Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 9, April

Vet. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 55 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Population immunity is an important driver of seasonal IAV diversity and predominance in naturally exposed wild birds and likely affects the establishment of introduced IAVs of concern. However, the longevity and specificity of such immune responses are largely unknown, as are the roles that these responses might play in IAV transmission, infection, and disease. Research questions aimed at unravelling the complexity of immunity to IAV in wild birds, and the continued refinement of serological tools used to answer these questions, are critical to better understand the natural history of IAV in wild avian populations. The recent introduction and dispersal of H5 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds across much of North America further highlight the critical need for continued research on and surveillance of IAV in these populations. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
A Descriptive Study of the Carpal Joint of Healthy Donkeys Using Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050249 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 826
Abstract
This study was conducted to establish a detailed anatomic reference for the carpal joint of apparently healthy donkeys using ultrasonography (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten orthopedically sound adult donkeys were used for US examination of the carpal joint [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to establish a detailed anatomic reference for the carpal joint of apparently healthy donkeys using ultrasonography (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten orthopedically sound adult donkeys were used for US examination of the carpal joint in each forelimb. Additionally, the carpi of ten donkey cadavers were subjected to CT and MRI examinations. The carpal joint was divided into four zones to simplify examination. US assessment of the carpal joint included transverse and longitudinal sonograms. CT was performed using three planes: axial, sagittal, and coronal. MRI was performed using axial and sagittal planes with two sequences: gradient-echo T1-weighted and proton density. The donkeys’ carpus US, CT, and MRI images were labeled and serially interpreted based on references and anatomical cross-sections. The anatomical characteristics of the carpal joint and the surrounding soft tissue structures were thoroughly described and precisely differentiated on US, CT, and MRI scans. It can be concluded that US, CT, and MRI are effective noninvasive diagnostic imaging tools for evaluating the carpal joint in donkeys. Moreover, these imaging modalities can aid in establishing a reference database for the carpal joint of donkeys, which differs from that of horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Equine Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Photoperiodic Modulation in Immune and Reproductive Systems in Japanese Quails (Coturnix japonica): A Morphometric Perspective
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050248 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The present study was designed to elucidate a relationship between lymphoid organs and reproductive activity in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) bred in a temperate region of Pakistan (30.3753° N, 69.3451° E) in response to photoperiodic changes. The research focused primarily [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to elucidate a relationship between lymphoid organs and reproductive activity in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) bred in a temperate region of Pakistan (30.3753° N, 69.3451° E) in response to photoperiodic changes. The research focused primarily on the relative morphological changes in primary (thymus and bursa of Fabricius) and secondary (spleen) lymphoid organs with respect to seasonal variations in the histomorphometry of testicular tissue. For this purpose, a comparable number of clinically healthy Japanese quails were exsanguinated during active (April–May), regressive (September–October) and inactive (January–February) reproductive phases. Following an extensive gross measurement of lymphoid and reproductive organs, a histomorphometric analysis was performed on sampled tissues by employing ImageJ® software. Blood was collected for hormonal and leukocytic analysis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical comparison. Testes had the highest parenchymal development in the active phase (80.66 ± 21.22 µm) and the lowest in the inactive phase (27.80 ± 7.22 µm). Conversely, a percentage change was evident in the sizes of primary (bursa: 61.5%, thymus: 46.9%) and secondary (spleen: 23.9%) lymphoid organs during inactive and active reproductive phases. This study demonstrated that a physiological trade-off is imperative between immune and reproductive systems for optimum survivability and reproductive performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Changes in Neuropeptide Prohormone Genes among Cetartiodactyla Livestock and Wild Species Associated with Evolution and Domestication
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050247 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 804
Abstract
The impact of evolution and domestication processes on the sequences of neuropeptide prohormone genes that participate in cell–cell signaling influences multiple biological process that involve neuropeptide signaling. This information is important to understand the physiological differences between Cetartiodactyla domesticated species such as cow, [...] Read more.
The impact of evolution and domestication processes on the sequences of neuropeptide prohormone genes that participate in cell–cell signaling influences multiple biological process that involve neuropeptide signaling. This information is important to understand the physiological differences between Cetartiodactyla domesticated species such as cow, pig, and llama and wild species such as hippopotamus, giraffes, and whales. Systematic analysis of changes associated with evolutionary and domestication forces in neuropeptide prohormone protein sequences that are processed into neuropeptides was undertaken. The genomes from 118 Cetartiodactyla genomes representing 22 families were mined for 98 neuropeptide prohormone genes. Compared to other Cetartiodactyla suborders, Ruminantia preserved PYY2 and lost RLN1. Changes in GNRH2, IAPP, INSL6, POMC, PRLH, and TAC4 protein sequences could result in the loss of some bioactive neuropeptides in some families. An evolutionary model suggested that most neuropeptide prohormone genes disfavor sequence changes that incorporate large and hydrophobic amino acids. A compelling finding was that differences between domestic and wild species are associated with the molecular system underlying ‘fight or flight’ responses. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of simultaneously comparing the neuropeptide prohormone gene complement from close and distant-related species. These findings broaden the foundation for empirical studies about the function of the neuropeptidome associated with health, behavior, and food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropeptides: Role and Function in Species of Veterinary Interest)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Strategies for Hypothermia Compensation in Altricial and Precocial Newborn Mammals and Their Monitoring by Infrared Thermography
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050246 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Thermoregulation in newborn mammals is an essential species-specific mechanism of the nervous system that contributes to their survival during the first hours and days of their life. When exposed to cold weather, which is a risk factor associated with mortality in neonates, pathways [...] Read more.
