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Beverages, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Winemaking generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is a bioresource of precious polyphenolic phytochemicals. The objective of the investigation was the development of an alternative, green extraction process for polyphenols, through integration of ultrasonication as a pretreatment stage and subsequent extraction with aqueous β-cyclodextrin. Polyphenol recovery from red grape pomace was significantly enhanced by ultrasonication pretreatment, and the use of β-cyclodextrin effectively boosted aqueous extraction with a low energetic barrier. The extract produced was enriched in catechin and quercetin, exhibiting increased antiradical activity. These findings highlighted the value of the process developed for targeted recovery of certain polyphenols and the preparation of task-specific extracts. View this paper.
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Article
Brewing Efficacy of Non-Conventional Saccharomyces Non-cerevisiae Yeasts
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030068 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Consumer demands for new sensory experiences have driven the research of unconventional yeasts in beer. While much research exists on the use of various common Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as well as non-Saccharomyces yeasts, there exists a gap in knowledge regarding other non- [...] Read more.
Consumer demands for new sensory experiences have driven the research of unconventional yeasts in beer. While much research exists on the use of various common Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as well as non-Saccharomyces yeasts, there exists a gap in knowledge regarding other non-cerevisiae Saccharomyces species in the fermentation of beer, in addition to S. pastorianus. Here, five distinct species of Saccharomyces from the UC Davis Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, as well as one interspecies hybrid from Fermentis, were chosen to ferment 40 L pilot-scale beers. S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus, S. bayanus, and S. uvarum yeasts were used to ferment wort in duplicate pairs, with one fermenter in each pair receiving 10 g/L dry-hop during fermentation. Analytical measurements were made each day of fermentation and compared to controls of SafAle™ US-05 and SafLager™ W 34/70 for commercial brewing parameters of interest. Finished beers were also analyzed for aroma, taste, and mouthfeel to determine the flavor of each yeast as it pertains to brewing potential. All beers exhibited spicy characteristics, likely from the presence of phenols; dry-hopping increased fruit notes while also increasing perceived bitterness and astringency. All of the species in this study displayed great brewing potential, and might be an ideal addition to beer depending on a brewery’s desire to experiment with flavor and willingness to bring a new yeast into their production environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Nanoencapsulated Essential Oils of Tasmannia lanceolata, Backhousia citriodora and Syzygium anisatum against Weak-Acid Resistant Zygosaccharomyces bailii in Clear Apple Juice
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030067 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 195
Abstract
The anti-yeast activity of oil-in-water encapsulated nanoemulsion containing individual or a combination of the three essential oils of Tasmanian pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata), lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), and anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum) against weak-acid resistant Zygosaccharomyces bailii [...] Read more.
The anti-yeast activity of oil-in-water encapsulated nanoemulsion containing individual or a combination of the three essential oils of Tasmanian pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata), lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), and anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum) against weak-acid resistant Zygosaccharomyces bailii in clear apple juice was investigated. The effectiveness of the shelf-life extension of Z. bailii-spiked (1 × 103 CFU/mL) clear apple juice was evaluated and compared between natural (essential oils) and synthetic (sodium benzoate) antimicrobial agents. Essential oils showed an immediate reduction in the Z. bailii cell population at day-0 and exerted a fungicidal activity at day-4 of storage, with no further noticeable growth at the end of the experiment (day-28). At lower concentrations, Tasmanian pepper leaf oil of 0.0025% had >6 log CFU/mL at day-12 of storage. For lemon myrtle essential oils, the yeast population reached >6 log CFU/mL at day-24 and day-20 for concentrations of 0.02% and 0.01%, respectively. The fungicidal activity of Tasmanian pepper leaf oil reduced from 0.005% to 0.0025% v/v when mixed at a ratio of 1:1 with anise myrtle oil. The results of the present study suggest that these three native Australian herbs have the potential to be used in the beverage industry by controlling Zygosaccharomyces bailii in clear apple juice products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition 2.0)
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Article
The Effect of Carbonation Level on the Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Muscadine and Fruit Wines
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030066 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Carbonation is a value-added process that can affect the mouthfeel, perception of volatile compounds, perception of sweetness, and ultimately if a consumer likes a wine. While much work has been completed on traditional varieties of sparkling wine, little research has been completed on [...] Read more.
