possibility of contamination and chemical changes occurring during sample transport and storage. This paper describes the investigation of an in-situ sampling method for the detection of volatile organic compounds produced during the malting of barley. Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to identify compounds. The investigated method involved the direct exposure of an SPME fiber in the kiln during barley malting. Using this method, compounds including aldehydes, ketones, and esters were detected. Some changes in volatile organic compound composition were observed during the production of pale malt at a commercial malting house. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Editorial
Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040071 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 937
Abstract
The search for, and development of beverages that could be a panacea is one which is several millennia old [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
Article
The Effect of Roast Development Time Modulations on the Sensory Profile and Chemical Composition of the Coffee Brew as Measured by NMR and DHS-GC–MS
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040070 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3988
Abstract
The specialty coffee industry is growing and, as a result, there is an accelerated interest in modulating roast profiles to present customers with new and diverse sensory experiences. The present study investigates the chemical and sensory effects of subtle variations in the ‘development [...] Read more.
The specialty coffee industry is growing and, as a result, there is an accelerated interest in modulating roast profiles to present customers with new and diverse sensory experiences. The present study investigates the chemical and sensory effects of subtle variations in the ‘development time’ phase of the coffee roasting process. Four roast profiles were studied through sensory descriptive analysis (DA), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Multivariate analysis showed clear separation of DA, GC–MS, and NMR data. A prolonged development time facilitated a statistically significant shift in the chemical and sensory profile of the coffee. The findings suggest that a short development time increases the fruity, sweet and acidic characteristics of the coffee, whereas a longer development time shifts the balance towards a more roasty, nutty, and bitter profile. The results provide evidence that supports the effect of subtle roast profile modulations. This lays a strong foundation for the inclusion of development time as a critical control parameter in the certification system of the Specialty Coffee Association, quality control, and product development strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Related Chemical Analysis)
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Editorial
Mycotoxins in Beverages
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040069 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate raw materials such as cereals, fruits, dried fruits, coffee, and grapes when they have been produced or maintained in a temperature and/or humidity conditions that favor fungi growth [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
Review
Natural Nrf2 Activators from Juices, Wines, Coffee, and Cocoa
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040068 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Juices, wine, coffee, and cocoa are rich sources of natural polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant activities proven by in vitro and in vivo studies. These polyphenolic compounds quench reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) or reactive free radicals and act as natural [...] Read more.
Juices, wine, coffee, and cocoa are rich sources of natural polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant activities proven by in vitro and in vivo studies. These polyphenolic compounds quench reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) or reactive free radicals and act as natural antioxidants which are also able to protect against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage, which elevates cellular antioxidant capacity to induce antioxidant defense mechanisms by modulating transcription factors. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor encoded in humans. It is activated as a result of oxidative stress and induces the expression of its target genes. This is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. However, the oxidative stress alone is not enough to activate Nrf2. Hence phytochemicals, especially polyphenolics, act as natural Nrf2 activators. Herein, this review discusses the natural products identified in juices, coffee, cocoa and wines that modulate Nrf2 activity in cellular systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Article
Degradation of Preservatives with the Formation of Off-Odor Volatile Compounds—The Case of Strawberry-Flavored Bottled Water
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040067 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Foods preserved with sorbic acid or its salts can undergo spoilage with the formation of chemicals characterized by odors of plastic, hydrocarbons, or kerosene. 1,3-pentadiene, which is formed through the decarboxylation of sorbic acid or its salts, is one such compound. Numerous species [...] Read more.
Foods preserved with sorbic acid or its salts can undergo spoilage with the formation of chemicals characterized by odors of plastic, hydrocarbons, or kerosene. 1,3-pentadiene, which is formed through the decarboxylation of sorbic acid or its salts, is one such compound. Numerous species of molds and yeasts have been reported as capable of degrading sorbic acid. This work is aimed to identify the off-odor compounds in samples of strawberry-flavored water preserved with potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. In addition, the mold isolated from this drink was evaluated for the ability to form undesirable compounds, and the results revealed the presence of 1,4-pentadiene and benzaldehyde in the tested samples. The mold isolated from the samples was identified as Penicillium corylophilum. During its 5-day incubation at 25 °C in a liquid medium, potassium sorbate added at a final concentration of 200 and 400 mg/L was completely assimilated by the growing mycelium and converted into 1,4-pentadiene. The concentration of the latter was determined as 46.5 and 92.6 mg/L, respectively. The decrease in the concentration of sodium benzoate exceeded 53% in the broth spiked at 200 mg/L and 23% at 400 mg/L, resulting in the formation of benzaldehyde. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition 2.0)
Article
Investigating How the Disclosure of Production Methods Influences Consumers’ Sensory Perceptions of Sparkling Wines
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040066 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
The primary objective was to identify how the disclosure of production methods, including sustainable practices, would impact consumers’ sensory perceptions. The secondary objective was to identify the attributes consumers use to describe Nova Scotia (NS) sparkling wines. The first trial used projective mapping [...] Read more.
