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Vet. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Breed predispositions on canine digital neoplasms are well known. However, there is currently no statistical analysis identifying the least affected breeds. To this end, 2912 canine amputated digits were statistically analyzed and predisposed as well as less affected breeds of the different digital neoplasms described. Further studies are needed to explain the underlying reasons for breed predisposition or “resistance” for the development of specific acral tumors and/or other sites. View this paper.
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Article
Accessing Dietary Effects on the Rumen Microbiome: Different Sequencing Methods Tell Different Stories
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070138 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The current study employed both amplicon and shotgun sequencing to examine and compare the rumen microbiome in Angus bulls fed with either a backgrounding diet (BCK) or finishing diet (HG), to assess if both methods produce comparable results. Rumen digesta samples from 16 [...] Read more.
The current study employed both amplicon and shotgun sequencing to examine and compare the rumen microbiome in Angus bulls fed with either a backgrounding diet (BCK) or finishing diet (HG), to assess if both methods produce comparable results. Rumen digesta samples from 16 bulls were subjected for microbial profiling. Distinctive microbial profiles were revealed by the two methods, indicating that choice of sequencing approach may be a critical facet in studies of the rumen microbiome. Shotgun-sequencing identified the presence of 303 bacterial genera and 171 archaeal species, several of which exhibited differential abundance. Amplicon-sequencing identified 48 bacterial genera, 4 archaeal species, and 9 protozoal species. Among them, 20 bacterial genera and 5 protozoal species were differentially abundant between the two diets. Overall, amplicon-sequencing showed a more drastic diet-derived effect on the ruminal microbial profile compared to shotgun-sequencing. While both methods detected dietary differences at various taxonomic levels, few consistent patterns were evident. Opposite results were seen for the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the genus Selenomonas. This study showcases the importance of sequencing platform choice and suggests a need for integrative methods that allow robust comparisons of microbial data drawn from various omic approaches, allowing for comprehensive comparisons across studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rumen Microbiome)
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Article
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Infection in Camels in the Puntland State of Somalia
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070137 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by members of the genus Brucella. Camel brucellosis has been reported in almost all camel-rearing countries in Africa and Asia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2020 and February 2021 in Galkayo, Garowe, and [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by members of the genus Brucella. Camel brucellosis has been reported in almost all camel-rearing countries in Africa and Asia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2020 and February 2021 in Galkayo, Garowe, and Bosaso districts in the Puntland State of Somalia to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in camels. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used to detect anti-Brucella antibodies, while a structured questionnaire was used to collect epidemiological data. A total of 441 camel sera were screened against Brucella antibodies. Thirty-one (7%; 95% CI: 4.8–9.8%) samples were positive, and thirteen (54.2%; 95% CI: 32.8–74.4%) out of the twenty-four farms sampled had at least one seropositive animal. Galkayo district had the highest number of Brucella-seropositive camels (10.3%), followed by Bosaso district (8.6%), while Garowe district had the lowest number of seropositive camels (1.4%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that camels in Galkayo district (p = 0.015; OR: 9.428; 95% CI: 1.539–57.755), camels from large herd sizes of >50 animals (p = 0.019; OR: 5.822; 95% CI: 1.336–25.371), and those in contact with small ruminants (p = 0.011; OR: 10.941; 95% CI: 1.728–69.285) were significantly associated with seropositive cases of camel brucellosis in the Puntland State of Somalia. The present study shows that Brucella infections in camels are prevalent in the three districts covered by the study. This poses a public health risk, because milk from these camels is used for human consumption. Studies focusing on the isolation of Brucella strains in camels and investigating brucellosis in ruminants and humans are recommended in the study area. Validation of serological tests—including c-ELISA—for Brucella antibody detection in camels is also needed. Full article
Article
Digital Lesions in Dogs: A Statistical Breed Analysis of 2912 Cases
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070136 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1816
Abstract
Breed predispositions to canine digital neoplasms are well known. However, there is currently no statistical analysis identifying the least affected breeds. To this end, 2912 canine amputated digits submitted from 2014–2019 to the Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG for routine diagnostics were statistically [...] Read more.