Carbonation is a value-added process that can affect the mouthfeel, perception of volatile compounds, perception of sweetness, and ultimately if a consumer likes a wine. While much work has been completed on traditional varieties of sparkling wine, little research has been completed on niche market wines such as muscadine and fruit wines, which make up a large percentage of wines produced in the Southeastern USA. The objective of this research was to create and evaluate force-carbonated sparkling wine at five carbonation levels. Five finished wines from Florida wineries were obtained, then assessed for the sugar and alcohol content. Each wine was carbonated and then presented to consumers for sensory evaluation (n = 68–89 per evaluation). The questionnaire assessed the perceived sweetness, preference, liking, purchase intent, and comments of each sample. The data illustrated participants consistently preferred the carbonated samples over the noncarbonated sample. The data indicates a roughly even distribution of preference between the four carbonation levels. The data also showed statistically significant differences between the original wine and the carbonated varieties with respect to liking, preference, and purchase intent, which was supported by the consumer’s comments for the most preferred and least preferred samples. Overall, this research serves to impact the wine industry by identifying how carbonation levels affect the acceptability of niche wine varieties, and allows winemakers to successfully expand, diversify, and increase the product portfolio for wineries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Article
A Fast, Straightforward and Inexpensive Method for the Authentication of Baijiu Spirit Samples by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030065 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The Chinese spirit baijiu is currently the world’s bestselling spirit, with more than ten billion liters sold in 2018. This is a figure that puts its sales higher than whiskey, vodka, gin, and tequila combined. The multitude of baijiu varieties available in the [...] Read more.
The Chinese spirit baijiu is currently the world’s bestselling spirit, with more than ten billion liters sold in 2018. This is a figure that puts its sales higher than whiskey, vodka, gin, and tequila combined. The multitude of baijiu varieties available in the market differ in several ways ranging from aging to the traditional artisanship involved in producing the final spirit to several other features, including the rarity of the bottle. A result of these differences is a wide distribution of prices for the various baijiu products. Consequently, a single bottle of baijiu can cost anywhere from a few dollars, up to thousands of US dollars. The price differences among the various baijiu spirits necessitate the existence of reliable scientific methods that can efficiently differentiate and authenticate the qualities of baijiu spirits. In addition, the existence of such methods facilitates the prevention of counterfeit sales of the final product. Considering this, we introduce an analytical chemistry method that distinguishes amongst different baijiu spirits based on fluorescence spectroscopy. Its attributes include the low cost and convenience that allows analysis either before or while the spirit is in the market. Our work herein focuses on the analysis of thirty different varieties of baijiu spirits from six different distilleries from East Asia and North America by fluorescence emission spectroscopy, which is associated to the price of the product. For the analysis, we employed a HORIBA FLUOROLOG 3 (HORIBA—Jobin Yvon) spectrometer. Major advantages of this method include the low cost, as no consumables except a quartz reusable cuvette are required, the minimal waste, and finally the quick processing of data. Full article
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Article
TTB Labeling and Formula Processes: Evaluating Burden among Craft Brewers
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030064 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Previous research indicates that craft breweries experience difficulties with the Certificate of Labeling Approval (COLA) and formula approval processes established by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). This study evaluated the relationship between brewery characteristics and regulatory outcomes. Brewery characteristics [...] Read more.
Previous research indicates that craft breweries experience difficulties with the Certificate of Labeling Approval (COLA) and formula approval processes established by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). This study evaluated the relationship between brewery characteristics and regulatory outcomes. Brewery characteristics of interest were number of full-time personnel, permit age, production volume, regulatory submission volume, and resource utilization. The outcomes evaluated were resubmission frequency of COLA and formula submissions, expense burden, and information burden. The results indicate that correspondence with TTB officials decreases resubmission frequency of formula submissions, while volume of resources used during submission preparation is positively correlated with the resubmission frequency of COLA submissions. Regarding expense burden, advice from fellow brewers and coworkers decreases burden associated with formula submissions and COLA submissions, respectively. The results indicate that the COLA and formula processes are associated with substantial information burden and are significantly associated with certain brewery characteristics. Full article
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Article
Enhancement of Polyphenols Recovery from Rosa canina, Calendula officinalis and Castanea sativa Using Pulsed Electric Field
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030063 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The current study evaluates the Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) technique for the extraction of polyphenols from the plants Rosa canina, Calendulaofficinalis and Castanea sativa. These plants are traditionally used both for the preparation of therapeutic decoctions and the aromatization of [...] Read more.
The current study evaluates the Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) technique for the extraction of polyphenols from the plants Rosa canina, Calendulaofficinalis and Castanea sativa. These plants are traditionally used both for the preparation of therapeutic decoctions and the aromatization of beverages (alcoholic or not). Pulses of 10 μs duration were used to apply electric field intensities ranging from 1.2 to 2.0 kV cm−1. The period of the phenomenon was set to 1 ms, with a total extraction time of 20 min. The total polyphenol content as well as the identified polyphenolic compounds of the extracts were determined for monitoring and evaluation. To estimate the PEF effect, control extracts were prepared using the same process as PEF extracts but without the application of electric field. For all the three plant materials studied, the PEF technique appeared to be successful in increasing polyphenols extraction. The application of a moderate to high electric field, up to 1.4 kV cm−1, resulted in increased total and individual polyphenols recovery, reaching 63.79% and 84%, respectively, in the case of Rosa canina fruits. Full article
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Article
Dilution Method of Menthol Solutions Affects Subsequent Perceptual Thermal Responses during Passive Heat Exposure in Non-Heat Acclimated Participants
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030062 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Due to its volatility, the qualitative experience of menthol may be modulated by its preparation and combination with other compounds. One such method of preparation is dilution, with two dilution methods existing within the sport and exercise science literature, where menthol is used [...] Read more.