The primary objective was to identify how the disclosure of production methods, including sustainable practices, would impact consumers’ sensory perceptions. The secondary objective was to identify the attributes consumers use to describe Nova Scotia (NS) sparkling wines. The first trial used projective mapping (PM) and ultra-flash profiling (UFP) to describe eight sparkling wines (n = 77). In the second trial, a check-all-that-apply (CATA) questionnaire and 9-point hedonic scales were used (n = 101). Three sparkling wines, from the previous trial, were evaluated blinded and with a production claim. The first trial found that consumers separated the wines based on their fruit- or earth-like attributes. In the CATA trial, desirable attributes, such as sweet and smooth, were used more frequently to describe the wines with sustainable production methods. No significant differences were found in the overall liking scores after the disclosure of the production methods (α = 0.05). These findings indicate that disclosure of production methods did not impact participants’ sensory perceptions of sparkling wine. In addition, an evaluation among different generations should be considered, as millennials have been found to hold sustainable practices to greater value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Article
Antimicrobial Potential of Beverages Preparation Based on Fermented Milk Permeate and Berries/Vegetables
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040065 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Nowadays, taking into consideration the current dynamics of drug resistance development, many researchers are working to develop new antimicrobial compound combinations for the food and beverage industry, which can overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties [...] Read more.
Nowadays, taking into consideration the current dynamics of drug resistance development, many researchers are working to develop new antimicrobial compound combinations for the food and beverage industry, which can overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of milk permeate fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS122, and Lactobacillus faraginis LUHS206 strains in combination with berry/vegetable (B/V) pomace (gooseberries, chokeberries, cranberries, sea buckthorn, rhubarb) against a variety of pathogenic strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Pasteurella multocida, and Enterobacter cloacae) as a potential antimicrobial combination for beverage preparation. The highest number of the tested pathogenic strains was inhibited by gooseberries, sea buckthorn, and rhubarb combinations with strain LUHS122 fermented beverages (13 pathogens out of 15 tested). Twelve out of 15 tested pathogens were inhibited by gooseberry combinations with LUHS135 and LUHS206 fermented milk permeate. Selected B/V in combination with fermented milk permeate are promising antimicrobial ingredients for beverage preparation, possessing antimicrobial activity almost against all the tested pathogenic strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Article
The Influence of Bottle Design on Perceived Quality of Beer: A Conjoint Analytic Study
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040064 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Research on the influence of packaging on consumer perception of beer and other alcoholic beverages suggest an important role in capturing consumers’ attention and generating expectations on perceived product quality, and in particular that color, bottle shape, and label design are key aspects. [...] Read more.
Research on the influence of packaging on consumer perception of beer and other alcoholic beverages suggest an important role in capturing consumers’ attention and generating expectations on perceived product quality, and in particular that color, bottle shape, and label design are key aspects. There is, however, a paucity of research looking at interactions between different aspects of packaging design. This is a topical issue given an increasingly saturated market where especially craft breweries strive for differentiation and brand recognition. Situated within this context, the present research used a conjoint analytic approach to investigate the effect of packaging design on consumer perceived quality and liking for beers. Beer images were designed to systematically vary in four design factors—label color, label shape, label complexity, and bottle shape—and evaluated in an online survey with a representative sample of Danish beer drinkers. Two of the design factors—label color and bottle type—significantly affected consumers’ product evaluations, whereas the other two factors did not. Post-hoc analyses of the main effects indicated that the combination of a “Bomber” bottle shape and a warm color scheme in the label as the optimal combination of design factors to maximize consumer preferences. Preference for the Bomber bottle was linked to a perceived premiumness associated with a preference for curvatures (as opposed to angularity), whereas the preference for warm colors was tentatively explained as due to crossmodal correspondences generating favorable sensory expectations for this color scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
Authentication and Traceability Study on Barbera d’Asti and Nizza DOCG Wines: The Role of Trace- and Ultra-Trace Elements
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040063 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Barbera d’Asti—including Barbera d’Asti superiore—and Nizza are two DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines produced in Piemonte (Italy) from the Barbera grape variety. Differences among them arise in the production specifications in terms of purity, ageing, and zone of [...] Read more.