Breed predispositions to canine digital neoplasms are well known. However, there is currently no statistical analysis identifying the least affected breeds. To this end, 2912 canine amputated digits submitted from 2014–2019 to the Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG for routine diagnostics were statistically analyzed. The study population consisted of 155 different breeds (most common: 634 Mongrels, 411 Schnauzers, 197 Labrador Retrievers, 93 Golden Retrievers). Non-neoplastic processes were present in 1246 (43%), tumor-like lesions in 138 (5%), and neoplasms in 1528 cases (52%). Benign tumors (n = 335) were characterized by 217 subungual keratoacanthomas, 36 histiocytomas, 35 plasmacytomas, 16 papillomas, 12 melanocytomas, 9 sebaceous gland tumors, 6 lipomas, and 4 bone tumors. Malignant neoplasms (n = 1193) included 758 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 196 malignant melanomas (MM), 76 soft tissue sarcomas, 52 mast cell tumors, 37 non-specified sarcomas, 29 anaplastic neoplasms, 24 carcinomas, 20 bone tumors, and 1 histiocytic sarcoma. Predisposed breeds for SCC included the Schnauzer (log OR = 2.61), Briard (log OR = 1.78), Rottweiler (log OR = 1.54), Poodle (log OR = 1.40), and Dachshund (log OR = 1.30). Jack Russell Terriers (log OR = −2.95) were significantly less affected by SCC than Mongrels. Acral MM were significantly more frequent in Rottweilers (log OR = 1.88) and Labrador Retrievers (log OR = 1.09). In contrast, Dachshunds (log OR = −2.17), Jack Russell Terriers (log OR = −1.88), and Rhodesian Ridgebacks (log OR = −1.88) were rarely affected. This contrasted with the well-known predisposition of Dachshunds and Rhodesian Ridgebacks to oral and cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms. Further studies are needed to explain the underlying reasons for breed predisposition or “resistance” to the development of specific acral tumors and/or other sites. Full article
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Article
Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Dermatophilus congolensis from Cattle in Saint Kitts and Nevis
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070135 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Dermatophilosis is a form of dermatitis caused by the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis. The disease usually presents as localized purulent dermatitis, crusty hair masses or widespread matting of the hair. This condition is most common in domestic ruminants; but it can also affect [...] Read more.
Dermatophilosis is a form of dermatitis caused by the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis. The disease usually presents as localized purulent dermatitis, crusty hair masses or widespread matting of the hair. This condition is most common in domestic ruminants; but it can also affect other wild animals and humans. Antimicrobial therapy is used in many regions to treat clinical dermatophilosis with varying results. In this study, we aimed to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of D. congolensis isolates. Fifty-two isolates were obtained from animals showing clinical signs of the disease at farms in St. Kitts. The isolates were then confirmed as D. congolensis by phenotypic tests, PCR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined, using the broth microdilution method. Although most antimicrobials showed MICs in line with published values, the tetracycline results displayed a clear bimodal distribution over the tested range, with most isolates showing low MICs and 6 isolates much higher values (+/− 100-fold increase). These results indicate the presence of acquired tetracycline resistance in D. congolensis on the island of St. Kitts. Whether the current observation has implications for efficacy of treating the disease must be confirmed in further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Article
Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 HA Gene
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070134 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza A virus (aIAV) is circulating among birds worldwide, leading to severe economic losses. H9N2 cocirculation with other highly pathogenic aIAVs has the potential to contribute to the rise of new strains with pandemic potential. Therefore, rapid detection [...] Read more.
