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Beverages, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The elemental composition is an excellent data source to understand some oenological practices and quality aspects of musts, wines, and sparkling wines. The concentrations of elements such as K, Cu, Ca, S, and Mg, determined by atomic spectroscopies, demonstrate interesting patterns dealing with the vinification stages and product qualities. Chemometric methods for data analysis seem to be essential to extract the underlying information. View this paper
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Article
Selection of Microbial Targets for Treatments to Preserve Fresh Carrot Juice
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010017 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Fresh carrot juice presents nutritional and organoleptic qualities which have to be preserved. However, it is a fast perishable beverage, and its low-acidic pH promotes the development of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. This study aims to assess the modification and variability of [...] Read more.
Fresh carrot juice presents nutritional and organoleptic qualities which have to be preserved. However, it is a fast perishable beverage, and its low-acidic pH promotes the development of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. This study aims to assess the modification and variability of physicochemical and microbial indicators during storage of carrot juice, and to isolate and select microorganisms to be used as promoters of spoilage to quantify the effect of preservation treatments. To achieve that, 10 batches of carrot Daucus carota cv. Maestro juice were prepared independently, stored up to 14 days at 4 °C and analyzed. Volatile compound composition differed mainly according to the analyzed batch. During storage, an increase of the content of ethanol, ethyl acetate or 2-methoxyphenol, which are produced by different microorganisms, was noticed. Isolation of bacteria revealed Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria, some of them provoking odor modification of carrot juice at 4 °C. Assays in carrot juice with isolated yeasts and molds showed the ability of Meyerozyma guillermondii to induce texture modification and some isolates, e.g., Pichia guillermondii, resulted in gas production. Selected isolates able to induce spoilage are useful to test preservative treatments of fresh carrot juice under controlled conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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Article
The Iconisation of Yeast Spreads—Love Them or Hate Them
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010016 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1215
Abstract
The production of beer yields a number of by-product streams, with spent brewers’ yeast being the second most abundant in volume. The high nutritional value of spent yeast has seen a large proportion of spent brewers’ yeast being used for both food and [...] Read more.
The production of beer yields a number of by-product streams, with spent brewers’ yeast being the second most abundant in volume. The high nutritional value of spent yeast has seen a large proportion of spent brewers’ yeast being used for both food and feed purposes. One of the uses of spent brewers’ yeast for human consumption has been the production of yeast spreads, which came onto the market in the early 20th century, first in the United Kingdom and shortly thereafter in the commonwealth dominions, especially Australia and New Zealand. In this research we investigated the national status of yeast spreads in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. We show that a brewery by-product such as spent brewers’ yeast is more than a mere novel utilisation of a waste stream but have become inherently associated with national identities of these countries to such an extent that some brands have become iconicised. Furthermore, some yeast spread brands have become a symbol of (inter)national polarisation, purely based on its initial sensorial characterisation. Full article
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Review
Beer Quality Evaluation—A Sensory Aspect
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010015 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
The world’s beer market has never been more diverse. Most beers are produced in modern and technologically advanced breweries that use high quality raw materials, thus resulting in minor differences of physical–chemical properties between various beers (of the same style). However, consumers focus [...] Read more.
The world’s beer market has never been more diverse. Most beers are produced in modern and technologically advanced breweries that use high quality raw materials, thus resulting in minor differences of physical–chemical properties between various beers (of the same style). However, consumers focus on constant quality and sensory properties of their chosen beer. Sensory evaluation is not an easy task and involves flexible methods for determination of differences and changes between beers. It is commonly used in breweries to provide constant quality of finished products, but also to ensure the quality of different raw materials (water, malt, hops) and to minimize the influence of the production process on final quality of beer. Full article
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Editorial
Microbial Diversity and Safety in Fermented Beverages
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010014 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
For thousands of years, humans have exploited the natural process of fermentation of various foods to preserve them, and to enjoy the changes in the sensory characteristics that could be produced [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
Article
Effect of Extraction Methodology on the Phytochemical Composition for Camelia sinensis “Powdered Tea Extracts” from Different Provenances
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010013 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
(1) Background: beverages based on extracts from Camellia sinensis are popular worldwide. Due to an increasing number of processed teas on the market, there is a need to develop unified classification standards based on chemical analysis. Meanwhile, phytochemical characterizations are mainly performed on [...] Read more.
