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Beverages, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Brewing with unmalted cereal adjuncts can reduce the requirement for malting, thereby lowering costs and improving the overall sustainability of the brewing chain. This study examined the impacts of brewing with unmalted barley, wheat, rice, and maize at relatively high concentrations (0, 30, 60% of grist) on the sensorial and analytical profiles of lager beer. Results showed at 30% adjunct incorporation there was insignificant variation in the beer flavor profile. However, 60% adjunct incorporation (with corresponding low wort FAN) impacted the fermentation volatile profile of the final beers, which corresponded with findings observed in the sensory analysis. View this paper
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Review
An Overview on Sustainability in the Wine Production Chain
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010015 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Despite the great relevance of sustainable development, the absence of a shared approach to sustainable vitiviniculture is evident. This review aimed to investigate sustainability along the entire wine chain, from primary production to the finished wine, with specific attention to three key dimensions [...] Read more.
Despite the great relevance of sustainable development, the absence of a shared approach to sustainable vitiviniculture is evident. This review aimed to investigate sustainability along the entire wine chain, from primary production to the finished wine, with specific attention to three key dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social, and economic) and relating measures. Therefore, it was decided to: investigate the ways in which sustainability is applied in the various stages of the production chain (wine growing, wineries, distribution chain, and waste management); analyse the regulations in force throughout the world and the main labelling systems; provide numerical information on sustainable grapes and wines; study the objective quality of sustainable wines and that perceived by consumers, considering that it affects their willingness to pay. The research highlighted that rules and regulations on organic production of grapes and wines are flanked by several certification schemes and labelling systems. Although sustainable wines represent a niche in the market, in recent years, there has been an increase in vineyards conducted with sustainable (mainly organic and biodynamic) methods, and a consequent increase in the production of sustainable wines both in traditional and emerging producing countries. Although (or perhaps precisely for this reason) no significant differences in quality are found among sustainable and conventional wines, consumers are willing to pay a premium for sustainably produced wines. This finding should encourage wineries to both put in place environmental activities and intensify their communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Communication
Brewery Packaging in a Post-COVID Economy within the United States
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010014 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as the COVID-19 [named for the disease caused by the virus] pandemic, shook the world to its core. Not only were populations hurt by the virus physically, the pandemic had deep [...] Read more.
The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as the COVID-19 [named for the disease caused by the virus] pandemic, shook the world to its core. Not only were populations hurt by the virus physically, the pandemic had deep repercussions economically as well. One of the industries severely impacted by the implications of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic was the brewing industry, particularly that of the United States. The economic turmoil and uncertainty were felt by both macro and micro brewers alike. Draft beer sales virtually dried up overnight as state-imposed shutdowns closed bars, restaurants, and taprooms as a means to curb the spread of the virus. There were supply chain and logistical issues that arose during the pandemic due to not only closures within the brewing industry but supporting industries such as printers and shippers. In some cases, entire business models had to be turned completely on their head in an instant and business pivots had to be made. The year 2020 was wrought with challenges faced by the brewing industry. There was one saving grace however that kept many breweries afloat during the pandemic, and that was packaged beverage sales, especially those packages intended for off-site consumption. Set forth by trends of the pre-pandemic years aluminum cans and canning reigned supreme for the craft brewing market and allowed breweries to get product into the hands of consumers and ultimately allowed some breweries to stay open. Other options breweries had included the use of glass growlers or aluminum crowlers as a means to sell draft products to-go. The resourcefulness of many brewery owners was tested in 2020 and many rose to the challenge. This report aims to examine several of the challenges, pivots, and solutions packaging provided to the beer industry during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
Optimization of Beer Brewing by Monitoring α-Amylase and β-Amylase Activities during Mashing
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010013 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
(1) Background: In the current highly competitive brewing industry, most breweries may benefit from a reduction in mashing time. In this study, a novel enzymatic assay format was used to investigate the activities of α-amylase and β-amylase during different mashing profiles, with the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In the current highly competitive brewing industry, most breweries may benefit from a reduction in mashing time. In this study, a novel enzymatic assay format was used to investigate the activities of α-amylase and β-amylase during different mashing profiles, with the aim to use it as a tool for optimizing the production time of an existing industrial mashing process; (2) Methods: Lab-scale mashings with eight different time-temperature programs and two different pilot brews were analyzed in terms of enzymatic activity, sugar composition, alcohol by volume in the final beer, FAN and others; (3) Results: A 20-min reduction (out of an original 73-min mashing program) was achieved by selecting a temperature profile which maintained a higher enzymatic activity than the original, without affecting the wort sugar composition and fermentability, or the ethanol concentration and foam stability of the final beer. (4) Conclusions: A method is presented which can be used by breweries to optimize their mashing profiles based on monitoring α-amylase and β-amylase activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Review
Healthy Drinks with Lovely Colors: Phenolic Compounds as Constituents of Functional Beverages
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010012 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Consumers increasingly prefer and seek food and beverages, which, due to their natural characteristics, bring health benefits, both in the prevention of diseases and in their curative power. In this way, the production of nutraceutical foods and beverages gains more and more importance [...] Read more.
