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Article

Authentication Using Volatile Composition: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Volatile Profiles of Fourteen Queensland Ciders

1
School of Health, Medical & Applied Sciences, CQUniversity Australia, Bruce Hwy, North Rockhampton, QLD 4701, Australia
2
Institute for Future Farming Systems, CQUniversity Australia, Bruce Hwy, North Rockhampton, QLD 4701, Australia
3
School of Science, Psychology and Sport, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, VIC 3350, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna Picinelli-Lobo and Christian Ariel Lopes
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
Although relatively small, the Australian cider industry has experienced significant growth in recent years. One of the current challenges in the industry is the lack of research specific to Australian ciders. Establishing baseline volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of Australian cider is paramount to developing a better understanding of the industry. This understanding may ultimately be utilized for both the categorization and authentication of existing ciders, and the targeted modification of cider volatiles for the development and improvement of cider quality. This study utilized gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to identify key VOCs present in 14 ciders sourced from four different manufacturers in Queensland, Australia. A total of 40 VOCs were identified across the ciders, with significant variation depending on the flavor and manufacturer. Principal component analysis indicated that the ciders were well-separated based on the manufacturer, supporting the prospect of using the volatile composition to discriminate between cider manufacturers. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis highlighted the commonalities and differences in cider composition between different manufacturers, which may be indicative of the varying ingredients and manufacturing processes used to create the ciders. Future studies profiling the volatile composition of larger numbers of Australian ciders are recommended to support the use of this analytical technique for authentication purposes. Likewise, exploration of the relationship between specific processes and VOCs is recommended to fortify an understanding of how to optimize cider production to improve consumer satisfaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); aroma; cider; volatile phenols; esters; acids; fermented beverages; terpenoids; authentication volatile organic compounds (VOCs); aroma; cider; volatile phenols; esters; acids; fermented beverages; terpenoids; authentication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, A.; Johnson, J.B.; Batley, R.; Lal, P.; Wakeling, L.; Naiker, M. Authentication Using Volatile Composition: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Volatile Profiles of Fourteen Queensland Ciders. Beverages 2021, 7, 28. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020028

AMA Style

Wilson A, Johnson JB, Batley R, Lal P, Wakeling L, Naiker M. Authentication Using Volatile Composition: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Volatile Profiles of Fourteen Queensland Ciders. Beverages. 2021; 7(2):28. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilson, Arron, Joel B. Johnson, Ryan Batley, Pawan Lal, Lara Wakeling, and Mani Naiker. 2021. "Authentication Using Volatile Composition: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Volatile Profiles of Fourteen Queensland Ciders" Beverages 7, no. 2: 28. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020028

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