Due to its volatility, the qualitative experience of menthol may be modulated by its preparation and combination with other compounds. One such method of preparation is dilution, with two dilution methods existing within the sport and exercise science literature, where menthol is used to impart feelings of oral cooling and improve thermal comfort and sensation during heat exposure. This study compared these two dilution methods; one using a solvent the other using temperature, via a randomized counterbalanced repeated measures design (n = 12; Height: 174.0 ± 8.5 cm Mass: 73.4 ± 13.3 kg Age: 28.7 ± 8.4 y; two exposures to each solution) to assess the effect of solution and heat exposure, upon thermal comfort, thermal sensation and associated physiological parameters in non-heat acclimated participants. Thermal comfort was significantly affected by solution (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.017) and time (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.228), whereas thermal sensation was significantly affected by time only (p = 0.012; η2 = 0.133), as was tympanic temperature (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.277). Small to moderate clear differences between solutions at matched time points were also observed. These trends and effects suggest that, depending upon the dilution method employed, the resultant perceptual effects are likely impacted; this also likely depends upon the timing of menthol administration within a heat exposure session. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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Article
Analysis of Phytosterols Content in Italian-Standard Espresso Coffee
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030061 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
This study aims to assess for the first time the content of phytosterols (PS) in espresso coffee (EC) to deepen the knowledge about the phytochemicals and health potentials of coffee brews. PS were extracted by hot saponification from 14 EC samples produced with [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess for the first time the content of phytosterols (PS) in espresso coffee (EC) to deepen the knowledge about the phytochemicals and health potentials of coffee brews. PS were extracted by hot saponification from 14 EC samples produced with coffee originating from 13 coffee-producing countries. PS were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after derivatization. Among the detected PS, β-sitosterol (4.1–18.2 mg/L) was the most abundant followed by stigmasterol (1.1–4.9 mg/L), campesterol (0.9–4.7 mg/L), and cycloartenol (0.3–2.0 mg/L). Total PS fraction ranged from 6.5 mg/L to 30.0 mg/L with an average level of 15.7 ± 5.8 mg/L. Therefore, a standard cup of EC (25 mL) could provide 0.4 ± 0.1 mg of PS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Related Chemical Analysis)
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Review
Characterization of Dadih: Traditional Fermented Buffalo Milk of Minangkabau
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030060 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Dadih or dadiah is traditional fermented buffalo milk of Minangkabau, which occurs spontaneously. Dadih is commonly served as ampiang dadih, or other dishes. The microbiota found in dadih are dominated by lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts are also found. The lactic acid [...] Read more.
Dadih or dadiah is traditional fermented buffalo milk of Minangkabau, which occurs spontaneously. Dadih is commonly served as ampiang dadih, or other dishes. The microbiota found in dadih are dominated by lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts are also found. The lactic acid bacteria provide functional value, such as antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as being the source of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an anti-stress agent and folate. Nevertheless, many challenges were observed in dadih production, including the limitation of buffalo milk production due to decreasing populations of buffalo in the last two decades, unstandardized dadih production due to the spontaneous fermentation in natural bamboo tubes, and safety problems as no heat treatment is applied in the production of dadih. These problems impede the development of dadih production, thus is it important to improve buffalo cultivation through artificial insemination programs, using different types of milk and pasteurization processes in dadih production, and incubator development to accelerate the fermentation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Article
Integrated Green Process for the Extraction of Red Grape Pomace Antioxidant Polyphenols Using Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment and β-Cyclodextrin
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030059 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, the present investigation had as objective the development of an alternative, green extraction process for polyphenols, through integration of ultrasonication as a pretreatment stage, and subsequent extraction with aqueous β-cyclodextrin. Polyphenol recovery from red grape pomace (RGP) was shown to be significantly enhanced by ultrasonication pretreatment, and the use of β-cyclodextrin effectively boosted the aqueous extraction. Under optimized conditions, established by response surface methodology, the maximum yield in total polyphenols was 57.47 mg GAE g−1 dm, at 80 °C, requiring a barrier of 10.95 kJ mol−1. The extract produced was significantly enriched in catechin and quercetin, compared to the aqueous extract, exhibiting also increased antiradical activity. These findings highlighted the value of the process developed for targeted recovery of certain polyphenols and the preparation of task-specific extracts. Full article
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Communication
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Malt
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030058 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The kilning of malt occurs at different temperatures, depending on the desired color and aromas. Higher temperatures applied during kilning can be involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation in malt. PAHs are undesirable and designated as health hazards, it is important to [...] Read more.