(1) Background: beverages based on extracts from Camellia sinensis are popular worldwide. Due to an increasing number of processed teas on the market, there is a need to develop unified classification standards based on chemical analysis. Meanwhile, phytochemical characterizations are mainly performed on tea samples from China (~80%). Hence, data on teas of other provenances is recommended. (2) Methods: in the present investigation, we characterized lyophilised extracts obtained by infusion, maceration and methanolic extraction derived from tea samples from China, Japan, Sri Lanka and Portugal by phytochemistry (catechins, oxyaromatic acids, flavonols, alkaloids and theanine). The real benefits of drinking the tea were analysed based on the bioavailability of the determined phytochemicals. (3) Results: the infusions revealed the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) amounts, while methanolic extracts yielded the lowest. The correlation matrix indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds were similar in the infusions and methanolic samples, while extractions made by maceration were significantly different. The differences could be partially explained by the different amounts of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and gallic acids (GA). The catechin percentages were significantly lower in the macerations, especially the quantity of EGCG decreases by 4- to 5-fold after this process. (4) Conclusions: the results highlight the importance of the processing methodology to obtain “instant tea”; the composition of the extracts obtained with the same methodology is not significantly affected by the provenance of the tea. However, attention should be drawn to the specificities of the Japanese samples (the tea analysed in the present work was of Sencha quality). In contrast, the extraction methodology significantly affects the phytochemical composition, especially concerning the content of polyphenols. As such, our results indicate that instant tea classification based on chemical composition is sensible, but there is a need for a standard extraction methodology, namely concerning the temperature and time of contact of the tea leaves with the extraction solvent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teas and Herbal Teas: Bioactive Compounds and Functionalisations)
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Review
Nutraceutical and Functional Properties of Camelids’ Milk
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010012 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
In most areas of the world, camelids are considered exotic animals, living only in zoological gardens. Additionally, considering the original lands where they were previously bred with specific economic and social aims, today it is possible to detect a reduction in their total [...] Read more.
In most areas of the world, camelids are considered exotic animals, living only in zoological gardens. Additionally, considering the original lands where they were previously bred with specific economic and social aims, today it is possible to detect a reduction in their total numbers. Typically bred as working animals for goods transportation in desert regions, and as a source of meat and milk, in recent years, camels have been dismissed due to the construction of new roads for motor vehicles, the migration of nomadic populations from deserts to urban zones, and the choice of some autochthonous bovine breeds as sources of meat and milk. The decline in camelids heads seems irreversible. Camels should be considered a valid source of food in marginal areas; the peculiar quality parameters of their milk, showing the proper characteristics for the use of this milk in human nutrition, can justify the choice for breeding them, rather than considering camels only as objects of amusement. Full article
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Article
Does Knowledge of Wine Affect Consumers’ Wine Purchase Behavior in Restaurants? An Application of Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (ETPB)
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010011 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Wine and dine-in restaurants have been nonspecial for consumers and increasingly popular. This study investigated consumers’ wine purchase behaviors by applying the extended theory of planned behavior (ETPB) and consumer knowledge. This study used a survey method to collect the data. The study [...] Read more.