The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza A virus (aIAV) is circulating among birds worldwide, leading to severe economic losses. H9N2 cocirculation with other highly pathogenic aIAVs has the potential to contribute to the rise of new strains with pandemic potential. Therefore, rapid detection of H9 aIAVs infection is crucial to control virus spread. A qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of aIAV subtype H9N2 was developed. All results were compared to the gold standard (real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)). The RT-RPA assay was designed to detect the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H9N2 by testing three pairs of primers and a probe. A serial concentration between 106 and 100 EID50 (50% embryo infective dose)/mL was applied to calculate the analytical sensitivity. The H9 RT-RPA assay was highly sensitive as the lowest concentration point of a standard range at one EID50/mL was detected after 5 to 8 min. The H9N2 RT-RPA assay was highly specific as nucleic acid extracted from H9 negative samples and from other avian pathogens were not cross detected. The diagnostic sensitivity when testing clinical samples was 100% for RT-RPA and RT-PCR. In conclusion, H9N2 RT-RPA is a rapid sensitive and specific assay that easily operable in a portable device for field diagnosis of aIAV H9N2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Case Report
Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Shear-Wave Elastography in the Diagnosis of Granulomatous Colitis in a French Bulldog
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070133 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
An 11-month-old male intact French Bulldog was referred for chronic intermittent diarrhea lasting three months. Ultrasonographic (US) examination revealed severe thickening of the wall of the colon and caecum; contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and elastography showed increased, heterogeneous vascularization and non-uniform stiffness of the [...] Read more.
An 11-month-old male intact French Bulldog was referred for chronic intermittent diarrhea lasting three months. Ultrasonographic (US) examination revealed severe thickening of the wall of the colon and caecum; contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and elastography showed increased, heterogeneous vascularization and non-uniform stiffness of the colonic wall. The mucosa was thickened, fragile, and ulcerated as revealed by endoscopy, and histological examination confirmed the suspicion of granulomatous colitis. Full article
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Article
Benefit–Risk Assessment of the French Surveillance Protocol of Apparently Healthy Biting Dogs and Cats for Human Rabies Prevention
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070132 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1457
Abstract
In France, apparently healthy dogs and cats that bite humans must undergo an observation period of 15 days with three veterinary visits to ascertain that they remain healthy, indicating that no zoonotic transmission of rabies virus occurred via salivary presymptomatic excretion. This surveillance [...] Read more.
In France, apparently healthy dogs and cats that bite humans must undergo an observation period of 15 days with three veterinary visits to ascertain that they remain healthy, indicating that no zoonotic transmission of rabies virus occurred via salivary presymptomatic excretion. This surveillance protocol is mandatory for all pets that have bitten humans, despite France’s rabies-free status in non-flying mammals (i.e., a very low rabies risk). In this context, we aimed to perform a benefit–risk assessment of the existing regulatory surveillance protocol of apparently healthy biting animals, as well as alternative surveillance protocols. A scenario-tree modelling approach was used to consider the possible successions of events between a dog or cat bite and a human death attributed to either rabies or to lethal harm associated with the surveillance protocol (e.g., lethal traffic accidents when traveling to veterinary clinics or anti-rabies centers). The results demonstrated that the current French surveillance protocol was not beneficial, as more deaths were generated (traffic accidents) than avoided (by prompt post-exposure prophylaxis administration). We showed here that less stringent risk-based surveillance could prove more appropriate in a French context. The results in this study could allow policy-makers to update and optimize rabies management legislation. Full article
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Article
Low Risk Perception about Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in an Area Recently Invaded by Ticks in Northwestern Italy
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8070131 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Risk perception, together with the adoption of measures to prevent tick bites, may strongly influence human exposure to ticks and transmitted pathogens. We created a questionnaire to evaluate how people perceive the health risk posed by ticks in an area recently invaded by [...] Read more.
Risk perception, together with the adoption of measures to prevent tick bites, may strongly influence human exposure to ticks and transmitted pathogens. We created a questionnaire to evaluate how people perceive the health risk posed by ticks in an area recently invaded by these arthropods, in the western Italian Alps. Moreover, through a collaborative effort with park rangers and physicians, we investigated which tick species bite humans and their infection with pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and spotted-fever group Rickettsiae). Apart from two Dermacentor marginatus bites, we identified Ixodes ricinus (n = 124) as the main species responsible for tick bites. The investigated pathogens infected 25.4% of tested I. ricinus. The evaluation of the engorgement rate of biting I. ricinus revealed that they had been likely feeding on humans for 24 h or more, suggesting a high probability of pathogen transmission. Indeed, the questionnaires revealed that people infrequently adopt preventive measures, such as inspecting the body for ticks, although most respondents claimed that ticks are a threat to human health. Having suffered from previous tick bites was positively associated with the adoption of personal protection measures. Given the increasing incidence of tick-borne diseases in the region, the public should be better informed about the possibility of being bitten by infected ticks in order to mitigate the risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Tickborne Diseases)
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Communication
Effect of Honey and Syrup Diets Enriched with 1,3-1,6 β-Glucans on Honeybee Survival Rate and Phenoloxidase Activity (Apis mellifera L. 1758)
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070130 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
β-glucans can activate the animal innate immune system by acting as immune-modulators and inducing various stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,3-1,6 β-glucans administered orally for 96 h on Apis mellifera workers (newly emerged and nurse [...] Read more.