Consumers increasingly prefer and seek food and beverages, which, due to their natural characteristics, bring health benefits, both in the prevention of diseases and in their curative power. In this way, the production of nutraceutical foods and beverages gains more and more importance in the market. On the other hand, and because the eyes also eat, producing attractive foods due to their color, texture, appearance, and sensory characteristics is a permanent challenge in the food industry. Being able to gather healthy and attractive items in a single food is an even greater challenge. The long list of benefits associated with phenolic compounds, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging properties, among others, fully justifies their use in the enrichment of various food products. Thus, in this review, we propose to summarize the potential use of phenolic compounds used as ingredients of pleasant and functional beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Article
Short Wave Ultraviolet Light (UV-C) Effectiveness in the Inactivation of Bacterial Spores Inoculated in Turbid Suspensions and in Cloudy Apple Juice
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010011 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Liquid foods might present interferences in their optical properties that can reduce the effectiveness of short-wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) treatments used for sterilization purposes. The effect of turbidity as UV-C interference factor against the inactivation of bacterial spores was analysed by using phosphate-buffered [...] Read more.
Liquid foods might present interferences in their optical properties that can reduce the effectiveness of short-wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) treatments used for sterilization purposes. The effect of turbidity as UV-C interference factor against the inactivation of bacterial spores was analysed by using phosphate-buffered saline solutions (PBS) of different turbidity values (2000, 2500, and 3000 NTU) which were adjusted with the addition of apple fibre. These suspensions were inoculated with spores of Bacillus subtilis and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris. While higher UV-C doses increased the inactivation rates of spores, these were reduced when turbidity values increased; a dose of 28.7 J/mL allowed inactivation rates of B. subtilis spores of 3.96 Log in a 2000-NTU suspension compared with 2.81 Log achieved in the 3000-NTU one. Spores of B. subtilis were more UV-C-resistant than A. acidoterrestris. Cloudy apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was processed by UV-C at different doses in a single pass and with recirculation of the matrix through the reactor. Inactivation increased significantly with recirculation, surpassing 5 Log after 125 J/mL compared with 0.13 Log inactivation after a single-pass treatment at the same UV-C dose. UV-C treatments with recirculation affected the optical properties (absorption coefficient at 254 nm and turbidity) of juice and increased browning as UV-C doses became higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition 2.0)
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Article
Aromatic and Sensory Characterization of Maturana Blanca Wines Made with Different Technologies
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010010 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Vitis vinífera L. cv. Maturana Blanca is an autochthonous minor variety recently recovered in the Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin (D.O.Ca Rioja, Spain) for the production of monovarietal white wines with singular and differentiated characteristics. In this paper, Maturana Blanca wines made with [...] Read more.