The kilning of malt occurs at different temperatures, depending on the desired color and aromas. Higher temperatures applied during kilning can be involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation in malt. PAHs are undesirable and designated as health hazards, it is important to quantify and qualify them in different malts. Since the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) gave strict recommendations about PAHs in different foods, but omitted malt as a potential hazardous raw material that can cause health damage to beer consumers, the aim of this investigation was to assess the presence of 16 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Anl), acenaphthene (Ane), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phen), fluoranthene (Flt), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP)) in different, commercially available malts (amber, black, pilsner, and cara-120). The results showed that PAHs are present in different malts, with some in high amounts (BaA in black malt was 737 µg/kg). Minimal levels of BaA were detected in the amber malt, 60.53 µg/kg. The PAH4 (BaP, BaA, BbF, and Chry) sums are identical to the BaA concentrations in all malts and greatly exceed the EFSA prescribed levels for PAH4 in processed cereal-based foods (1 µg/kg). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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Article
The Effect of Dicarboxymethyl Cellulose on the Prevention of Protein Haze Formation on White Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030057 - 07 Aug 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Wine clarity is a critical aspect in the commercialization of white wines. The formation of wine haze can be attributed to the aggregation and precipitation of heat-unstable wine proteins. Bentonite fining is the commonly used method in winemaking for protein removal, but it [...] Read more.
Wine clarity is a critical aspect in the commercialization of white wines. The formation of wine haze can be attributed to the aggregation and precipitation of heat-unstable wine proteins. Bentonite fining is the commonly used method in winemaking for protein removal, but it is responsible for loss of wine volume and quality. Dicarboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) was developed as a potential alternative to bentonite. Water-insoluble DCMC was prepared via catalyzed heterogeneous etherification using sodium chloromalonate and potassium iodide. White wine fining trials were benchmarked with different dosages of DCMC against a bentonite. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was optimized for protein quantification. The samples underwent heat stability tests to evaluate wine turbidity before and after fining. Results show that DCMC successfully reduced the wine protein content and turbidity. DCMC produced heat-stable wines with dosages higher than 0.25 g/L. The innovative application of DCMC in the wine sector shows potential due to its ability to stabilize white wines while overcoming problems associated with bentonite, such as lees production and loss of wine, contributing to a more sustainable process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Article
Statistical Significant Differences between Aroma Profiles of Beer Brewed from Sorghum
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030056 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
There is currently an increased demand for foodstuffs that are classified as gluten-free including beer. Beer produced using gluten-free grains has a distinct flavor profile that differs greatly from that of beer produced from gluten-containing grains. The chemical difference between beers made from [...] Read more.
There is currently an increased demand for foodstuffs that are classified as gluten-free including beer. Beer produced using gluten-free grains has a distinct flavor profile that differs greatly from that of beer produced from gluten-containing grains. The chemical difference between beers made from these two different grain sources has been explored and some key differences have been identified. Here malt sources containing gluten (barley) and malt without gluten (sorghum) were used to determine which compounds are statistically different based upon their concentrations. A total of 14 (7 barley and 7 sorghum) small-batch beers were made from malt extract. The aroma profile was sampled using SPME with chemical separation and identification and quantification using GC-MS. As expected, the differences were not the result of unique compounds but compounds present in differing amounts. A total of 17 compounds were found to be present in beer brewed from both extracts but in amounts that were highly significantly different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
Article
Transcriptomic Response of L. monocytogenes to Co-Culture with S. cerevisiae
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030055 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the transcriptomic response of L. monocytogenes during co-culture with three S. cerevisiae strains. For this purpose, BHI broth was inoculated with 7 log CFU·mL−1 L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain LQC 15257, isolated [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to assess the transcriptomic response of L. monocytogenes during co-culture with three S. cerevisiae strains. For this purpose, BHI broth was inoculated with 7 log CFU·mL−1 L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain LQC 15257, isolated from a strawberry sample and 4 log CFU·mL−1 S. cerevisiae strains Y32, Y34 and Y37, isolated from spontaneous olive fermentation. Sampling took place after 24 and 48 h incubation at 5 and 20 °C. RNA was extracted, stabilized and the transcription of virulence associated genes prfA, sigB, hly, plcA, plcB, inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, was assessed by RT-qPCR. Co-culture with the yeast strains mostly affected the transcription of sigB and inlJ, the upregulation of which during growth at 5 °C for 24 h, reached 10.13 and 9.76 log2(fold change), respectively. Similarly, the effect that incubation time had on the relative transcription of the genes under study was dependent on the co-cultivating yeast strain. On the other hand, the effect of the yeast strain was less pronounced when the relative transcription of the genes under study was assessed between 20 °C and 5 °C. In that case, incubation temperature seemed to have an important effect since, in the 79.2% of the samples analyzed, upregulation was evident, irrespective of yeast strain presence. These results highlight the complex trophic relationships that take place during co-existence between L. monocytogenes and S. cerevisiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Article
Anti-Platelet Properties of Apple Must/Skin Yeasts and of Their Fermented Apple Cider Products
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030054 - 01 Aug 2021
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Alcoholic beverages like apple cider are considered functional beverages with several health benefits, when consumed in moderation, which are mainly attributed to their microbiota and the plethora of their bioactive compounds. Among them, bio-functional polar lipids (PL) have recently been found in apple [...] Read more.