β-glucans can activate the animal innate immune system by acting as immune-modulators and inducing various stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,3-1,6 β-glucans administered orally for 96 h on Apis mellifera workers (newly emerged and nurse bees). β-glucans were included in honey and syrup. Survival rate and phenoloxidase activity were measured. In both newly emerged and nurse bees, β-glucans supplementation did not affect survival rate (p > 0.05). Conversely, phenoloxidase activity was higher in both newly emerged bees (p = 0.048) and nurse bees (p = 0.014) fed with a honey diet enriched with β-glucans compared to those fed with only honey. In both the newly emerged and nurse bees, no statistical differences in phenoloxidase activity were recorded between the group fed with a syrup-based diet enriched with β-glucans and the control group (p > 0.05). The absence of significant variation in survival suggests that the potential negative effect of β-glucans in healthy bees could be mitigated by their metabolism. Conversely, the inclusion of β-glucans in a honey-based diet determined an increase of phenoloxidase activity, suggesting that the effect of β-glucan inclusion in the diet of healthy bees on phenoloxidase activity could be linked to the type of base-diet. Further investigations on β-glucans metabolism in bees, on molecular mechanism of phenoloxidase activation by 1,3-1,6 β-glucans, and relative thresholds are desirable. Moreover, investigation on the combined action of honey and β-glucans on phenoloxidase activity are needed. Full article
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Article
Improved Cardiovascular Tolerance to Hemorrhage after Oral Resveratrol Pretreatment in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070129 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Resveratrol has been shown to preserve organ function and improve survival in hemorrhagic shock rat models. This study investigated whether seven days of oral resveratrol could improve hemodynamic response to hemorrhage and confer benefits on risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) without inducing [...] Read more.
Resveratrol has been shown to preserve organ function and improve survival in hemorrhagic shock rat models. This study investigated whether seven days of oral resveratrol could improve hemodynamic response to hemorrhage and confer benefits on risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) without inducing coagulopathy in a canine model. Twelve greyhound dogs were randomly allocated to receive oral resveratrol (1000 mg/day) or placebo for seven days prior to inducing hemorrhage until a targeted mean blood pressure of ≤40 mmHg was achieved. AKI biomarkers and coagulation parameters were measured before, immediately following, and two hours after hemorrhage. Dogs were euthanized, and renal tissues were examined at the end of the experiment. All investigators were blinded to the treatment allocation. A linear mixed model was used to assess effect of resveratrol on AKI biomarkers and coagulation parameters while adjusting for volume of blood loss. A significant larger volume of blood loss was required to achieve the hypotension target in the resveratrol group compared to placebo group (median 64 vs. 55 mL/kg respectively, p = 0.041). Although histological evidence of AKI was evident in all dogs, the renal tubular injury scores were not significantly different between the two groups, neither were the AKI biomarkers. Baseline (pre-hemorrhage) maximum clot firmness on the Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) was stronger in the resveratrol group than the placebo group (median 54 vs. 43 mm respectively, p = 0.009). In summary, seven days of oral resveratrol did not appear to induce increased bleeding risk and could improve greyhound dogs’ blood pressure tolerance to severe hemorrhage. Renal protective effect of resveratrol was, however, not observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing New Therapeutic Strategies Using Models)
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Article
Seasonal and Age-Associated Pathogen Distribution in Newborn Calves with Diarrhea Admitted to ICU
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070128 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Calf mortality constitutes a substantial loss for agriculture economy-based countries and is also a significant herd problem in developed countries. However, the occurrence and frequency of responsible gastro-intestinal (GI) pathogens in severe newborn diarrhea is still not well known. We aimed to determine [...] Read more.