Vitis vinífera L. cv. Maturana Blanca is an autochthonous minor variety recently recovered in the Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin (D.O.Ca Rioja, Spain) for the production of monovarietal white wines with singular and differentiated characteristics. In this paper, Maturana Blanca wines made with different technologies were analyzed by sensory analysis and aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass detector. Maturana Blanca wines were characterized by low pH, high acidity, and yellowish tonalities. The compounds that most influenced the aroma of Maturana Blanca wines were those related to fruity (acetates and ethyl esters), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol), and spicy notes (γ-decalactone). These wines were mainly characterized by volatile compounds of fruity aromas of banana and apple. The use of pre-fermentative maceration increased the concentration of ethyl esters and acetates and produced wines with higher odor activity values, indicating a greater aromatic intensity. The aromatic profile of Maturana Blanca wines fermented in oak barrels showed a greater complexity as they were also characterized by the presence of important amounts of furfural, whiskey lactone, and eugenol. The sensory analysis confirmed the results obtained in the aromatic analysis, and described the wines as fresh and balanced in mouth, with notes of acidity and medium to high persistence. These results will contribute to a better knowledge of this white variety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Wood)
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Article
Perceptual and Physiological Responses to Carbohydrate and Menthol Mouth-Swilling Solutions: A Repeated Measures Cross-Over Preliminary Trial
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010009 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n = 12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35 °C; 15 ± 2%) following a 15 min [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n = 12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35 °C; 15 ± 2%) following a 15 min control period, during which the participants undertook three 15 min testing blocks. A randomised swill (carbohydrate; menthol; water) was administered per testing block (one swill every three minutes within each block). Heart rate, tympanic temperature, thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst were recorded every three minutes. Data were analysed by ANOVA, with carbohydrate intake controlled for via ANCOVA. Small elevations in heart rate were observed after carbohydrate (ES: 0.22 ± 90% CI: −0.09–0.52) and water swilling (0.26; −0.04–0.54). Menthol showed small improvements in thermal comfort relative to carbohydrate (−0.33; −0.63–0.03) and water (−0.40; from −0.70 to −0.10), and induced moderate reductions in thermal sensation (−0.71; from −1.01 to −0.40 and −0.66; from −0.97 to −0.35, respectively). Menthol reduced thirst by a small to moderate extent. These effects persisted when controlling for dietary carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate and water may elevate heart rate, whereas menthol elicits small improvements in thermal comfort, moderately improves thermal sensation and may mitigate thirst; these effects persist when dietary carbohydrate intake is controlled for. Full article
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Editorial
Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010008 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Beverage processing is open to new technologies; among them, nonthermal physical technologies such as discontinuous hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound (US), atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP), or pulsed light (PL) are growing increasingly in the food industry [...] Read more.
Beverage processing is open to new technologies; among them, nonthermal physical technologies such as discontinuous hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound (US), atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP), or pulsed light (PL) are growing increasingly in the food industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
Review
Review of the Effects of Grapevine Smoke Exposure and Technologies to Assess Smoke Contamination and Taint in Grapes and Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010007 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Grapevine smoke exposure and the subsequent development of smoke taint in wine has resulted in significant financial losses for grape growers and winemakers throughout the world. Smoke taint is characterized by objectional smoky aromas such as “ashy”, “burning rubber”, and “smoked meats”, resulting [...] Read more.
Grapevine smoke exposure and the subsequent development of smoke taint in wine has resulted in significant financial losses for grape growers and winemakers throughout the world. Smoke taint is characterized by objectional smoky aromas such as “ashy”, “burning rubber”, and “smoked meats”, resulting in wine that is unpalatable and hence unprofitable. Unfortunately, current climate change models predict a broadening of the window in which bushfires may occur and a rise in bushfire occurrences and severity in major wine growing regions such as Australia, Mediterranean Europe, North and South America, and South Africa. As such, grapevine smoke exposure and smoke taint in wine are increasing problems for growers and winemakers worldwide. Current recommendations for growers concerned that their grapevines have been exposed to smoke are to conduct pre-harvest mini-ferments for sensory assessment and send samples to a commercial laboratory to quantify levels of smoke-derived volatiles in the wine. Significant novel research is being conducted using spectroscopic techniques coupled with machine learning modeling to assess grapevine smoke contamination and taint in grapes and wine, offering growers and winemakers additional tools to monitor grapevine smoke exposure and taint rapidly and non-destructively in grapes and wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Beverages in 2020
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010006 - 24 Jan 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Beverages maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Coffee Label Assessment Using Sensory and Biometric Analysis of Self-Isolating Panelists through Videoconference
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010005 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Label concepts, information, logos, figures, and colors of beverages are critical for consumer perception, preference, and purchase intention. This is especially relevant for new beverage products. During social isolation, many sensory laboratories were unable to provide services, making virtual sensory sessions relevant to [...] Read more.