Wine and dine-in restaurants have been nonspecial for consumers and increasingly popular. This study investigated consumers’ wine purchase behaviors by applying the extended theory of planned behavior (ETPB) and consumer knowledge. This study used a survey method to collect the data. The study measured wine consumption behaviors and understanding. We divided respondents based on their subjective and objective knowledge of wine and then added an extended variable to the model. We analyzed the data with descriptive analysis, correlations, exploratory factor analysis, ANOVA, and multiple regression. Results of exploratory factor analysis extracted attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and subjective knowledge. Results of regression showed that attitude, PBC, and subjective and objective knowledge affected consumers’ behavioral intention to purchase wine at a restaurant while the subjective norm showed no significance. This study applied the extended theory of planned behavior to analyze consumers’ subjective and objective knowledge in investigating their wine consumption behaviors. Results of this study suggest that consumers’ consumption of wine at restaurants is not a special occasion. The consumer’s attitude toward wine significantly impacted their decision to purchase wine at a restaurant. In addition, subjective knowledge showed more impact on behavioral intention than objective knowledge. Full article
Review
Historical and Heritage Sustainability for the Revival of Ancient Wine-Making Techniques and Wine Styles
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010010 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to provide a general description of ancient winemaking techniques and wine styles that were most lauded in antiquity, in support of their revival and dissemination today. From the first fully excavated winery, dating from the late fifth [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to provide a general description of ancient winemaking techniques and wine styles that were most lauded in antiquity, in support of their revival and dissemination today. From the first fully excavated winery, dating from the late fifth to the early fourth millennium BC, the gentle crushing of grapes by foot and the probable absence of maceration indicate that most wines were made with the aim of reducing astringency. The oxidative nature of winemaking would have resulted in rapid browning, so that wines made from red grapes would have had a similar color to those made from white grapes after being aged in clay vats for several years. The difficulty in preventing the wine surface contact with the air would have resulted in biological ageing under the yeast pellicle being a common occurrence. This phenomenon was not considered a flaw, but a characteristic feature of highly prized wines. Dried grapes were used to make sweet wines, which were also highly prized, therefore justifying the construction of dedicated facilities. The addition of boiled juices, salt, resins, mixtures of herbs, spices, fruit juices, flowers, or honey to the wines would have increased their taste pleasantness while improving their preservability and medicinal properties. Indeed, today’s preference for flavored wines with a soft mouthfeel seems to have been representative of the ancient elite consumers. Overall, the technical interpretation of winemaking described in this review will provide solid historical support for the current rebirth of ancient production methods, particularly those using pottery vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Article
Strontium Isotope Systematics of Tenerife Wines (Canary Islands): Tracing Provenance in Ocean Island Terroir
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010009 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
The production of fraudulent goods remains widespread and economically damaging. The high value of the wine industry makes it particularly vulnerable, and a number of geochemical methods have been developed to ensure traceability and identification of origin. Here, strontium (Sr) isotope data on [...] Read more.
The production of fraudulent goods remains widespread and economically damaging. The high value of the wine industry makes it particularly vulnerable, and a number of geochemical methods have been developed to ensure traceability and identification of origin. Here, strontium (Sr) isotope data on wines from five defined regions in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) show that the young volcanic geology imparts a clearly identifiable low 87Sr/86Sr signature (<0.7072). These values discriminate Tenerife wines from mainland Spanish and continental European produce, as these are much more radiogenic in general. However, unlike continental wine regions, wines from Tenerife show small but ubiquitous enrichments in 87Sr/86Sr above what is expected in the soils. Bentonite addition has not affected the 87Sr/86Sr signatures, with white wines at lower Sr concentrations than red wines in all regions. A number of natural contributions to the terroir are evaluated in relation to Tenerife’s unique combination of geology and geography. Atmospheric precipitation (rainfall) is likely a dominant influence on Sr isotope systematics in northern Denominación de Origen regions, and evaporation may play a role in buffering signatures in southern regions. Other natural additions of 87Sr are not precluded at a local scale, given the large range in climatic conditions of island terroir and known input of mineral dust from Africa. Despite natural explanations affecting the overall small shift observed, there are clear outliers with considerably higher 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentration. This confirms the utility of Sr isotope systematics for oceanic-island viticulture and demonstrates the use of young volcanic soils for tracing natural inputs that may be masked in other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Review
Application of Water Treated with Low-Temperature Low-Pressure Glow Plasma (LPGP) in Various Industries
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010008 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Plasma processing is now a key technology across the world, and nonthermal low-temperature plasmas are being increasingly used. This situation can be explained by a rapidly growing interest in the optimization of existing methods, as well as the development of new ones. Over [...] Read more.