Calf mortality constitutes a substantial loss for agriculture economy-based countries and is also a significant herd problem in developed countries. However, the occurrence and frequency of responsible gastro-intestinal (GI) pathogens in severe newborn diarrhea is still not well known. We aimed to determine the seasonal and age-associated pathogen distribution of severe diarrhea in newborn calves admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Erciyes University animal hospital over a year. Fecal samples were collected during the ICU admissions, and specimens were subjected to a diarrheal pathogen screening panel that included bovine coronavirus (BCoV), Cryptosporidium spp., ETEC K99+, and bovine rotavirus, using RT-PCR and conventional PCR methods. Further isolation experiments were performed with permissive cell cultures and bacterial enrichment methods to identify the clinical importance of infectious pathogen shedding in the ICU. Among the hospitalized calves aged less than 45 days old, the majority of calves originated from small farms (85.9%). The pathogen that most frequently occurred was Cryptosporidium spp. (61.5%) followed by rotavirus (56.4%). The frequency of animal admission to ICU and GI pathogen identification was higher during the winter season (44.9%) when compared to other seasons. Most calves included in the study were 1–6 days old (44.9%). Lastly, co-infection with rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. occurred more frequently than other dual or multi-infection events. This study was the first to define severe diarrhea—causing GI pathogens from ICU admitted newborn calves in Turkey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Editorial
Honey Bee Health
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070127 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Honey bee health is a crucial issue that has recently received increased interest from researchers, stakeholders, and citizens [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
Article
Claw Characteristics of Culled Sows from Three Farrow-to-Finish Greek Farms. Part 1: Claw Length Measurements, Lesion Scores and Their Association
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070126 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate variations in lengths and lesions in claws of culled sows and to evaluate their association. All four feet of 185 sows from three Greek farrow-to-finish farms (Farm A: 57 sows; Farm B: 64 sows; Farm [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate variations in lengths and lesions in claws of culled sows and to evaluate their association. All four feet of 185 sows from three Greek farrow-to-finish farms (Farm A: 57 sows; Farm B: 64 sows; Farm C: 64 sows) were examined for lesions and their lengths were measured. All claw lengths were lower in sows of farm C compared to those from sows of B and A. Claw lengths in sows of farm B were lower compared to those from A for all lateral toes of front feet and for all medial and four out of three lateral toes of rear feet. Sum of length measurements of the main toes of the front feet (SLF) associated with lesions on sole, white line and heel of front feet, while sum of length measurements of the main toes of the rear feet (SLR) associated with all lesions of the rear feet. The lengths of the main toes were correlated with the length of dew claws on front and rear feet. Overall, sows’ claw lesion severity and claw lengths may differ between farms and frequency of lesions is higher in longer claws. Full article
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Article
Pseudomembranous Cystitis: An Uncommon Ultrasound Appearance of Cystitis in Cats and Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070125 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
In veterinary medicine, pseudomembranous cystitis (PC) is a rare condition described only in cats. The purposes of this retrospective study were to describe ultrasound features of PC in cats and dogs, predisposing factors, comorbidities and outcomes. Cats and dogs with an ultrasonographic diagnosis [...] Read more.