Thermoregulation in newborn mammals is an essential species-specific mechanism of the nervous system that contributes to their survival during the first hours and days of their life. When exposed to cold weather, which is a risk factor associated with mortality in neonates, pathways such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) are activated to achieve temperature control, increasing the circulating levels of catecholamine and cortisol. Consequently, alterations in blood circulation and mechanisms to produce or to retain heat (e.g., vasoconstriction, piloerection, shivering, brown adipocyte tissue activation, and huddling) begin to prevent hypothermia. This study aimed to discuss the mechanisms of thermoregulation in newborn domestic mammals, highlighting the differences between altricial and precocial species. The processes that employ brown adipocyte tissue, shivering, thermoregulatory behaviors, and dermal vasomotor control will be analyzed to understand the physiology and the importance of implementing techniques to promote thermoregulation and survival in the critical post-birth period of mammals. Also, infrared thermography as a helpful method to perform thermal measurements without animal interactions does not affect these parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Escherichia coli in Dogs with Pyometra and the Influence of Diet on the Intestinal Colonization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050245 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Despite its high frequency and clinical relevance, the pathogenesis of canine pyometra remains poorly understood. The most accepted hypothesis is that bacteria involved ascend from the intestinal tract, causing the uterine infection. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most frequent pathogen in [...] Read more.
Despite its high frequency and clinical relevance, the pathogenesis of canine pyometra remains poorly understood. The most accepted hypothesis is that bacteria involved ascend from the intestinal tract, causing the uterine infection. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most frequent pathogen in canine pyometra, accounting for 57–100% of cases. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of phylogenetic groups and virulence factors in E. coli strains isolated from the uterine and rectal swabs of bitches with pyometra (n = 72) and from rectal swabs from healthy bitches fed commercial dry feed (n = 53) or a raw meat-based diet (RMBD; n = 38). A total of 512 strains of E. coli were isolated and divided into five categories according to the origin of the sample: 120 isolates from the uterine content of dogs with E. coli pyometra, 102 from the feces of bitches with E. coli pyometra, 75 from the feces of bitches without E. coli pyometra, 130 feces samples from healthy dogs fed commercial feed, and 85 feces samples from healthy dogs fed a raw meat-based diet. E. coli strains belonging to the B2 phylogroup and positive for virulence factor genes associated with adhesion (fimbriae type P [papC]) and production of toxins (α-hemolysin [hlyA] and uropathogenic specific protein [usp]) predominated in the uterine content and rectal swabs of bitches with E. coli pyometra. Interestingly, a lower growth rate of E. coli from the B2 phylogroup was observed in dogs fed a RMBD than in those fed commercial dry feed. The present study suggests that intestinal colonization by certain types of E. coli could be a risk factor for the occurrence of E. coli pyometra in bitches and that diet can influence intestinal colonization by such strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Infectious Diseases of Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Relationship among Serum Progestagens, Cortisol, and Prolactin in Pregnant and Cycling Asian Elephants in Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050244 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 977
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine relationships among serum progestagens, cortisol, and prolactin in pregnant and normal cycling Asian elephants living in tourist camps in northern Thailand. Samples were collected twice a month for 22 months from nine elephants. Of those, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine relationships among serum progestagens, cortisol, and prolactin in pregnant and normal cycling Asian elephants living in tourist camps in northern Thailand. Samples were collected twice a month for 22 months from nine elephants. Of those, four were pregnant (24.3 ± 2.9 years of age; range 21–28 years) and five (20.2 ± 9.6 years; range 8–34 years) exhibited normal ovarian cycles based on serum progestagen analyses. Gestation was divided into three periods: 1st (week 1–31), 2nd (week 32–62), and 3rd (week 63 to parturition), while the estrous cycle was divided into the follicular and luteal phases. Serum progestagens were higher during the luteal phase of the cycle (p < 0.003), whereas cortisol and prolactin were similar. In pregnant elephants, there were no differences in serum progestagens or cortisol concentrations across the three gestational periods, whereas prolactin concentrations increased significantly during the 2nd and 3rd periods (p < 0.0001). By contrast, prolactin concentrations in nonpregnant elephants were consistently low throughout the ovarian cycle. In one cycling female, prolactin concentrations were similar to pregnant elephants, perhaps because she was an allomother to two calves. Another cycling female exhibited consistently elevated cortisol concentrations, 5 to 10 times higher than the other elephants. There were no correlations between serum progestagens, cortisol, and prolactin throughout gestation; however, serum progestagens and cortisol were positively related in cycling elephants (r = 0.386, p < 0.001). From our results, there were a number of individual differences in reproductive hormonal patterns, so it is important to develop personalized monitoring programs for each elephant to enhance breeding success and create sustaining captive populations of elephants in Asia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Is Dog Owner Obesity a Risk Factor for Canine Obesity? A “One-Health” Study on Human–Animal Interaction in a Region with a High Prevalence of Obesity
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050243 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Obesity in humans is a growing global problem and is one of the greatest public health challenges we face today. Most researchers agree that, as in humans, the incidence in the companion animal population is also increasing. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Obesity in humans is a growing global problem and is one of the greatest public health challenges we face today. Most researchers agree that, as in humans, the incidence in the companion animal population is also increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors contributing to canine obesity in a region with a high rate of human obesity (Canary Islands, Spain), co-occurrence of obesogenic risk factors, and a canine population with a high percentage of unneutered dogs. We have focused on owner risk factors that promote obesity in humans, such as weight, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and low physical activity, among others. Thus, the human–animal interaction relationship that contributes to human obesity and influences canine obesity has been studied. A multicentre cross-sectional analytical study of 198 pairs of dogs from urban households and their owners was used. A multivariable logistic regression study was completed to analyse owner characteristics variables associated with canine obesity. This transdisciplinary study was conducted with physicians and veterinarians using a “One Health” approach. Our results suggest that, in a region of high obesogenic risk, obese/overweight dogs are primarily female, older than 6 years, and neutered. Being an overweight dog owner was found to be the most important factor in the occurrence of obesity in dogs. Owners of overweight dogs were mainly females, older than 40 years, who did not engage in any physical activity. A strong correlation has been found between dog owners with low levels of education and obesity in their dogs. We suggest that veterinarians should develop and design strategies to encourage pet owners to engage in physical activity with their dogs for the benefit of both. Full article
Article
Dog Handler Beliefs regarding Barriers and Facilitators to Canine Health Promotion and Injury Prevention in Swedish Working Dog Trials and Competitions
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050242 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Dog trials and competitions involve various sport disciplines, e.g., obedience, agility, working dog trials and rally obedience. Dog handlers navigate their dogs through physically and mentally demanding tasks. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of barriers and facilitators [...] Read more.