Label concepts, information, logos, figures, and colors of beverages are critical for consumer perception, preference, and purchase intention. This is especially relevant for new beverage products. During social isolation, many sensory laboratories were unable to provide services, making virtual sensory sessions relevant to studying different label concepts and design preferences among consumers. This study proposed a novel virtual sensory system to analyze coffee labels using videoconference, self-reported, and biometric analysis software from video recordings to obtain sensory and emotional responses from 69 participants (power analysis: 1 − β > 0.99) using six different label concepts: (i) fun, (ii) bold, (iii) natural, (iv) everyday, (v) classic, and (vi) premium. The results show that the label concept rated as having the highest perceived quality was premium, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to all of the other concepts. The least perceived quality score was attributed to the bold concept due to the confronting aroma lexicon (cheese dip), which is supported by previous studies. Furthermore, even though graphics, colors, and the product name can be considered positive attributes, they do not determine perceived quality or purchase intention, which was found for the bold, everyday, and classic concepts. The findings from this study were as expected and are consistent with those from similar publications related to labels, which shows that the proposed virtual method for sensory sessions and biometrics is reliable. Further technology has been proposed to use this system with multiple participants, which could help beverage companies perform virtual sensory analysis of new products’ labels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Article
Brewing with Unmalted Cereal Adjuncts: Sensory and Analytical Impacts on Beer Quality
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010004 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Brewing with unmalted cereal adjuncts can reduce the requirement for malting, thereby lowering costs and improving the overall sustainability of the brewing chain. However, substantial adjunct usage has technological challenges and the sensory characteristics of beers produced using high adjunct rates are still [...] Read more.
Brewing with unmalted cereal adjuncts can reduce the requirement for malting, thereby lowering costs and improving the overall sustainability of the brewing chain. However, substantial adjunct usage has technological challenges and the sensory characteristics of beers produced using high adjunct rates are still not fully understood. This study examined the impacts of brewing with unmalted barley, wheat, rice and maize at relatively high concentrations (0, 30% and 60% of grist) on the sensorial and analytical profiles of lager beer. Adjunct based beers and a 100% malt control were brewed at 25 L scale. A trained sensory panel (n = 8) developed a lexicon and determined the sensorial profile of beers. At 30% adjunct incorporation there was insignificant variation in the expected beer flavour profile. At 60% adjunct incorporation, there were some significant sensory differences between beers which were specific to particular adjunct materials. Furthermore, 60% adjunct inclusion (with correspondingly low wort FAN) impacted the fermentation volatile profile of the final beers which corresponded with findings observed in the sensory analysis. Developing an understanding of adjunct-induced flavour differences and determining strategies to minimise these differences will facilitate the implementation of cost-efficient and sustainable grist solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
Wineinformatics: Using the Full Power of the Computational Wine Wheel to Understand 21st Century Bordeaux Wines from the Reviews
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010003 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Although wine has been produced for several thousands of years, the ancient beverage has remained popular and even more affordable in modern times. Among all wine making regions, Bordeaux, France is probably one of the most prestigious wine areas in history. Since hundreds [...] Read more.