Plasma processing is now a key technology across the world, and nonthermal low-temperature plasmas are being increasingly used. This situation can be explained by a rapidly growing interest in the optimization of existing methods, as well as the development of new ones. Over the last few years, the production of plasma-treated water (PTW) by low-temperature low-pressure glow plasma (LPGP) under an atmosphere of various gases has been increasingly gaining in popularity. Research has been conducted on producing plasma-treated water in the presence of air, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and methane. All the obtained results show that the changed physicochemical properties of the water depend on the type of gas used and the duration of the plasma treatment. New research is emerging on the possibility of using this water in plant breeding, animal husbandry, cosmetology, medicine, and food. For the first time, plasma-treated water has also been tested for use in the brewing industry at the raw material preparation stage. The results obtained in all branches of science are very promising, contributing to the growing interest in plasma-treated water within the scientific community. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Beverages in 2021
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010007 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
A Rapid HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Organic Acids and Furans: Food Applications
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010006 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Concerns over the potential adulteration of commercially produced foods give rise to a requirement for a simple and fast analytical method capable of quantifying potential adulterants. This work demonstrates a simple HPLC method tailored to detect major organic acids and furans within ingredients [...] Read more.
Concerns over the potential adulteration of commercially produced foods give rise to a requirement for a simple and fast analytical method capable of quantifying potential adulterants. This work demonstrates a simple HPLC method tailored to detect major organic acids and furans within ingredients in commercial food products, for example, pomegranate molasses, balsamic vinegar, and apple cider vinegar. The relative importance of this method is in its simplicity and its use of an environmentally friendly aqueous mobile phase under isocratic conditions, providing results in a less than 20 min runtime. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acclaim® OA, 5 µm, 120 Å (4.0 × 250 mm) column; a UV-DAD detector set at 210 nm; and a 200 mM Na2SO4 mobile phase with 0.55 mL/L methanosulfonic acid as a pH modifier. The method was then validated by quantifying the concentration of acetic acid, formic acid, citric acid, and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) in pomegranate molasses, balsamic vinegar, and apple cider vinegar commercial products. The concentration of acetic acid and HMF in balsamic vinegar was 80.380 mg/mL (±1.272 mg/mL) and 2.153 mg/mL (±0.021 mg/mL), respectively. The apple cider vinegar was composed only of acetic acid with a concentration of 44.139 mg/mL (±0.053 mg/mL). The concentrations of citric acid and HMF were 123.425 mg/mL (±2.502 mg/mL) and 11.382 mg/mL (±0.582 mg/mL), respectively, in pomegranate molasses. Furthermore, this method is also capable of determining various organic acids and furans in biomass: levulinic acid, formic acid, furfurals, diformylfuran, and gamma-valerolactone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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Article
Biocide Use in the Beverage Industry: Consumers’ Knowledge and Label Preferences Relating to the Need and Usefulness of Biocides with Particular Reference to Dairy Beverage Products in New Zealand and China
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010005 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Biocides, in the form of sanitisers and disinfectants, are used extensively to reduce the risk of microbial contamination to beverage products and to ensure the safety of potable water used in processing. To better understand consumers’ perceptions of biocide use and to explore [...] Read more.
Biocides, in the form of sanitisers and disinfectants, are used extensively to reduce the risk of microbial contamination to beverage products and to ensure the safety of potable water used in processing. To better understand consumers’ perceptions of biocide use and to explore messaging strategies regarding their importance to ensure product safety, eight focus groups were conducted in New Zealand (n = 4) and China (n = 4). Consumers generally did not understand why or how biocides were used. In both countries, their most trustworthy source of information on biocide use was government sources. New Zealand and Chinese participants did not like the word “biocide” mentioned on labels due to its perceived negative connotations. Interestingly, acceptance for the word was higher if the phrase “environmentally friendly” was simultaneously communicated. The findings from this study have provided the beverage industry with guidance on how best to initiate conversations with consumers on the use of biocides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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Article
Effect of Production Technique on Pilsner-Style Non-Alcoholic Beer (NAB) Chemistry and Flavor
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010004 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, [...] Read more.