Alcoholic beverages like apple cider are considered functional beverages with several health benefits, when consumed in moderation, which are mainly attributed to their microbiota and the plethora of their bioactive compounds. Among them, bio-functional polar lipids (PL) have recently been found in apple cider, which despite low quantities, have exhibited strong anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties, while fermentation seems to affect the functionality of apple cider’s PL bioactives. The aim of the present study was to elaborate yeast strains isolated from the complex mixtures of apple surface and must yeasts for evaluating their effects on the anti-platelet functional properties of PL bioactives from their final fermented apple cider products. First, bio-functional PL were extracted and separated from the biomass of the different isolated apple surface/must yeast strains, and were further assessed for their anti-platelet potency against human platelet aggregation induced by the potent inflammatory and thrombotic mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), or by a classic platelet agonist like adenosine diphopshate (ADP). Novel functional apple ciders were then produced from the fermentation of apple juice by elaborating the most bioactive and resilient yeast strains isolated from the apple must with optimum fermentation properties. PL bioactives extracted from these novel apple cider products were also further assessed for their anti-platelet properties against both the PAF and ADP pathways of human platelet aggregation. These novel cider products were found to contain PL bioactives with lower IC50 values (~40 μg) and thus increased anti-platelet potency against platelet aggregation induced by PAF and ADP. GC-MS analysis of the PL bioactives extracted from these novel apple ciders showed that apple cider PL bioactives are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and the omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA), with favorably lower levels for their omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio, which further support the observed strong anti-platelet properties putative anti-inflammatory potency for the apple cider PL bioactives. However, further studies are needed in order to elucidate and fully characterize the apple yeast strains that can be utilized for increasing the anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and cardioprotective functional properties of their fermented apple cider products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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A Modified Brewing Procedure Informed by the Enzymatic Profiles of Gluten-Free Malts Significantly Improves Fermentable Sugar Generation in Gluten-Free Brewing
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030053 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The mashing step underpins the brewing process, during which the endogenous amylolytic enzymes in the malt, chiefly β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase, act concurrently to rapidly hydrolyze malt starch to fermentable sugars. With barley malts, the mashing step is relatively straightforward, due in [...] Read more.
The mashing step underpins the brewing process, during which the endogenous amylolytic enzymes in the malt, chiefly β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase, act concurrently to rapidly hydrolyze malt starch to fermentable sugars. With barley malts, the mashing step is relatively straightforward, due in part to malted barley’s high enzyme activity, enzyme thermostabilities, and gelatinization properties. However, barley beers also contain gluten and individuals with celiac disease or other gluten intolerances should avoid consuming these beers. Producing gluten-free beer from gluten-free malts is difficult, generally because gluten-free malts have lower enzyme activities. Strategies to produce gluten-free beers commonly rely on exogenous enzymes to perform the hydrolysis. In this study, it was determined that the pH optima of the enzymes from gluten-free malts correspond to regions already typically targeted for barley mashes, but that a lower mashing temperature was required as the enzymes exhibited low thermostability at common mashing temperatures. The ExGM decoction mashing procedure was developed to retain enzyme activity, but ensure starch gelatinization, and demonstrates a modified brewing procedure using gluten-free malts, or a combination of malts with sub-optimal enzyme profiles, that produces high fermentable sugar concentrations. This study demonstrates that gluten-free malts can produce high fermentable sugar concentrations without requiring enzyme supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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Article
Detection of Red Wine Faults over Time with Flash Profiling and the Electronic Tongue
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030052 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Wine faults, often caused by spoilage microorganisms, are considered negative sensory attributes, and may result in substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to use the electronic tongue (e-tongue) and flash sensory profiling (FP) to evaluate changes in red wine over [...] Read more.