In veterinary medicine, pseudomembranous cystitis (PC) is a rare condition described only in cats. The purposes of this retrospective study were to describe ultrasound features of PC in cats and dogs, predisposing factors, comorbidities and outcomes. Cats and dogs with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of PC were included in the study. The bladder ultrasound findings that were recorded were: pseudomembranes’ characteristics, abnormalities of the bladder’s wall and content and anomalies of the pericystic peritoneal space. Ten cats and four dogs met the inclusion criteria. Four pseudomembrane adhesion patterns were described. The presence of pseudomembrane acoustic shadowing was observed in the 60% of cats. A total of 80% of the cats included were presented for urethral obstruction (UO) and/or had at least one episode of UO in the previous 2 months. Thirteen patients out of fourteen received only medical therapy, and all of them survived. PC is a rare disorder in cats and dogs and there are some ultrasonographic differences between the two species, suggesting a greater severity of the pathology in cats. Chronic cystitis and UO may have a potential role in the development of feline PC. Finally, the medical approach can be a non-invasive and effective approach for PC. Full article
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Review
Atopic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals: What Our Current Understanding Is and How This Applies to Clinical Practice
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070124 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2410
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis is a clinical syndrome that affects both people and animals. Dogs closely mimic the complexity of the human skin disease, and much progress has been made in recent years in terms of our understanding of the role of skin impairment and [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis is a clinical syndrome that affects both people and animals. Dogs closely mimic the complexity of the human skin disease, and much progress has been made in recent years in terms of our understanding of the role of skin impairment and the identification of new treatments. Cats and horses also develop atopic syndromes which include both cutaneous and respiratory signs, yet studies in these species are lagging. It is now recognized that atopic dermatitis is not a single disease but a multifaceted clinical syndrome with different pathways in various subgroups of patients. Appreciating this complexity is clinically relevant as we develop more targeted treatments which may work well in some patients but not in others. Different phenotypes of atopic dermatitis have been described in dogs, and it is possible that phenotypes related to breed and age may exist in other animals similar to how they are described in people. The awareness of different mechanisms of disease leads to the desire to correlate different phenotypes with specific biomarkers and responses to treatment. In this review, the current understanding and updated information on atopic syndrome in animals are described, highlighting opportunities for further studies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune-mediated Diseases in Small Animals)
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Article
Erythrogram Patterns in Dogs with Chronic Kidney Disease
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070123 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Anemia is considered a common finding in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), typically as normochromic, normocytic, and non-regenerative. Although anemia can occur at any CKD IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) stage, its severity is related with the loss of kidney function. The [...] Read more.
Anemia is considered a common finding in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), typically as normochromic, normocytic, and non-regenerative. Although anemia can occur at any CKD IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) stage, its severity is related with the loss of kidney function. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate quantitative and morphological abnormalities of the erythrogram in dogs at different CKD IRIS stages. A total of 482 CBCs from 3648 initially screened were included in the study. Anemia was present in 302/482 (63%) dogs, in the majority of which it was normochromic, normocytic, and non-regenerative (295/302; 98%). The number of reticulocytes was <60,000/μL in the majority of dogs (248/295; 84%), with a correlation between poor regeneration rate and progression of CKD (p = 0.0001). The frequency of anemia significantly differed (p = 0.0001) among the IRIS stages: 108/231 (47%) in IRIS 2, 77/109 (71%) in IRIS 3, and 117/142 (82%) in IRIS 4. Dogs at IRIS stages 3 and 4 were more likely to have moderate to severe anemia, compared to dogs at IRIS stage 2 (p = 0.0001). Anisocytosis was the most frequent morphological abnormality (291/482; 60%), whereas the presence of poikilocytosis showed an association with progression of IRIS stages (p = 0.009). Among different morphological abnormalities, the frequency of fragmented red blood cells and Howell–Jolly bodies showed a significant association with the progression of CKD. Anemia was a frequent finding in CKD dogs, mostly associated with none to poor regeneration rate. Similar to human medicine, advanced CKD stages are more frequently characterized by morphological alterations, such as fragmented red blood cells and Howell–Jolly bodies, which may suggest a more severe condition of reduced bone marrow activity and microangiopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Review
Impact of CRISPR-Cas9-Based Genome Engineering in Farm Animals
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070122 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Humans are sorely over-dependent on livestock for their daily basic need of food in the form of meat, milk, and eggs. Therefore, genetic engineering and transgenesis provide the opportunity for more significant gains and production in a short span of time. One of [...] Read more.