The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, NABs produced by restricted fermentations were the most worty, thick, and sweet, whereas NABs that were physically dealcoholized had the lowest taste/aroma intensities and were the sourest, most thin, and least sweet. Interestingly, the method of dealcoholization had a minor impact on the flavor profile. The use of maltose intolerant yeast as well as the implementation of combined treatments, such as blending dealcoholized beer with beer containing alcohol, were the techniques found to produce NABs with more harmonious and multifaceted chemical and flavor profiles. NABs with increased hop aroma volatiles were the most harmonious, particularly highlighted by the NA IPA reference. Even though dry-hopped character might be atypical for pilsner-style beer, dry-hopping appears as a simple application to produce NABs with more harmonious flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Non-Alcoholic Beverages Section)
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Article
Characterization of Musts, Wines, and Sparkling Wines Based on Their Elemental Composition Determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010003 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to [...] Read more.
Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to determine their elemental composition. The resulting data has been used to characterize these products according to oenological features and product qualities. For this purpose, box plot diagrams, bar charts, and principal components analysis (PCA) have been used. The study of the behavior of each given species has pointed out the relevance of some elements as markers or descriptors of winemaking processes. Among others, Cu and K are abundant in musts and their concentrations progressively decrease through the cava production process. S levels suddenly increase at the base wine step (and further decay) due to the addition of sulfites as preserving agents. Finally, concentrations of Na, Ca, Fe, and Mg increase from the first fermentation due to the addition of clarifying agents such as bentonite. PCA has been applied to try to extract solid and global conclusions on trends and chemical markers within the groups of samples more easily and efficiently than more conventional approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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Article
Sensory Profiling and External Preference Mapping of Pre-Thickened Water Products for Dysphagia
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010002 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Dysphagia is a dysfunction of the swallowing system and thickened beverages are widely prescribed as a treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory characteristics of pre-thickened water products and determine sensory drivers of liking for those types of products. [...] Read more.
Dysphagia is a dysfunction of the swallowing system and thickened beverages are widely prescribed as a treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory characteristics of pre-thickened water products and determine sensory drivers of liking for those types of products. Pre-thickened water products (two starch-based and two gum-based) were tested in both nectar and honey thick versions. Based on product availability, one product was neutral water, and the others were water with lemon flavoring added. The sensory characteristics of the products were evaluated with a highly trained descriptive panel, and the viscosity of the products was evaluated with both the Bostwick consistometer and the line spread test. Previously published consumer data was used to determine preference maps with the descriptive data. All lemon-flavored products had similar flavor characteristics, except the Thick & Easy Clear that had a less lemon-related flavor than the others. After excluding the lemon-related flavor characteristics, all pre-thickened products had similar “base flavor” notes, no matter whether the products were starch-based or gum-based. This contrasts with literature, which reports differences in flavor of thickened beverages prepared using thickening agents. The thickness of the products varied between nectar and honey thickness, but also varied among products that were stated to be at the same level of thickness. External preference mapping showed that both lemon-related flavor and a thinner beverage texture are potential drivers of consumers acceptance of the product, which was expected based on other studies. In conclusion, pre-thickened beverages are good alternatives for self-mixed thickening agents but a standard for thickness should be agreed on and used by manufacturers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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Review
Chemical Composition and Polyphenolic Compounds of Red Wines: Their Antioxidant Activities and Effects on Human Health—A Review
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages8010001 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Red wine, an alcoholic beverage is composed of a spectrum of complex compounds such as water, alcohol, glycerol, organic acid, carbohydrates, polyphenols, and minerals as well as volatile compounds. Major factors that affect the levels of phenolic compounds in red wines are the [...] Read more.
Red wine, an alcoholic beverage is composed of a spectrum of complex compounds such as water, alcohol, glycerol, organic acid, carbohydrates, polyphenols, and minerals as well as volatile compounds. Major factors that affect the levels of phenolic compounds in red wines are the variety of grapes and the storage of the wines. Among the constituents of red wine, phenolic compounds play a crucial role in attributes including color and mouthfeel and confer beneficial properties on health. Most importantly, phenolic compounds such as flavanols, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, tannins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and resveratrol can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, inflammation, and some other chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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