Barbera d’Asti—including Barbera d’Asti superiore—and Nizza are two DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines produced in Piemonte (Italy) from the Barbera grape variety. Differences among them arise in the production specifications in terms of purity, ageing, and zone of production, in particular with concern to Nizza, which follows the most stringent rules, sells at three times the average price, and is considered to have the highest market value. To guarantee producers and consumers, authentication methods must be developed in order to distinguish among the different wines. As the production zones totally overlap, it is important to verify whether the distinction is possible or not according to metals content, or whether chemical markers more linked to winemaking are needed. In this work, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) elemental analysis and multivariate data analysis are used to study the authentication and traceability of samples from the three designations of 2015 vintage. The results show that, as far as elemental distribution in wine is concerned, work in the cellar, rather than geographic provenance, is crucial for the possibility of distinction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Article
Cooling Shock for Bottled Wine. How Dramatic Is This before Tasting?
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040062 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Adjusting the wine temperature is a routine procedure before opening a wine bottle. In many situations wine requires quick cooling, which occasionally raises disturbing questions among consumers and wine professionals. In particular, there are certain concerns that too rapid cooling of wine for [...] Read more.
Adjusting the wine temperature is a routine procedure before opening a wine bottle. In many situations wine requires quick cooling, which occasionally raises disturbing questions among consumers and wine professionals. In particular, there are certain concerns that too rapid cooling of wine for some reasons may negatively affect its sensory characteristics and compromise the wine evaluation. To scientifically confirm of disprove this myth, we conducted a sensory analysis of six wines, cooled slowly in a refrigerator and quickly in an ice–water–salt mixture. Two sparkling wines, two white, and two red still wines with different aroma profiles were included in the research. Results of the triangle tests and 3-AFC tests demonstrated no perceivable differences between the quickly and slowly cooled wine samples. These outcomes may be useful for scientists, who perform wine sensory evaluations, as well as wine producers, experts, and the foodservice industry in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Article
Sensory Analysis of Post-Exercise Coffee or Cocoa Milk Beverages for Endurance Athletes
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040061 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Beverage strategies with balanced carbohydrate and protein supply are important for athletes’ recovery. Cow’s milk with added bioactive compounds present in coffee and cocoa facilitates glucose metabolism and may help post-workout glycogen recovery. Home-prepared beverages are cost and nutritionally effective strategies. Thus, the [...] Read more.
Beverage strategies with balanced carbohydrate and protein supply are important for athletes’ recovery. Cow’s milk with added bioactive compounds present in coffee and cocoa facilitates glucose metabolism and may help post-workout glycogen recovery. Home-prepared beverages are cost and nutritionally effective strategies. Thus, the objectives were: (1) To develop home-prepared beverages containing nonfat powdered milk and sugar combined with filtered coffee or cocoa powder in balanced amounts for recovery after endurance exercise; and (2) to perform sensory analysis. Sensory evaluation was conducted by an acceptance test, applying nine-point hedonic scale and descriptive analysis, using the check-all-that-apply method (CATA). McNemar’s test and logistic regression with the proportional odds model were employed. The sample included 44 triathletes and 56 runners, of both sexes, 31–70 years old. Both beverages were well accepted by runners and triathletes, with higher acceptance of the coffee beverage (odds ratio coffee vs cocoa 5.232, p=0.0038). There was no significant difference between acceptance of triathletes and runners for the two beverages. The descriptive sensory analysis (CATA) resulted in slightly different characterizations between the two beverages. Both beverages were well accepted and characterized by the athletes, who can supply different options of post-workout beverages according to individual tastes, composition, and characteristics. Full article
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Article
A Multi-Parameter, Predictive Model of Starch Hydrolysis in Barley Beer Mashes
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040060 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
A key first step in the production of beer is the mashing process, which enables the solubilization and subsequent enzymatic conversion of starch to fermentable sugars. Mashing performance depends primarily on temperature, but also on a variety of other process parameters, including pH [...] Read more.