Although wine has been produced for several thousands of years, the ancient beverage has remained popular and even more affordable in modern times. Among all wine making regions, Bordeaux, France is probably one of the most prestigious wine areas in history. Since hundreds of wines are produced from Bordeaux each year, humans are not likely to be able to examine all wines across multiple vintages to define the characteristics of outstanding 21st century Bordeaux wines. Wineinformatics is a newly proposed data science research with an application domain in wine to process a large amount of wine data through the computer. The goal of this paper is to build a high-quality computational model on wine reviews processed by the full power of the Computational Wine Wheel to understand 21st century Bordeaux wines. On top of 985 binary-attributes generated from the Computational Wine Wheel in our previous research, we try to add additional attributes by utilizing a CATEGORY and SUBCATEGORY for an additional 14 and 34 continuous-attributes to be included in the All Bordeaux (14,349 wine) and the 1855 Bordeaux datasets (1359 wines). We believe successfully merging the original binary-attributes and the new continuous-attributes can provide more insights for Naïve Bayes and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) to build the model for a wine grade category prediction. The experimental results suggest that, for the All Bordeaux dataset, with the additional 14 attributes retrieved from CATEGORY, the Naïve Bayes classification algorithm was able to outperform the existing research results by increasing accuracy by 2.15%, precision by 8.72%, and the F-score by 1.48%. For the 1855 Bordeaux dataset, with the additional attributes retrieved from the CATEGORY and SUBCATEGORY, the SVM classification algorithm was able to outperform the existing research results by increasing accuracy by 5%, precision by 2.85%, recall by 5.56%, and the F-score by 4.07%. The improvements demonstrated in the research show that attributes retrieved from the CATEGORY and SUBCATEGORY has the power to provide more information to classifiers for superior model generation. The model build in this research can better distinguish outstanding and class 21st century Bordeaux wines. This paper provides new directions in Wineinformatics for technical research in data science, such as regression, multi-target, classification and domain specific research, including wine region terroir analysis, wine quality prediction, and weather impact examination. Full article
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Article
Degradation Kinetics of Betacyanins during the Pasteurization and Storage of Cactus Pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) Juice Using the Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball Models
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010002 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Betacyanin stability was assessed over temperatures ranging from 60 to 90 °C for cactus pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) juice. The juice showed a betacyanin content of 0.76 g/kg. The rate constants for the betacyanin degradation and isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated according [...] Read more.
Betacyanin stability was assessed over temperatures ranging from 60 to 90 °C for cactus pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) juice. The juice showed a betacyanin content of 0.76 g/kg. The rate constants for the betacyanin degradation and isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated according to the following three models: Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball. The fittings of the models were found to be close to one other with SSE values of 0.0964, 0.0964, and 0.0974, respectively. However, because the estimated parameters for the Ball equation happened to be less correlated than the parameters of the other models, this equation was then used for the simulations. The parameters for z and D0 were 42.21 °C and 6.79 × 104 s, respectively. Betacyanins were found to resist typical heat treatment conditions (F70°C values between 100 and 200 min), with a maximum loss of 10% when the temperature was above 80 °C. The time/temperature combinations that could assure both the safety of the product and the preservation of the betacyanins were identified. With Enterococcus faecalis as the reference, when the temperature was 100 °C, the pasteurization time satisfying these two conditions was 0.6 min, whereas it was 180 min when the temperature was 62 °C. The degradation of betacynins during storage was positively correlated with temperature and was accompanied by the appearance of a brown shade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition 2.0)
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Communication
Electrochemical Approaches for Rapid Characterization of Oxidizable Compounds in Different Oak Alternatives
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Oak alternatives (OAs) such as chips, granulates or staves, are becoming increasingly used in the wine industry. Although they are mostly considered for their contribution to wine aroma, they are also a source of phenolic compounds to be released in the wine, in [...] Read more.
Oak alternatives (OAs) such as chips, granulates or staves, are becoming increasingly used in the wine industry. Although they are mostly considered for their contribution to wine aroma, they are also a source of phenolic compounds to be released in the wine, in particular ellagitannins contributing to wine mouthfeel and antioxidant characteristics. In the present study, we explore the potential for a rapid analytical method based on linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) combined with disposable sensors to provide a rapid measure of the oxidizable compounds present in different OAs, as well as their characterization. Strong correlations were found between the tannin content of different OAs and the total current measures during LSV analysis, allowing a rapid quantification of the oxidizable compounds present, mostly ellagitannin. Application of derivatization to raw voltammograms allowed extraction of a number of features that can be used for classification purposes, in particular with respect to OAs types (chips or staves) and degree of toasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Wood)
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