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Beverages, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 8 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Perception of Aqueous Ethanol Binary Mixtures Containing Alcohol-Relevant Taste and Chemesthetic Stimuli
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020023 - 29 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Ethanol is a complex stimulus that elicits multiple gustatory and chemesthetic sensations. Alcoholic beverages also contain other tastants that impact flavour. Here, we sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four stimuli representing the dominant orosensations elicited in alcoholic beverages: fructose [...] Read more.
Ethanol is a complex stimulus that elicits multiple gustatory and chemesthetic sensations. Alcoholic beverages also contain other tastants that impact flavour. Here, we sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four stimuli representing the dominant orosensations elicited in alcoholic beverages: fructose (sweet), quinine (bitter), tartaric acid (sour) and aluminium sulphate (astringent). Female participants were screened for thermal taste status to determine whether the heightened orosensory responsiveness of thermal tasters (n = 21–22) compared to thermal non-tasters (n = 13–15) extends to these binary mixtures. Participants rated the intensity of five orosensations in binary solutions of ethanol (5%, 13%, 23%) and a tastant (low, medium, high). For each tastant, 3-way ANOVAs determined which factors impacted orosensory ratings. Burning/tingling increased as ethanol concentration increased in all four binary mixture types and was not impacted by the concentration of other stimuli. In contrast, bitterness increased with ethanol concentration, and decreased with increasing fructose concentration. Sourness tended to be reduced as ethanol concentration increased, although astringency intensity decreased with increasing concentration of fructose. Overall, thermal tasters tended to be more responsive than thermal non-tasters. These results provide insights into how the taste and chemesthetic profiles of alcoholic beverages across a wide range of ethanol concentrations can be manipulated by changing their composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Open AccessArticle
USA Mid-Atlantic Consumer Preferences for Front Label Attributes for Local Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020022 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to investigate Mid-Atlantic USA wine consumers’ preferences for front wine label attributes for a lesser-known/unknown local wine variety. The wine consumer base in this part of the USA exceeds that of California. Although the mid-Atlantic is experiencing [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to investigate Mid-Atlantic USA wine consumers’ preferences for front wine label attributes for a lesser-known/unknown local wine variety. The wine consumer base in this part of the USA exceeds that of California. Although the mid-Atlantic is experiencing an increase in the number of wineries, there is a lack of region-specific consumer research that could be the basis for marketing strategies that may differ from those in more established wine regions, such as CA. We recruited 1011 mid-Atlantic consumers who drank wine (at least 1×/month) to view variations of a wine label, differing in wine tag, location description, font types, and images in a choice-based conjoint experiment. A greater percentage of consumers selected the “White Wine” tag and scripted fonts than the other options, with a generalized county text (“Proudly produced in Lehigh County, PA”) being selected by more participants than the American Viticultural Area (AVA) (“Lehigh Valley AVA”) or state (“Pennsylvania”) texts; however, the location text had a lower importance than the wine tag variable. This study implies that a generalized county text that describes a more specific location where the grapes were grown may be more favorable to mid-Atlantic consumers in comparison to AVA or state texts, and that traditional images and generic wine labels are more preferable than wine labels they have not seen before and more contemporary label styles. Wineries in the mid-Atlantic region may want to add generalized county texts to their labels to appeal to the regional audience. As AVAs are used to promote specific wine regions in the USA, and only some consumers choose wines based on these designations, governments and marketing organizations may want to increase education on local AVAs to increase consumer awareness and interest. In addition, consumer differences in variety-seeking behavior and subjective as well as objective wine knowledge, but not attitudes toward locally produced foods, affected wine label choice: Consumers scoring higher in variety-seeking and wine knowledge preferred the specific wine varietal over the generic wine tag; similarly, consumers that indicated familiarity with the wine varietal also preferred the specific wine tag over the generic label. Differences in consumer psychographics appear to modulate front wine label preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Open AccessArticle
Absorbance Spectroscopy of Heads, Hearts and Tails Fractions in Fruit Spirits
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020021 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
There is a large economic interest to characterize heads, hearts and tails fractions during fruit spirit distillation by simple, fast, low-volume and low-cost analytical methods. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet (UV)-visible-infrared spectroscopy (230–1000 nm) to characterize and differentiate these distillate fractions. [...] Read more.
There is a large economic interest to characterize heads, hearts and tails fractions during fruit spirit distillation by simple, fast, low-volume and low-cost analytical methods. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet (UV)-visible-infrared spectroscopy (230–1000 nm) to characterize and differentiate these distillate fractions. Heads, hearts and tails fractions of 10 different fruit spirits were separated by sensory evaluation and investigated by absorbance spectroscopy. Principal component analysis indicated that UV spectroscopy at a wavelength range from 230 to 310 nm had the highest potential to differentiate all three distillate fractions. While all tails fractions showed significantly different UV spectra, a clear differentiation between heads and hearts fractions was limited. However, an additional UV spectroscopy of 100 mL subfractions sampled during the shift from heads to hearts in three additional distillations did reveal significant differences. The calculated integrals of the according best-fit trendline functions of the spectra indicated a trend towards reduced area-under-the-curve and zero-point values during the shift. This could be a new lead to implement an analytical method for in-line process control during fruit spirit production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Open AccessArticle
A Syrup–Water Mixture Increases Performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test after a Soccer-Specific Preload in the Hoff Test: A Double-Blind Crossover Study
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020020 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Background: The positive effect of carbohydrates from commercial beverages on soccer-specific exercise has been clearly demonstrated. However, no study is available that uses a home-mixed beverage in a test where technical skills were required. Methods: Nine subjects participated voluntarily in this double-blind, randomized, [...] Read more.