Humans are sorely over-dependent on livestock for their daily basic need of food in the form of meat, milk, and eggs. Therefore, genetic engineering and transgenesis provide the opportunity for more significant gains and production in a short span of time. One of the best strategies is the genetic alteration of livestock to enhance the efficiency of food production (e.g., meat and milk), animal health, and welfare (animal population and disease). Moreover, genome engineering in the bovine is majorly focused on subjects such as disease resistance (e.g., tuberculosis), eradicate allergens (e.g., beta-lactoglobulin knock-out), products generation (e.g., meat from male and milk from female), male or female birth specifically (animal sexing), the introduction of valuable traits (e.g., stress tolerance and disease resistance) and their wellbeing (e.g., hornlessness). This review addressed the impressive genome engineering method CRISPR, its fundamental principle for generating highly efficient target-specific guide RNA, and the accompanying web-based tools. However, we have covered the remarkable roadmap of the CRISPR method from its conception to its use in cattle. Additionally, we have updated the comprehensive information on CRISPR-based gene editing in cattle. Full article
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Article
Sirtuin 3 Restores Synthesis and Secretion of Very Low-Density Lipoproteins in Cow Hepatocytes Challenged with Nonesterified Fatty Acids In Vitro
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070121 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Fatty liver is closely associated with elevated concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and a low level of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in blood of dairy cows. High NEFA inhibit the VLDL synthesis and assembly, and cause hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition. Sirtuin 3 [...] Read more.
Fatty liver is closely associated with elevated concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and a low level of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in blood of dairy cows. High NEFA inhibit the VLDL synthesis and assembly, and cause hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase, antagonizes NEFA-induced TAG accumulation through modulating expressions of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation genes in cow hepatocytes. However, the role of SIRT3 in the VLDL synthesis and assembly was largely unknown. Here we aimed to test whether SIRT3 would recover the synthesis and assembly of VLDL in cow hepatocytes induced by high NEFA. Primary cow hepatocytes were isolated from 3 Holstein cows. Hepatocytes were infected with SIRT3 overexpression adenovirus (Ad-SIRT3), SIRT3-short interfering (si) RNA, or first infected with Ad-SIRT3 and then incubated with 1.0 mM NEFA (Ad-SIRT3 + NEFA). Expressions of key genes in VLDL synthesis and the VLDL contents in cell culture supernatants were measured. SIRT3 overexpression significantly increased the mRNA abundance of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) and ApoE (p < 0.01), and raised VLDL contents in the supernatants (p < 0.01). However, SIRT3 silencing displayed a reverse effect in comparison to SIRT3 overexpression. Compared with NEFA treatment alone, the Ad-SIRT3 + NEFA significantly upregulated the mRNA abundance of MTP, ApoB100 and ApoE (p < 0.01), and increased VLDL contents in the supernatants (p < 0.01). Our data demonstrated that SIRT3 restored the synthesis and assembly of VLDL in cow hepatocytes challenged with NEFA, providing an in vitro basis for further investigations testing its feasibility against hepatic TAG accumulation in dairy cows during the perinatal period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases)
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Article
Prognostic Value of PD-L1, PD-1 and CD8A in Canine Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Detected by RNAscope
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070120 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Immune checkpoints are a set of molecules dysregulated in several human and canine cancers and aberrations of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are often correlated with a worse prognosis. To gain an insight into the role of immune checkpoints in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoints are a set of molecules dysregulated in several human and canine cancers and aberrations of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are often correlated with a worse prognosis. To gain an insight into the role of immune checkpoints in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (cDLBCL), we investigated PD-L1, PD-1 and CD8A expression by RNAscope. Results were correlated with several clinico-pathological features, including treatment, Ki67 index and outcome. A total of 33 dogs treated with chemotherapy (n = 12) or chemoimmunotherapy with APAVAC (n = 21) were included. PD-L1 signal was diffusely distributed among neoplastic cells, whereas PD-1 and CD8A were localized in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. However, PD-1 mRNA was also retrieved in tumor cells. An association between PD-L1 and PD-1 scores was identified and a higher risk of relapse and lymphoma-related death was found in dogs treated with chemotherapy alone and dogs with higher PD-L1 and PD-1 scores. The correlation between PD-L1 and PD-1 is in line with the mechanism of immune checkpoints in cancers, where neoplastic cells overexpress PD-L1 that, in turn, binds PD-1 receptors in activated TIL. We also found that Ki67 index was significantly increased in dogs with the highest PD-L1 and PD-1 scores, indirectly suggesting a role in promoting tumor proliferation. Finally, even if the biological consequence of PD-1+ tumor cells is unknown, our findings suggest that PD-1 intrinsic expression in cDLBCL might contribute to tumor growth escaping adaptive immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma in Animals)
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Article
The Effect of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture on Range of Motion in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070119 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Range of motion (ROM) is a measure often reported as an indicator of joint functionality. Both the angle of extension and that of flexion were measured in 234 stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. The aims of this study [...] Read more.