Wine faults, often caused by spoilage microorganisms, are considered negative sensory attributes, and may result in substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to use the electronic tongue (e-tongue) and flash sensory profiling (FP) to evaluate changes in red wine over time due to the presence of different spoilage microorganisms. Merlot wine was inoculated with one of the following microorganisms: Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus parvulus, or Acetobacter pasteurianus. These wines were analyzed weekly until Day 42 using the e-tongue and FP, with microbial plate counts. Over time, both FP and e-tongue differentiated the wines. The e-tongue showed a low discrimination among microorganisms up to Day 14 of storage. However, at Day 21 and continuing to Day 42, the e-tongue discriminated among the samples with a discrimination index of 91. From the sensory FP data, assessors discriminated among the wines starting at Day 28. Non-spoilage terms were used to describe the wines at significantly higher frequency for all time points until Day 42, at which point the use of spoilage terms was significantly higher (p < 0.05). These results suggest that application of these novel techniques may be the key to detecting and limiting financial losses associated with wine faults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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Article
Application of Vine-Shoot Chips during Winemaking and Aging of Malbec and Bonarda Wines
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030051 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 692
Abstract
The growing demand in recent years for sustainable wine production has led to the management of waste and by-products. Among them, vine-shoots could be used as additives comparable to the oak fragments widely employed in enology. This work analyzes the feasibility of applying [...] Read more.
The growing demand in recent years for sustainable wine production has led to the management of waste and by-products. Among them, vine-shoots could be used as additives comparable to the oak fragments widely employed in enology. This work analyzes the feasibility of applying vine-shoot chips during winemaking and the aging of Malbec and Bonarda wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and evaluates their chemical and sensory impact. Toasted (CHT) and untoasted (CHWT) vine-shoot chips obtained from a Bonarda vineyard were added in Malbec and Bonarda grapes during winemaking (Experiment A): C, control; CHWT, 12 g/L; CHT, 12 g/L. Furthermore, the same treatments were applied during aging (1M, 30 days; 2M, 60 days; 4M, 120 days) to the finished wines under controlled conditions (Experiment B). The impact of vine-shoot chips during winemaking was different between varieties. For Malbec alone, CHT caused a significant decrease in tannins, anthocyanins, and polymeric pigments, and a modification of wine color. During aging, CHWT and CHT had an impact mainly at the sensory level, increasing the wine’s complexity in terms of aromatic attributes and mouthfeel. In conclusion, the proposed technology could be a simple and economical tool for red wine production of high chemical and organoleptic quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Wood)
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Article
Towards Accelerated Autolysis? Dynamics of Phenolics, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids in Response to Novel Treatments and during Ageing of Sparkling Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030050 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Premium sparkling wine produced by the traditional method (analogous to the French méthode champenoise) is characterised by the development of aged wine character as a result of a second fermentation in the bottle with lees contact and lengthy ageing. Treatments (microwave, ultrasound, [...] Read more.
Premium sparkling wine produced by the traditional method (analogous to the French méthode champenoise) is characterised by the development of aged wine character as a result of a second fermentation in the bottle with lees contact and lengthy ageing. Treatments (microwave, ultrasound, or β-glucanase enzymes) were applied to disrupt the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and added to the tirage liquor for the second fermentation of Chardonnay-Pinot Noir base wine cuvée and compared to a control, to assess effects on the release of phenolics, proteins, amino acids, and lipids at 6, 12 and 18 months post-tirage. General responses to wine ageing included a 60% increase in the total phenolic content of older sparkling wines relative to younger wines and an increase in protein concentration from 6 to 12 months bottle age. Microwave and β-glucanase enzyme treatments of yeast during tirage preparation were associated with a 10% increase in total free amino acid concentration and a 10% increase in proline concentration at 18 months bottle age, compared to control and ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, microwave treatment was associated with elevated asparagine content in wine at 18 months bottle age, relative to the control and the other wines. The β-glucanase enzyme and ultrasound treatments were associated with significant accumulation of total lipids, which were driven by 2-fold increases in the phospholipid and monoacylglycerol components in wine at 18 months bottle age and, furthermore, the microwave treatment was associated with elevated triacylglycerol at 18 months bottle age. This study demonstrates that the use of yeast treatments at the tirage stage of sparkling wine production presents an opportunity to manipulate wine composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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Article
Volatile and Non-Volatile Characterization of White and Rosé Wines from Different Spanish Protected Designations of Origin
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030049 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The quality of wines has often been associated with their geographical area of production, as well as the grape variety used in their elaboration. Many research studies have been carried out to characterize and differentiate between red wines labeled with Protected Designation of [...] Read more.