Dog trials and competitions involve various sport disciplines, e.g., obedience, agility, working dog trials and rally obedience. Dog handlers navigate their dogs through physically and mentally demanding tasks. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of barriers and facilitators to canine health promotion and injury prevention described by dog handlers. Methods: Qualitative inductive content analysis was applied to systematically organize and interpret narrative data from 654 respondents’ answers to open-ended questions in an anonymous online inquiry. Results: Two categories, with seven sub-categories, emerged from the analysis: (1) Challenges in applying the regulations in dog trials and competitions, and (2) Implementation of animal welfare and canine well-being approaches. Respondents described the challenges in applying regulations in dog trials and competitions and lack of scientific research as barriers to their intent to prevent injuries in their dogs. Implementation of animal welfare and canine well-being approaches were described as facilitators. Conclusion: The findings imply that the stakeholders continuously need to work on bridging possible gaps between the canine welfare criteria and the scientific and empirical knowledge in canine sports and performance medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working and Hunting Dogs Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Current and Future Molecular Diagnostics of Tick-Borne Diseases in Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050241 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Ticks and tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever pose a significant threat to animal and human health. Tick-borne diseases cause billions of dollars of losses to livestock farmers annually. These losses [...] Read more.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever pose a significant threat to animal and human health. Tick-borne diseases cause billions of dollars of losses to livestock farmers annually. These losses are partially attributed to the lack of sensitive, robust, cost effective and efficient diagnostic approaches that could detect the infectious pathogen at the early stages of illness. The modern nucleic acid-based multiplex diagnostic approaches have been developed in human medicine but are still absent in veterinary medicine. These powerful assays can screen 384 patient samples at one time, simultaneously detect numerous infectious pathogens in each test sample and provide the diagnostic answer in a few hours. Development, commercialization, and wide use of such high throughput multiplex molecular assays in the cattle tick-borne disease surveillance will help in early detection and control of infectious pathogens in the animal reservoir before community spread and spillover to humans. Such approaches in veterinary medicine will save animal life, prevent billions of dollars of economic loss to cattle herders and reduce unwanted stress to both human and animal health care systems. This literature review provides recent updates on molecular diagnostics of tick-borne pathogens and discusses the importance of modern nucleic acid high throughput multiplex diagnostic approaches in the prevention of tick-borne infection to livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic PCR on Animal Diseases: From Extraction to Amplification)
Article
The Effects of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Turkey Poults: Assessment of Biochemical Parameters and Histopathological Changes
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050240 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 896
Abstract
A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule and an outer membrane glycolipid found in Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli). These molecules (LPS) target acute inflammatory responses and significant physiological changes. Importantly, E. coli is considered one of the most [...] Read more.
A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule and an outer membrane glycolipid found in Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli). These molecules (LPS) target acute inflammatory responses and significant physiological changes. Importantly, E. coli is considered one of the most important bacterial causes of avian colibacillosis that affect domestic turkey industry. However, little information is available about the potential influence of LPS on the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in turkey poults. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules on serum biomarkers and histopathological changes in turkey poults. The birds were randomly divided into five groups, as follows: group I did not receive any inoculation; group II was inoculated with sterile saline; and groups III, IV, and V were inoculated intraperitoneally with LPS at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of body weight (BW), respectively. The biochemical parameters and the histopathology of different organs were examined in all birds one day post-inoculation. Our results revealed hypolipidemia, hypoglycemia, a significant decrease in uric acid, and a significant increase in serum activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK), as well as cardiac troponin T concentrations in treated groups. Moreover, there was a significant increase in α1-, β-, and γ-globulin concentrations and a decrease in albumin and α2-globulin concentrations in group V. However, a significant increase in α2- and γ-globulin levels and a decrease in albumin levels were detected in groups III and IV. In addition, significant decreases in the albumin/globulin ratio were recorded in all LPS-treated groups. Hepatocellular and cardiac muscle necrosis, slight renal changes, and massive pulmonary inflammatory reactions were recorded. This study provides valuable information about serum biomarkers, protein fractions, and histopathological changes in turkey poults treated with LPS for further investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms in avian medicine along with biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Clinical Pathology and Diagnostic Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genetic Diversity, Biofilm Formation, and Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Cow, Camel, and Mare with Clinical Endometritis
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050239 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic bacterium that causes diseases in animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of P. aeruginosa isolated from the uterus of cow, camel, and [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic bacterium that causes diseases in animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of P. aeruginosa isolated from the uterus of cow, camel, and mare with clinical endometritis and their drinking water. Among the 180 uterine swabs and 90 drinking water samples analysed, 54 (20%) P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered. Isolates were identified biochemically to the genus level by the automated Vitek 2 system and genetically by the amplification of the gyrB gene and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multilocus sequence typing identified ten different sequence types for the P. aeruginosa isolates. The identification of ST2012 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than that of ST296, ST308, ST111, and ST241. The isolates exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased resistance to piperacillin (77.8%), ciprofloxacin (59.3%), gentamicin (50%), and ceftazidime (38.9%). Eight (14.8%) isolates showed resistance to imipenem; however, none of the isolates showed resistance to colistin. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 24 isolates (44.4%) with a multiple antibiotic resistance index ranging from 0.44 to 0.77. MDR was identified in 30 (33.3%) isolates. Furthermore, 38.8% and 9.2% of the isolates exhibited a positive extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) phenotype, respectively. The most prevalent β-lactamase encoding genes were blaTEM and blaCTX-M, however, the blaIPM gene was not detected in any of the isolates. Biofilm formation was observed in 49 (90.7%) isolates classified as: 11.1% weak biofilm producers; 38.9% moderate biofilm producers; 40.7% strong biofilm producers. A positive correlation was observed between the MAR index and biofilm formation. In conclusion, the results highlighted that farm animals with clinical endometritis could act as a reservoir for MDR and virulent P. aeruginosa. The emergence of ESBLs and MBLs producing P. aeruginosa in different farm animals is a public health concern. Therefore, surveillance programs to monitor and control MDR P. aeruginosa in animals are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dextran Sulphate Sodium Acute Colitis Rat Model: A Suitable Tool for Advancing Our Understanding of Immune and Microbial Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050238 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders causing inflammation in the digestive tract. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis may play a pivotal role in the IBD pathogenesis. As microbiome-based therapeutics that modulate the gut ecology have been proposed as a novel [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders causing inflammation in the digestive tract. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis may play a pivotal role in the IBD pathogenesis. As microbiome-based therapeutics that modulate the gut ecology have been proposed as a novel strategy for preventing IBD, the aim of presenting study was to evaluate the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) rat model mainly in terms of microbial shifts to confirm its suitability for dysbiosis study in IBD. Acute colitis was induced using 5% DSS solution for seven days and rats were euthanized five days after DSS removal. The faecal/caecal microbiota was analyzed by next generation sequencing. Disease activity index (DAI) score was evaluated daily. Blood and colon tissue immunophenotyping was assessed by flow cytometry and histological, haematological, and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. The colitis induction was reflected in a significantly higher DAI score and changes in all parameters measured. This study demonstrated significant shifts in the colitis-related microbial species after colitis induction. The characteristic inflammation-associated microbiota could be detected even after a five day-recovery period. Moreover, the DSS-model might contribute to an understanding of the effect of different treatments on extraintestinal organ impairments. The observation that certain bacterial species in the gut microbiota are associated with colitis raises the question of whether these organisms are contributors to, or a consequence of the disease. Despite some limitations, we confirmed the suitability of DSS-induced colitis model to monitor microbial changes during acute colitis, in order to test attractive new microbiome-based therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal and Disease Models in Biomedical Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Pelvic Endoprosthesis after Hemipelvectomy Using a 3D-Printed Osteotomy Guide for Infiltrative Osteoma in a Cat
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050237 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 964
Abstract
With the development of 3D printing and surgical techniques, various defect reconstruction methods after tumor resection have been applied not only in humans but also in veterinary medicine. This report describes a case of reconstruction after hemipelvectomy for an osteoma in a cat [...] Read more.
With the development of 3D printing and surgical techniques, various defect reconstruction methods after tumor resection have been applied not only in humans but also in veterinary medicine. This report describes a case of reconstruction after hemipelvectomy for an osteoma in a cat using a 3D-printed pelvic endoprosthesis and micro total hip replacement (mTHR). A 5-year-old spayed female Turkish Angora cat was referred for a 1-month history of constipation and intermittent weight-bearing lameness in the left hindlimb. An osteoma in the pelvis measuring 4.5 × 3 × 5.4 cm was identified based on diagnostic examinations. A left mid-to-caudal partial and right caudal partial hemipelvectomy, and a left femoral head and neck osteotomy, were planned to remove the mass. Reconstruction of the bone defect using 3D-printed metal endoprosthesis and mTHR in the left hindlimb was intended. During right caudal partial hemipelvectomy, right femoral head and neck osteotomy was performed because there was infiltration in the medial wall of the acetabulum. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an osteoma. Two weeks post-surgery, surgical debridement and femoral stem removal were performed because of delayed wound healing and sciatic neurapraxia, leading to femoral stem dislocation from the cup. The delayed wound healing and sciatic neurapraxia were appropriately addressed. The cat regained normal weight and defecation 4 weeks post-operatively. Two years post-surgery, the patient recovered with an almost normal gait. Hemipelvectomy with 3D-printed endoprosthesis provides a safe surgical option with favorable outcomes for neoplasms in the pelvis of cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antimicrobial Activity from Putative Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Biological Control of American and European Foulbrood Diseases
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050236 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The balance of the gut microbiome is important for the honey bee’s growth and development, immune function and defense against pathogens. The use of a beneficial bacteria-based strategy for the prevention and biocontrol of American foulbrood (AFB) and European foulbrood (EFB) diseases in [...] Read more.
The balance of the gut microbiome is important for the honey bee’s growth and development, immune function and defense against pathogens. The use of a beneficial bacteria-based strategy for the prevention and biocontrol of American foulbrood (AFB) and European foulbrood (EFB) diseases in honey bees offers interesting prospects. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of the honey bee. Among LABs associated with bee gut microbiota, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously Lactobacillus plantarum) and Apilactobacillus kunkeei (formerly classified as Lactobacillus kunkeei) are two of the most abundant species. In this study, four Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains and four Apilactobacillus kunkeei strains, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were selected for their in vitro inhibition ability of Paenibacillus larvae ATCC 9545 and Melissococccus plutonius ATCC 35311. In addition, these LABs have been characterized through some biochemical and functional characteristics: cell surface properties (hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation), carbohydrates assimilation and enzymatic activities. The antimicrobial, biochemical and cell surface properties of these LABs have been functional to their candidature as potential probiotics in beekeeping and for the biocontrol of AFB and EFB diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Blood Metabolites and Feed Utilization Efficiency in Thai-Native-Anglo-Nubian Goats Fed a Concentrate Diet Including Yeast Fermented Palm Kernel Cake Instead of Soybean Meal
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050235 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Feed is the most expensive component in goat production. Hence, lowering it is crucial to increasing producer profitability. The microbial community in rumen is vital for nutritional digestion and absorption in ruminants. Live yeast and yeast-based products generated from the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae [...] Read more.