Background: The positive effect of carbohydrates from commercial beverages on soccer-specific exercise has been clearly demonstrated. However, no study is available that uses a home-mixed beverage in a test where technical skills were required. Methods: Nine subjects participated voluntarily in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. On three testing days, the subjects performed six Hoff tests with a 3-min active break as a preload and then the Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) until exhaustion. On test days 2 and 3, the subjects received either a 69 g carbohydrate-containing drink (syrup–water mixture) or a carbohydrate-free drink (aromatic water). Beverages were given in several doses of 250 mL each: 30 min before and immediately before the exercise and after 18 and 39 min of exercise. The primary target parameters were the running performance in the Hoff test and Yo-Yo IR1, body mass and heart rate. Statistical differences between the variables of both conditions were analyzed using paired samples t-tests. Results: The maximum heart rate in Yo-Yo IR1 showed significant differences (syrup: 191.1 ± 6.2 bpm; placebo: 188.0 ± 6.89 bpm; t(6) = −2.556; p = 0.043; dz = 0.97). The running performance in Yo-Yo IR1 under the condition syrup significantly increased by 93.33 ± 84.85 m (0–240 m) on average (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The intake of a syrup–water mixture with a total of 69 g carbohydrates leads to an increase in high-intensive running performance after soccer specific loads. Therefore, the intake of carbohydrate solutions is recommended for intermittent loads and should be increasingly considered by coaches and players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Open AccessEditorial
Improving Wine Quality and Safety
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020019 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Wine is a product that can be characterized both as a commodity but also as a luxury, depending on its price [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
Open AccessArticle
Application of Microwaves as an Advanced Technique for the Development of Sherry Vinegar Macerated with Pineapple
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020018 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
This work proposes the elaboration of a product based on the maceration of Sherry Vinegar together with pineapple in order to extract certain volatile compounds that can be found in pineapples, giving a final product with new organoleptic properties and increased polyphenolic content. [...] Read more.
This work proposes the elaboration of a product based on the maceration of Sherry Vinegar together with pineapple in order to extract certain volatile compounds that can be found in pineapples, giving a final product with new organoleptic properties and increased polyphenolic content. Maceration trials were carried out with the application of microwaves and ultrasound, which reduced the maceration time from the traditional three-day solid-liquid maceration to just a few minutes. In addition, through maceration, the total polyphenol index increased significantly with respect to unmacerated vinegar, and the volatile profile of the vinegars was significantly modified. The tasting scores placed the pineapple macerated vinegar sample obtained by traditional maceration in the first place with respect to pineapple aroma; however, the microwave extraction samples were better rated in terms of overall quality. It can be concluded that the application of extracting energies, such as microwaves, can be a viable alternative for the production of sherry vinegar macerated with pineapple. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020017 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
In 2015, the journal Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710) was launched to provide insight into the beverage industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Open AccessArticle
Refining Citrus Wastes: From Discarded Oranges to Efficient Brewing Biocatalyst, Aromatic Beer, and Alternative Yeast Extract Production
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020016 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Agro-industrial wastes can be valorized as biorefinery raw materials through innovative, environmentally friendly bioprocessing for added value products. In this study, a process for citrus waste valorization within the biorefinery concept is proposed, including the development of an effective biocatalyst, based on immobilized [...] Read more.
Agro-industrial wastes can be valorized as biorefinery raw materials through innovative, environmentally friendly bioprocessing for added value products. In this study, a process for citrus waste valorization within the biorefinery concept is proposed, including the development of an effective biocatalyst, based on immobilized cells, for aromatic beer production, and an alternative yeast extract (AYE) production in the same unit. Specifically, orange pulp from discarded oranges was applied as an immobilization carrier of the alcohol-resistant and cryotolerant yeast strain S. cerevisiae AXAZ-1. The yeast culture was produced by minor nutrient supplementation using diluted molasses as substrate. An effective Citrus Waste Brewing Biocatalyst (CWBB) was produced and applied for beer fermentation. The aroma-related compounds in beer produced with free yeast cells or the CWBB were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The analysis showed that the beers produced by the CWBB had a more complex volatile profile compared with beer fermented by the free cells. More specifically, the CWBB enhanced the formation of esters and terpenes by 5- and 27-fold, respectively. In the frame of the proposed multiprocessing biorefinery concept, the spent CWBB, after it has completed its cycle of brewing batches, was used as substrate for AYE production through autolysis. The produced AYE significantly affected the yeast growth when compared to commercial yeast extract (CYE). More specifically, it promoted the biomass productivity and biomass yield factor by 60–150% and 110–170%, respectively. Thus, AYE could be successfully used for industrial cell growth as an efficient and cheaper substitute of CYE. Within a circular economy framework, the present study highlights the potential use of citrus waste to produce aromatic beer combined with AYE production as an alternative way to valorize these wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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