A key first step in the production of beer is the mashing process, which enables the solubilization and subsequent enzymatic conversion of starch to fermentable sugars. Mashing performance depends primarily on temperature, but also on a variety of other process parameters, including pH and mash thickness (known as the “liquor-to-grist” ratio). This process has been studied for well over 100 years, and yet essentially all predictive modeling efforts are alike in that only the impact of temperature is considered, while the impacts of all other process parameters are largely ignored. A set of statistical and mathematical methods collectively known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is commonly applied to develop predictive models of complex processes such as mashing, where performance depends on multiple parameters. For this study, RSM was used to design and test a set of experimental mash conditions to quantify the impact of four process parameters—temperature (isothermal), pH, aeration, and the liquor-to-grist ratio—on extract yield (total and fermentable) and extract composition in order to create a robust, yet simple, predictive model. In contrast to previous models of starch hydrolysis in a mash, a unique aspect of the model developed here was the quantification of significant parameter interaction effects, the most notable of which was the interaction between temperature and mash thickness (i.e., the liquor-to-grist ratio). This interaction had a sizeable impact on important mash performance metrics, such as the total extract yield and the fermentability of the resultant wort. The development of this model is of great future utility to brewery processing, as it permits the multi-parameter optimization of the mashing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and Storage Atmosphere on the Volatile Aroma Composition of Cloudy and Clear Apple Juices
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040059 - 30 Sep 2020
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), storage atmosphere (controlled (CA) or regular (RA)), and juice processing (clear or cloudy) on the volatile aroma compounds from McIntosh and Honeycrisp apples following 4-month storage were studied. All the major esters, aldehydes, and total volatile content from [...] Read more.
The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), storage atmosphere (controlled (CA) or regular (RA)), and juice processing (clear or cloudy) on the volatile aroma compounds from McIntosh and Honeycrisp apples following 4-month storage were studied. All the major esters, aldehydes, and total volatile content from McIntosh juice were significantly affected by the two-way interaction between harvest maturity and 1-MCP treatment (p ≤ 0.01), as well as harvest maturity and storage atmosphere (p ≤ 0.001). In McIntosh juices, a remarkable reduction of all types of esters, aldehydes, most alcohols, and total volatile compounds was found when juices were prepared from 1-MCP-treated apples. In Honeycrisp, significant differences in the level of esters and the total volatile aroma was caused by storage atmosphere and juice processing techniques (p ≤ 0.001), but not by 1-MCP treatment. As compared to clear juices, cloudy juice samples from Honeycrisp had a considerably higher content of total volatiles, esters, and aldehydes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition 2.0)
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Article
Brewing Characteristics of the Maltotriose-Positive Yeast Zygotorulaspora florentina Isolated from Oak
Beverages 2020, 6(4), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6040058 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
The use of wild yeasts in fermentation is becoming a viable option for the differentiation of beers. To achieve good fermentation rates and alcohol yields, however, such yeasts must have the ability to utilize the wort sugars maltose and maltotriose, a relatively rare [...] Read more.
The use of wild yeasts in fermentation is becoming a viable option for the differentiation of beers. To achieve good fermentation rates and alcohol yields, however, such yeasts must have the ability to utilize the wort sugars maltose and maltotriose, a relatively rare trait amongst non-domesticated yeasts. Zygotorulaspora florentina is a species with the ability to utilize both sugars, and was evaluated here with respect to its brewing potential. The strain studied (VTT C-201041) was isolated from bark of an oak tree (Quercus robur) in Espoo, Finland. The fermentation performance of the strain was compared to that of two ale yeasts as well as the species type strain (VTT C-94199). Both Z. florentina strains fermented wort efficiently (apparent attenuation levels >77%). While the type strain had the highest yield, the Finnish strain produced more volatile aroma compounds. The species is capable of decarboxylating ferulic acid to produce the spice/clove-like compound 4-vinylguaiacol, which was present in beers at a concentration above the typical flavor threshold. The characteristic flavor of 4-vinylguaiacol was not however perceptible in taste trials, possibly due to the masking effect of other compounds. The potential of this species for industrial application is discussed, particularly in relation to its apparent ethanol sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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