The quality of wines has often been associated with their geographical area of production, as well as the grape variety used in their elaboration. Many research studies have been carried out to characterize and differentiate between red wines labeled with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) from different geographical areas, but very few have been carried out on white and rosé wines. The objective of this work was to characterize white and rosé PDO wines from different geographical areas of Spain very close to each other elaborated with different grape varieties and select the variables that most contribute to their differentiation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used as statistical methods. The ethanol content was the nonvolatile variable that most contributed to differentiating between some of the white and rosé wines according to their PDO. The white wines from RD (Ribera del Duero) and BI (Bierzo) were characterized by a high terpenic content (floral notes) while the wines from RU (Rueda), TO (Toro) and CI (Cigales)by a high content of ethyl esters and alcohol acetates (fruity aromas). The rosé wines elaborated with the Mencía grape variety from BI were characterized by their highest polysaccharidic content, which could have a positive sensory effect on the mouthfeel. The rosé wines from CI were characterized by their volatile profile complexity, having the highest content of volatile compounds from the oak wood, terpenes and C6 alcohols which provide pleasant woody, floral and herbaceous aromas. On the contrary, the RD wines were richest in alcohol acetates responsible for fruity aromas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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Review
Kefir as a Functional Beverage Gaining Momentum towards Its Health Promoting Attributes
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030048 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
The consumption of fermented foods posing health-promoting attributes is a rising global trend. In this manner, fermented dairy products represent a significant subcategory of functional foods with established positive health benefits. Likewise, kefir—a fermented milk product manufactured from kefir grains—has been reported by [...] Read more.
The consumption of fermented foods posing health-promoting attributes is a rising global trend. In this manner, fermented dairy products represent a significant subcategory of functional foods with established positive health benefits. Likewise, kefir—a fermented milk product manufactured from kefir grains—has been reported by many studies to be a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion. Existing research data link regular kefir consumption with a wide range of health-promoting attributes, and more recent findings support the link between kefir’s probiotic strains and its bio-functional metabolites in the enhancement of the immune system, providing significant antiviral effects. Although it has been consumed for thousands of years, kefir has recently gained popularity in relation to novel biotechnological applications, with different fermentation substrates being tested as non-dairy functional beverages. The present review focuses on the microbiological composition of kefir and highlights novel applications associated with its fermentation capacity. Future prospects relating to kefir’s capacity for disease prevention are also addressed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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Article
Effect of Immobilization Support and Fermentation Temperature on Beer and Fermented Milk Aroma Profiles
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030047 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
The food industry increasingly produces wastes like coconut and peanut shells. In addition, low temperature fermentation is always a challenge. Therefore, in the present study, a sustainable exploitation of these by-products is proposed through the production of carriers for immobilized cells of yeast [...] Read more.
The food industry increasingly produces wastes like coconut and peanut shells. In addition, low temperature fermentation is always a challenge. Therefore, in the present study, a sustainable exploitation of these by-products is proposed through the production of carriers for immobilized cells of yeast and bacteria. The immobilized cells, after thermally drying, were evaluated for their efficiency in beer and milk fermentations respectively, in various fermentation temperatures and storage for up to three months. The beers and fermented milks were evaluated for their aroma and the results showed products of high quality. Coconut shells resulted in better products with increased fruity ester content in fermented milks and reduced dimethyl sulfite and vicinal diketones and increased ratio of esters to alcohol in beers. These results reveal the possibilities of immobilized cells in coconut and peanut shells for application in food industry, however, more research is needed to evaluate their effect on sensory characteristics and possible prebiotic and probiotic potential especially in the case of fermented milks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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Article
Adapting Polarized Projective Mapping to Investigate Fruitiness Aroma Perception of White Wines from Oregon
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030046 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Fruitiness is a highly desirable aroma quality in white wines. This study aimed to investigate the fruitiness aroma perception of white wines using a rapid sensory method and to compare the sensory maps obtained from wine experts and trained consumers. A polarized projective [...] Read more.
Fruitiness is a highly desirable aroma quality in white wines. This study aimed to investigate the fruitiness aroma perception of white wines using a rapid sensory method and to compare the sensory maps obtained from wine experts and trained consumers. A polarized projective mapping (PPM) method was adapted by using fruit standards as fixed poles. Twenty-one white wines were selected for this study. Ten wine experts and twelve trained consumers participated in the adapted PPM followed by ultra-flash profiling (UFP). While experts and trained consumers used different poles to characterize the Pinot Gris and Viogniers, both panels used the stone fruit pole for the Chardonnays. UFP revealed that the Pinot Gris and Viognier samples presented fruity and floral aromas and most Chardonnay wines presented non-fruity aromas. The white wines investigated presented a wide range of fruity aromas. The use of aroma standards instead of products as poles seems to be a reliable alternative to investigate fruitiness in white wines. This study helped us to understand the predominant aromas of varietal white wines from Oregon and emphasized the importance of adapting sensory methods to investigate fruitiness perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Article
Use of Pulsed Electric Field as a Low-Temperature and High-Performance “Green” Extraction Technique for the Recovery of High Added Value Compounds from Olive Leaves
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030045 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Olive leaves (OLL), an agricultural waste by-product, are considered a significant bioresource of polyphenols, known as bioactive compounds. This study evaluates the pulsed electric field (PEF) technique for the extraction of polyphenols from OLL. The study parameters included a series of “green” solvents [...] Read more.