Feed is the most expensive component in goat production. Hence, lowering it is crucial to increasing producer profitability. The microbial community in rumen is vital for nutritional digestion and absorption in ruminants. Live yeast and yeast-based products generated from the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commercial strain) are actively being used and investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting soybean meal (SBM) in concentrate diets with yeast-fermented palm kernel cake protein (YFPKCP) on dry matter intake, digestibility, blood markers, and nitrogen balance. Five crossbred Thai Native-Anglo-Nubian goats (50% Thai Native goats with 50% Anglo-Nubian goats) weighing an average of 27 ± 2 kg were randomly allocated to one of five diets using a 5 × 5 Latin square design: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% YFPKCP replacement for SBM. Plicatulum hay (Paspalum plicatulum Michx.) was provided ad libitum. There were no significant differences in dry matter (DM) intake among treatments, but the apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were affected (p < 0.05) by including YFPKCP in diets. They also tended to be slightly lower for goats fed the diet containing 100% YFPKCP replacement for SBM compared to other treatments. Ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), blood glucose, and packed cell volume were equivalent among treatments. On the other hand, replacement YFPKCP reduced digestibility and N absorption by up to 75% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference in total volatile fatty-acid concentration among goats fed YFPKCP as a substitute for SBM. According to the results of this study, the level of YFPKCP in the concentrate replacement of SBM for goats fed plicatulum hay should be 75%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural By-Products in Animal Nutrition)
Case Report
Retroperitoneal Metastatic Apocrine Gland Ductal Adenocarcinoma in a Beagle Dog
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050234 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Tumors of sweat glands usually originate from apocrine glands and can develop throughout the body but are rare in dogs. This report describes the retroperitoneal metastasis of primary cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma. An 8-year-old, spayed female beagle dog, weighing 11.7 kg, presented with a [...] Read more.
Tumors of sweat glands usually originate from apocrine glands and can develop throughout the body but are rare in dogs. This report describes the retroperitoneal metastasis of primary cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma. An 8-year-old, spayed female beagle dog, weighing 11.7 kg, presented with a history of anorexia, hypodynamia, and weight loss. Clinical examination, radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography revealed a skin mass on the dorsum of the right metatarsal region, an enlarged ipsilateral popliteal lymph node, and a retroperitoneal mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the popliteal lymph node suggested metastasis of an apocrine sweat gland tumor. Surgical excision of the skin mass, popliteal lymph node, and retroperitoneal mass was performed. The retroperitoneal mass was diagnosed as a metastasis of primary cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7 but negative for cytokeratin 20 and S100 proteins. There were no postoperative complications, except for temporary hindlimb edema, including local recurrence or metastasis, in the 6-month postoperative follow-up period. This case illustrates that although malignant apocrine gland tumors are rare in dogs, a wide resection of primary cutaneous apocrine gland adenocarcinomas is recommended because of the risk of local invasion or distant metastasis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sucrose Inclusion in Gestating and Lactating Diets of Sows Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Post-Weaning Pigs for Sweet Solutions
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050233 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Pigs display an innate preference for sweet taste compounds such as sucrose. However, the influence of sucrose supplementation into maternal diets has not been examined in pigs. We tested the hypothesis that sucrose inclusion into sows’ diets would modify the feeding behavior of [...] Read more.
Pigs display an innate preference for sweet taste compounds such as sucrose. However, the influence of sucrose supplementation into maternal diets has not been examined in pigs. We tested the hypothesis that sucrose inclusion into sows’ diets would modify the feeding behavior of post-weaning pigs for sweet and umami solutions. Twenty-two sows (85 days of gestation) were used. They randomly received a gestational and lactating diet with or without 50 g/kg of sucrose. Different sucrose and monosodium glutamate solutions were offered to the progeny to analyze different intake behavior measurements during nursery. Pigs born from treated sows presented a higher sucrose threshold than control animals (15 mM vs. 0.1 mM, p = 0.032) and displayed decreased sensory-motivated intake for this disaccharide (p < 0.023). Sucrose consumption decreased (p < 0.021) in pigs born from treated sows, as well as the consumption patterns for the less concentrated solutions (p < 0.014). The inclusion of sucrose into maternal diets (gestation and lactation) could modified pigs’ feeding behavior after weaning when offered sweet solutions, which speaks against the practicality of this supplementation in pig production systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Nutrition, Intestinal Health, and Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence of Toxocara Eggs in Public Parks in the City of Valencia (Eastern Spain)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050232 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Toxocara spp. is one of the most common zoonotic geohelminths in the world. Its infections are associated with the accidental ingestion of contaminated soil and affecting, especially children. In this study, feces, and soil samples from 14 public parks in the city of [...] Read more.
Toxocara spp. is one of the most common zoonotic geohelminths in the world. Its infections are associated with the accidental ingestion of contaminated soil and affecting, especially children. In this study, feces, and soil samples from 14 public parks in the city of Valencia were analyzed. The Telemann method and a modified version of a sieving technique were used to process feces and soil, respectively. None of the fecal samples and 10.9% of soil samples from five parks (35.7%) tested positive for the presence of Toxocara eggs. The most contaminated areas were the canine sanitary parks (30.8% of the samples), followed by socialization areas for dogs (9.7%); no positive samples were found at children’s playgrounds. Our results suggest that most pets in Valencia are periodically dewormed, although additional preventive measures should be applied, since the risk of infection exists probably due to the presence of stray dogs and feral cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Risk Factors for Severe and Fatal Heat-Related Illness in UK Dogs—A VetCompass Study
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050231 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 5072
Abstract
Heat-related illness (HRI) is predicted to increase in dogs due to rising global temperatures. This study evaluated retrospective VetCompass veterinary clinical records to explore geographical variability and ambient conditions associated with HRI events in UK dogs, and report the intrinsic (canine) and extrinsic [...] Read more.
