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Targeted Chemometrics Investigations of Source-, Age- and Gender-Dependencies of Oral Cavity Malodorous Volatile Sulphur Compounds

1
Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
2
National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Cancer Institute, Neuro-Oncology Branch, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Flavio Licciulli and Enrico Blanzieri
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
Halitosis is a highly distressing, socially unaesthetic condition, with a very high incidence amongst the adult population. It predominantly arises from excessive oral cavity volatile sulphur compound (VSC) concentrations, which have either oral or extra-oral etiologies (90–95% and 5–10% of cases, respectively). However, reports concerning age- and gender-related influences on the patterns and concentrations of these malodorous agents remain sparse; therefore, this study’s first objective was to explore the significance and impact of these potential predictor variables on the oral cavity levels of these malodorants. Moreover, because non-oral etiologies for halitosis may represent avatars of serious extra-oral diseases, the second objective was to distinguish between etiology- (source-) dependent patterns of oral cavity VSCs. Oral cavity VSC determinations were performed on 116 healthy human participants using a non-stationary gas chromatographic facility, and following a 4 h period of abstention from all non-respiratory oral activities. Participants were grouped according to ages or age bands, and gender. Statistical analyses of VSC level data acquired featured both univariate/correlation and multivariate (MV) approaches. Factorial analysis-of-variance and MV analyses revealed that the levels of all VSCs monitored were independent of both age and gender. Principal component analysis (PCA) and a range of further MV analysis techniques, together with an agglomerative hierarchal clustering strategy, demonstrated that VSC predictor variables were partitioned into two components, the first arising from orally-sourced H2S and CH3SH, the second from extra-orally-sourced (CH3)2S alone (about 55% and 30% of total variance respectively). In conclusion, oral cavity VSC concentrations appear not to be significantly influenced by age and gender. Furthermore, (CH3)2S may serve as a valuable biomarker for selected extra-oral conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: halitosis; volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs); oral cavity; oral health; oral and extra-oral etiologies; age; gender; non-stationary gas chromatographic oral cavity VSC determinations halitosis; volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs); oral cavity; oral health; oral and extra-oral etiologies; age; gender; non-stationary gas chromatographic oral cavity VSC determinations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grootveld, K.L.; Ruiz-Rodado, V.; Grootveld, M. Targeted Chemometrics Investigations of Source-, Age- and Gender-Dependencies of Oral Cavity Malodorous Volatile Sulphur Compounds. Data 2021, 6, 36. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/data6040036

AMA Style

Grootveld KL, Ruiz-Rodado V, Grootveld M. Targeted Chemometrics Investigations of Source-, Age- and Gender-Dependencies of Oral Cavity Malodorous Volatile Sulphur Compounds. Data. 2021; 6(4):36. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/data6040036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grootveld, Kerry L., Victor Ruiz-Rodado, and Martin Grootveld. 2021. "Targeted Chemometrics Investigations of Source-, Age- and Gender-Dependencies of Oral Cavity Malodorous Volatile Sulphur Compounds" Data 6, no. 4: 36. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/data6040036

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