Olive leaves (OLL), an agricultural waste by-product, are considered a significant bioresource of polyphenols, known as bioactive compounds. This study evaluates the pulsed electric field (PEF) technique for the extraction of polyphenols from OLL. The study parameters included a series of “green” solvents (ethanol, water as well as mixtures of them at a 25% step gradient) and different input values for the pulse duration of PEF. The phytochemical extraction degree was evaluated using total phenol concentration (Folin–Ciocalteu method) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, while the antioxidant activity was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained from the PEF extracts were compared with those of the extracts produced without the PEF application. The highest PEF effect was observed for aqueous ethanol, 25% v/v, using a pulse duration of 10 μs. The increase in the total polyphenols reached 31.85%, while the increase in the specific metabolites reached 265.67%. The recovery in polyphenols was found to depend on the solvent, the pulse duration of treatment and the structure of the metabolites extracted. Full article
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Article
Amelioration of Smoke Taint in Cabernet Sauvignon Wine via Post-Harvest Ozonation of Grapes
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030044 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Strategies that mitigate the negative effects of vineyard exposure to smoke on wine composition and sensory properties are needed to address the recurring incidence of bushfires in or near wine regions. Recent research demonstrated the potential for post-harvest ozonation of moderately smoke-exposed grapes [...] Read more.
Strategies that mitigate the negative effects of vineyard exposure to smoke on wine composition and sensory properties are needed to address the recurring incidence of bushfires in or near wine regions. Recent research demonstrated the potential for post-harvest ozonation of moderately smoke-exposed grapes to reduce both the concentration of smoke taint marker compounds (i.e., volatile phenols and their glycosides) and the perceived intensity of smoke taint in wine, depending on the dose and duration of ozone treatment. The current study further evaluated the efficacy of ozonation as a method for the amelioration of smoke taint in wine by comparing the chemical and sensory consequences of post-harvest ozonation (at 1 ppm for 24 h) of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes following grapevine exposure to dense smoke, i.e., ozone treatment of more heavily tainted grapes. Ozonation again yielded significant reductions in the concentration of free and glycosylated volatile phenols—up to 25% and 30%, respectively. However, although the intensities of smoke-related sensory attributes were generally lower in wines made with smoke-exposed grapes that were ozonated (compared to wines made with smoke-exposed grapes that were not ozonated), the results were not statistically significant. This suggests that the efficacy of ozone treatment depends on the extent to which grapes have been tainted by smoke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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Article
Beverages Containing Plant-Derived Polyphenols Inhibit Growth and Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans and Children’s Supragingival Plaque Bacteria
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030043 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Objectives: Polyphenols in edible berries and tea plant (Camellia sinensis) suppressed virulence factors of oral pathogens. We investigated if the commercially marketed plant polyphenols-containing beverages inhibited growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and children’s dental plaque. Methods: Supragingival plaque collected [...] Read more.
Objectives: Polyphenols in edible berries and tea plant (Camellia sinensis) suppressed virulence factors of oral pathogens. We investigated if the commercially marketed plant polyphenols-containing beverages inhibited growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and children’s dental plaque. Methods: Supragingival plaque collected from 16 children (7–11 years) were suspended in TSB for testing. Test beverages included 26 marketed packaged teas, ready-to-drink bottled raspberry flavored teas and cranberry juice cocktails with and without added sugars. Their effects on in vitro growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and children’s plaque bacteria were determined after 24–48 h at 37 °C anaerobically in CDM with or without sucrose. Results: Brewed infusions from black, green and cinnamon or raspberry flavored teas bags inhibited growth and biofilm formation of children’s plaque bacteria. Compared to controls, bottled raspberry flavored teas and cranberry juice cocktails significantly inhibited growth and biofilm formation of test bacteria. Added sugar did not significantly impact the inhibition (p > 0.05). Biofilms formed in these beverages were loosely attached and easily dislodged from surfaces. Conclusions: Beverages rich in antimicrobial plant polyphenols reduce plaque adherence, may benefit oral health and are preferred over other sugary beverages. The concept of oral diseases prevention using natural foods/diet is innovative, practical and acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teas and Herbal Teas: Bioactive Compounds and Functionalisations)
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