Heat-related illness (HRI) is predicted to increase in dogs due to rising global temperatures. This study evaluated retrospective VetCompass veterinary clinical records to explore geographical variability and ambient conditions associated with HRI events in UK dogs, and report the intrinsic (canine) and extrinsic (location, trigger, ambient weather) risk factors for severe disease and fatal outcome in dogs affected by HRI. Dogs living in London had the greatest odds for developing HRI compared with dogs living in the North West (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.31–2.74). The median ambient temperature on days of HRI events was 16.9 °C. For dogs with HRI, age, bodyweight and trigger were risk factors associated with severe disease. Age, skull shape and clinical grade of HRI presentation were associated with a fatal outcome. Whilst the majority of HRI events overall were triggered by exertion, the risk of severe disease was greater in situations where dogs could not escape the heat source (vehicular confinement), and the risk of death in HRI cases was greater for those dogs with reduced capacity to thermoregulate (older and brachycephalic dogs). These results highlight the need for better owner awareness of the factors that increase the risk of severe and fatal HRI, as a first stage in protecting canine welfare in the face of rising global temperatures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Technical Note
A Novel Oral Endoscopic Biopsy Procedure to Obtain Rumen Epithelial Samples
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050230 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 932
Abstract
Most in vivo studies related to ruminal development in calves use invasive techniques involving rumen-fistulated or euthanized animals. In consideration of animal welfare, we developed an oral endoscopic biopsy procedure to allow the obtaining of rumen epithelial samples, thus serving as an alternative [...] Read more.
Most in vivo studies related to ruminal development in calves use invasive techniques involving rumen-fistulated or euthanized animals. In consideration of animal welfare, we developed an oral endoscopic biopsy procedure to allow the obtaining of rumen epithelial samples, thus serving as an alternative for measuring the height and width of rumen papillae in calves in a safe, quick, and efficient manner that allows the slaughtering of calves to be avoided. This procedure was tested on 12 Brangus crossbred calves randomly distributed in two groups, with one fed a meal starter and the other an extruded starter feed. Calves underwent a 12-h fasting period, were restrained in a squeeze chute, administered a dose of atropine, and sedated with xylazine before the oral endoscopic biopsy procedure. A 120 cm long Olympus® oral flexible video endoscope and forceps were used to collect cranial–dorsal sac rumen epithelial tissue samples of approximately 0.5 mm. Endoscopy was successful in all 12 calves and the collected tissue samples were placed in formalin (10%) for further processing for obtaining rumen papillae measurements. Consumption of the extruded starter feed resulted in the increased (p = 0.035) width of rumen papillae. The oral endoscopic biopsy procedure implemented in this study was demonstrated to be successful and is thus an alternative technique for studying rumen epithelial development and morphometric alterations in calf rumen tissue. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Acute Blood Loss on Clinical, Hematological, Biochemical, and Oxidative Stress Variables in Sheep
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050229 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Blood loss in sheep can have different causes and may result in anemia. We aimed to evaluate the clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations and the oxidative stress generated by acute blood loss. Eighteen healthy sheep underwent phlebotomy to remove 40% of the blood [...] Read more.
Blood loss in sheep can have different causes and may result in anemia. We aimed to evaluate the clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations and the oxidative stress generated by acute blood loss. Eighteen healthy sheep underwent phlebotomy to remove 40% of the blood volume and were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests for clinical, biochemical, and blood gas variables and to assess oxidative stress before induction (T0), 30 min (T30 min), and 6 (T6 h), 12 (T12 h), and 24 h (T24 h) after blood loss. The sheep showed tachycardia from T30 min until T24 h, reduction in the hematocrit, number of erythrocytes, and hemoglobin concentration, with lower values at T24 h and increase in the number of leukocytes from T12 h on. There was a reduction in blood pH and oxygen pressure at T30 min, increased lactate concentration and reduced blood bicarbonate at this time. There was an increase in urea concentration from T6 h until the end of the study, with no change in creatinine levels. The animals did not show changes in the concentration of malonaldehyde, and in the activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, but there was a reduction in the concentration of reduced glutathione at T24 h. The acute loss of 40% of blood volume is capable of promoting relevant clinical, hematological, blood gas, and biochemical alterations, and contributed to the appearance of oxidative stress with reduced glutathione concentration, suggesting that this process generated free radicals in sufficient quantity to diminish the action of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Clinical Pathology and Diagnostic Research)
Article
Helicobacter spp. in the Stomach of Cats: Successful Colonization and Absence of Relevant Histopathological Alterations Reveals High Adaptation to the Host Gastric Niche
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050228 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
In addition to Helicobacter pylori, many non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters (NHPH) are able to cause gastric disease in humans. Cats are a natural reservoir for many of these species. Accordingly, living in close and intimate contact with animals has been identified as [...] Read more.
In addition to Helicobacter pylori, many non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters (NHPH) are able to cause gastric disease in humans. Cats are a natural reservoir for many of these species. Accordingly, living in close and intimate contact with animals has been identified as a risk factor, and an important zoonotic significance has therefore been attributed to NHPH. To determine the prevalence and associated gastric histopathological changes of Helicobacter species, the gastric mucosa of 71 cats were evaluated. Only four presented normal histopathological mucosa with the absence of spiral-shaped organisms. Normal gastric mucosa and the presence of spiral-shaped bacteria were observed in 13 cats. The remaining animals presented histopathological changes representative of gastritis. Helicobacter species were detected in 53 cats (74.6%) by at least one detection method. None of the animals were positive for H. pylori or for H. ailurogastricus. Helicobacter heilmannii organisms were identified in 20 animals, predominantly in the body gastric region. Helicobacter salomonis was the second most prevalent species (57.1%), although it was mainly found in association with other NHPH. Helicobacter felis and H. bizzozeronii were less frequently detected. The great majority of the Helicobacter spp. PCR-positive animals presented normal features regarding fibrosis/mucosal atrophy, neutrophils, eosinophils, or other inflammatory cells and lymphofollicular hyperplasia. Given the controversy and the strong evidence of absence of significant histopathological alterations associated with the presence of Helicobacter spp. in cats, it is possible to hypothesize that these bacteria may be able to adapt to the feline gastric microenvironment or even to comprise part of the gastric microbiome of this animal species. Thus, prudency must be taken when prescribing an antibiotic therapy based solely on the presence of these bacteria in the feline stomach. Full article
Article
Biological Compositions of Canine Amniotic Membrane and Its Extracts and the Investigation of Corneal Wound Healing Efficacy In Vitro
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050227 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 984
Abstract
The usage of canine amniotic membrane (cAM) is mainly of interest in veterinary ophthalmology. Topical formulations of cAM could deliver the beneficial properties of cAM without the need for surgical intervention. The present study aimed to investigate biological compositions of cAM and its [...] Read more.