Range of motion (ROM) is a measure often reported as an indicator of joint functionality. Both the angle of extension and that of flexion were measured in 234 stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation between CCL rupture and alterations in the range of stifle joint motion and to determine whether there was a prevalence modification of one of the two angles. All the extension and flexion angles were obtained from clinical records and were analysed in various combinations. A significant relationship was found between normal angles and abnormal angles; concerning the reduction in the ROM, a significant prevalence in the alteration extension angle was found. Of the 234 stifles, 33 (13.7%) were normal in both angles. These results could offer important insights regarding the influence of CCL rupture on compromising the ROM. This awareness could be a baseline for understanding the ability of surgical treatment to restore one angle rather than another angle, to address the choice of treatment and to help physiotherapists in their rehabilitation program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Occurring in Korean Native Calves
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070118 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Giardia duodenalis is one of the most widely occurring zoonotic protozoan parasites causing diarrheal disease in calves. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in Korean native calves and elucidate the causal factors associated with giardiasis in these animals. We [...] Read more.
Giardia duodenalis is one of the most widely occurring zoonotic protozoan parasites causing diarrheal disease in calves. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in Korean native calves and elucidate the causal factors associated with giardiasis in these animals. We investigated the sequences of three genes (ssu, bg, and gdh) of G. duodenalis in fecal samples collected from 792 Korean native calves during 2019–2020. Data were analyzed with regard to age, sex, sampling season, and the fecal sample type (based on its physical characteristics). The samples were screened for the three genes mentioned above, and 44 samples (5.6%) were G. duodenalis-positive. Polymerase chain reaction results showed a significantly higher prevalence of the infection in calves aged ≥1 month and in those with watery diarrhea in spring season. Screening for the gene sequences ssu (87.5%), bg (96.2%), and gdh (96.7%) revealed that most of the G. duodenalis-positive samples belonged to assemblage E. Four of the G. duodenalis-positive samples belonged to the zoonotic assemblage A. This study highlights the importance of continuous surveillance of genetic mutations in G. duodenalis for the detection of emerging variants of zoonotic G. duodenalis in calves. Full article
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Article
Replicative Deformed Wing Virus Found in the Head of Adults from Symptomatic Commercial Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Colonies
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(7), 117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8070117 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
The deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common honey bee pathogens. The virus may also be detected in other insect species, including Bombus terrestris adults from wild and managed colonies. In this study, individuals of all stages, castes, and sexes [...] Read more.
The deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common honey bee pathogens. The virus may also be detected in other insect species, including Bombus terrestris adults from wild and managed colonies. In this study, individuals of all stages, castes, and sexes were sampled from three commercial colonies exhibiting the presence of deformed workers and analysed for the presence of DWV. Adults (deformed individuals, gynes, workers, males) had their head exscinded from the rest of the body and the two parts were analysed separately by RT-PCR. Juvenile stages (pupae, larvae, and eggs) were analysed undissected. All individuals tested positive for replicative DWV, but deformed adults showed a higher number of copies compared to asymptomatic individuals. Moreover, they showed viral infection in their heads. Sequence analysis indicated that the obtained DWV amplicons belonged to a strain isolated in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize the specific DWV target organs in the bumblebees. The result of this study indicates the evidence of DWV infection in B. terrestris specimens that could cause wing deformities, suggesting a relationship between the deformities and the virus localization in the head. Further studies are needed to define if a specific organ could be a target in symptomatic bumblebees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
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