The usage of canine amniotic membrane (cAM) is mainly of interest in veterinary ophthalmology. Topical formulations of cAM could deliver the beneficial properties of cAM without the need for surgical intervention. The present study aimed to investigate biological compositions of cAM and its extracts, including their corneal wound healing efficacy. In this study, canine amniotic membrane extract (cAME) and lyophilized canine amniotic membrane extract (cAMX) were developed. Bioactive molecules related to corneal wound healing, including hepatocyte growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2, Thrombospondin-1 and Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were studied at both gene and protein expression levels. Cell viability and wound healing assays were investigated for the possibility of cAME and cAMX as topical applications. The results demonstrated that all of the relevant genes and proteins were detected in cAM, cAME and cAMX. Both cAME and cAMX showed wound healing properties in vitro and cAME at 1.0 mg/mL concentration appeared to have the best healing efficacy. In conclusion, cAME and cAMX generated for topical use provided promising results in the healing of corneal defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Hygienic Status of Different Forage Types for Horses—A Retrospective Study on Influencing Factors and Associations with Anamnestic Reports
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050226 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The hygienic quality of forage for horses is discussed as a potential health hazard, especially regarding respiratory diseases, colic, and hepatopathies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relations between microbiological counts, as well as endotoxin levels and disease [...] Read more.
The hygienic quality of forage for horses is discussed as a potential health hazard, especially regarding respiratory diseases, colic, and hepatopathies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relations between microbiological counts, as well as endotoxin levels and disease symptoms. Data from microbiological examination reports were analyzed retrospectively, including the results of sensory examination, microbiological counts, and lipopolysaccharide contents. Sensory analysis gave an indication of deficiencies in microbiological analysis, but both methods did not give consistently equivalent results regarding the hygienic status of forage. The strongest agreements between sensory and microbiological findings were demonstrated in haylage regarding mold contamination. The influences of dry matter content on microbiological quality could be shown in haylage and hay, whereas this did not apply to straw. Deviations regarding molds and the detection of Aspergillus species occurred, especially in haylage, with values above 70% DM detected (39.6%, p=0.0021 and 47.2%, p = 0.0393). Aspergillus was detected more frequently, and average counts were higher in samples that were suspected to induce coughing in horses (p = 0.0118 and p = 0.0313, respectively). The results of the present study emphasize the importance of feed hygiene for equine respiratory health and the need for the microbiological examination of feedstuffs, since sensory analysis cannot provide an error-free prediction of microbial counts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in Veterinary Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Expression of Nerve Growth Factor and Its Receptor TrkA in the Reproductive System of Adult Zebrafish
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050225 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has emerged as an active mediator in different crucial events in the peripheral and central nervous system. At the same time, several studies showed that this neurotrophin can also play a role in [...] Read more.
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has emerged as an active mediator in different crucial events in the peripheral and central nervous system. At the same time, several studies showed that this neurotrophin can also play a role in non-neuronal tissues (e.g., among gonads). In spite of a large number of studies present in mammals, investigations devoted to NGF and its receptor TrkA in the reproductive system of other animal models, such as teleost fish, are scarce. To increase our knowledge of NGF and its receptor in a vertebrate gonads model, the present report describes the expression patterns of ngf and trka mRNA in the testis and ovary of adult zebrafish. By using chromogenic and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that in the testis of adult zebrafish, ngf and its receptor trka are mainly expressed in spermatogony B and spermatocytes. In the ovary of this fish, ngf and trka are expressed at different stages of oocyte development. Altogether, these results show that this neurotrophin and its receptor have an important role in the reproductive system that is conserved during vertebrate evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropeptides: Role and Function in Species of Veterinary Interest)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
ProAKAP4 Semen Concentrations as a Valuable Marker Protein of Post-Thawed Semen Quality and Bull Fertility: A Retrospective Study
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050224 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Functional sperm quality markers to predict bull fertility have been actively investigated. Among them, proAKAP4, which is the precursor of AKAP4, the main structural protein in the fibrous sheath of spermatozoa; appears to be promising, especially since spermatozoa lacking AKAP4 expression were shown [...] Read more.
Functional sperm quality markers to predict bull fertility have been actively investigated. Among them, proAKAP4, which is the precursor of AKAP4, the main structural protein in the fibrous sheath of spermatozoa; appears to be promising, especially since spermatozoa lacking AKAP4 expression were shown to be immotile, abnormal, and infertile. In this study, the objective was to evaluate proAKAP4 concentration values with the classic sperm motility descriptors and fertility outcomes (NRR at 90 days) in post-thawed conditions of 10 bulls’ semen. ProAKAP4 expression was confirmed by Western blotting and proAKAP4 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Variations in proAKAP4 concentrations were observed independently of the motility sperm descriptors measured using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). A ProAKAP4 concentration of 38.67 ± 8.55 ng/10 million spermatozoa was obtained as a statistical mean of all samples. Threshold values of proAKAP4 were then determined between 19.96 to 96.95 ng/10 million spermatozoa. ProAKAP4 concentrations were positively correlated with progressive motility and the linearity coefficient. The sperm showing the lowest progressive motility were the samples exhibiting proAKAP4 concentrations below 20 ng/10 million spermatozoa. Furthermore, proAKAP4 concentrations were significantly higher in bulls with a higher NRR in the field. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the semen concentration of proAKAP4 and NRR-90d (p = 0.05) in post-thawed bull semen, highlighting the potential of proAKAP4 as a predictive marker of bull fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in Domestic Mammals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Vagally Associated Second Degree Atrio-Ventricular Block in a Dog with Severe Azotemia and Evidence of Sympathetic Overdrive
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050223 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 977
Abstract
A 14 years old, 6 kg, mix-breed male dog with severe azotemia due to urinary bladder herniation was presented to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH). Electrocardiography revealed normal heart rate of 100 bpm, evidence of sinus respiratory arrhythmia (SRA) and frequent second degree [...] Read more.
A 14 years old, 6 kg, mix-breed male dog with severe azotemia due to urinary bladder herniation was presented to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH). Electrocardiography revealed normal heart rate of 100 bpm, evidence of sinus respiratory arrhythmia (SRA) and frequent second degree atrio-ventricular block following peak inspiratory phase suggestive of vagally-induced atrio-ventricular conduction delay. Echocardiographic examination showed mild mitral regurgitation without any other cardiac changes, and systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) blood pressure values were 185/90 mmHg (SAP/DAP). Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was increased to 7.3 ng/mL, suggesting a myocardial injury. A Holter examination revealed evidence of overall decrease in heart rate variability with evidence of sympathetic overdrive on time and frequency domain as well as when the non-linear Poincaré plot was analyzed. Based on the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of a second degree atrio-ventricular block associated with vagal activity in a dog, with evidence of sympathetic overdrive and severe azotemia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
ASIP Promoter Variants Predict the Sesame Coat Color in Shiba Inu Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050222 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Animals exhibit a wide variety of genetically determined coat colors and pigmentation patterns that serve important roles in adaptation and communication. Although the genetics of the main coat colors in dogs have been studied extensively, there are types of coat pigmentation that have [...] Read more.
Animals exhibit a wide variety of genetically determined coat colors and pigmentation patterns that serve important roles in adaptation and communication. Although the genetics of the main coat colors in dogs have been studied extensively, there are types of coat pigmentation that have not been explained yet. Recently, an association between the variants in the ASIP gene Ventral (VP) and Hair Cycle (HCP) promoters with different coat colors in dogs has been established. Here, we used the new findings as a basis to investigate the genetics of the red sesame coat color in Shiba Inu dogs. Our study revealed that red sesame dogs carry a specific heterozygous ASIP promoter diplotype, VP2-HCP1/VP2-HCP3, where VP2-HCP1 is responsible for the red coat with a dark overlay, and VP2-HCP3 for a tan point-like pattern. This finding explains the inheritance of this coat color pattern and can be used by breeders to produce dogs with this rare phenotype. A comparison of sesame dogs (VP2-HCP1/VP2-HCP3) to a dog homozygous for the VP2-HCP1 promoter haplotype suggests that the incomplete dominance between the ASIP alleles may be involved in the sesame coat formation. These results are in good agreement with the new model explaining how different levels of ASIP gene expression affect the regulation of pigment synthesis in melanocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Molecular Detection and Differentiation of Arthropod, Fungal, Protozoan, Bacterial and Viral Pathogens of Honeybees
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050221 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The honeybee Apis mellifera is highly appreciated worldwide because of its products, but also as it is a pollinator of crops and wild plants. The beehive is vulnerable to infections due to arthropods, fungi, protozoa, bacteria and/or viruses that manage to by-pass the [...] Read more.
The honeybee Apis mellifera is highly appreciated worldwide because of its products, but also as it is a pollinator of crops and wild plants. The beehive is vulnerable to infections due to arthropods, fungi, protozoa, bacteria and/or viruses that manage to by-pass the individual and social immune mechanisms of bees. Due to the close proximity of bees in the beehive and their foraging habits, infections easily spread within and between beehives. Moreover, international trade of bees has caused the global spread of infections, several of which result in significant losses for apiculture. Only in a few cases can infections be diagnosed with the naked eye, by direct observation of the pathogen in the case of some arthropods, or by pathogen-associated distinctive traits. Development of molecular methods based on the amplification and analysis of one or more genes or genomic segments has brought significant progress to the study of bee pathogens, allowing for: (i) the precise and sensitive identification of the infectious agent; (ii) the analysis of co-infections; (iii) the description of novel species; (iv) associations between geno- and pheno-types and (v) population structure studies. Sequencing of bee pathogen genomes has allowed for the identification of new molecular targets and the development of specific genotypification strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Pathogens and Parasites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Red Ginseng Byproducts on Rumen Fermentation, Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Heat-Stressed Fattening Hanwoo Steers
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci9050220 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with red ginseng byproduct (RGB) on rumen fermentation, growth performance, blood metabolites, and mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) in fattening Hanwoo steers under heat stress. Two experimental total [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with red ginseng byproduct (RGB) on rumen fermentation, growth performance, blood metabolites, and mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) in fattening Hanwoo steers under heat stress. Two experimental total mixed rations (TMR) were prepared: (1) a TMR meeting the requirement of fattening beef having an average daily gain (ADG) 0.8 kg/day (CON) and (2) a TMR that included 2% RGB on a dry matter (DM) basis (GINSENG). In vitro rumen fermentation and in vivo growth experiments were conducted using two experimental diets. A total of 22 Hanwoo steers were distributed to two treatments (CON vs. GINSENG) in a completely randomized block design according to body weight (BW). The experiment was conducted during the summer season for five weeks. The final BW, ADG, DM intake, and feed conversion ratio did not differ between treatments in the growth trial. In the mRNA expression results, only HSP 90 showed an increasing tendency in the GINSENG group. The use of 2%DM RGB did not improve the growth performance or alleviate heat stress in fattening Hanwoo steers during the summer season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural By-Products in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop