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Geriatrics, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 45 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Vertical Micro Acceleration While Standing Reveals Age-Related Changes
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040105 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the fluctuation characteristics of micro vertical acceleration of center of mass (vCOMacc) in standing and examined the usefulness of vCOMacc as an aging marker for standing control abilities. Sixteen young and 18 older adults participated in this experiment. [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the fluctuation characteristics of micro vertical acceleration of center of mass (vCOMacc) in standing and examined the usefulness of vCOMacc as an aging marker for standing control abilities. Sixteen young and 18 older adults participated in this experiment. Data for vCOMacc were calculated as the vertical ground reaction force value divided by each participant’s body mass using a force plate. The COMacc frequency structure was determined using the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the relative frequency characteristics. For time domain analysis, we determined the root mean square (RMS) and maximum amplitude (MA) of the integrated power spectral density. We also analyzed the correlation between vCOMacc and lower limb muscle activity. The relative frequency band of vCOMacc was higher in older than young adults, and the time domain indicators were sufficient to distinguish the effects of aging. Regarding the relationship between vCOMacc during standing and muscle activity, a correlation was found with the soleus muscle in young adults, while it was moderately correlated with the gastrocnemius muscle in older adults. The cause of vCOM may be related to differences in muscle activity, and vCOMacc may be utilized to more easily assess the effects of aging in standing control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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Open AccessEditorial
New Variations on the Theme of Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5040104 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Geriatric assessment—broadly defined—has become foundational to systems of care for frail elderly people at risk for functional decline, death, intensification of services, and long-term institutionalization [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experience of Elderly People Regarding the Effect of Yoga/Light Exercise on Sedentary Behavior: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study in Madhya Pradesh, India
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040103 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 475
Abstract
This study is set on the background of a randomized control trial (RCT) in which intervention was carried to observe the effects of yoga/light exercise on the improvement in health and well-being among the elderly population. A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted as [...] Read more.
This study is set on the background of a randomized control trial (RCT) in which intervention was carried to observe the effects of yoga/light exercise on the improvement in health and well-being among the elderly population. A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted as part of RCT interventions to explore the experience of the elderly practicing yoga/light exercise in relation to sedentary behavior in the Ujjain district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants of the RCT were selected for this study. Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted—six during each phase of RCT interventions (before, during, and after). The findings regarding motivating and demotivating factors in various phases of intervention were presented in three categories: experience and perception of the effects of yoga/light exercise on sedentary behavior (1) before, (2) during, and (3) after intervention. This study explores the positive effect of yoga/light exercise on sedentary behavior and subjective well-being on the elderly population. They were recognized to have undergone changes in their physical and emotional well-being by consistently practicing yoga/light exercise. The main driving factors were periodic health check-ups and the encouragement of qualified trainers without any cost. This study concludes with the notion that these interventions should be encouraged in the community to use physical exercise as a method to better control the physical and social effects of aging. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Life of Older Individuals Following the World Health Organization Assessment Criteria
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040102 - 05 Dec 2020
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric qualities of the WHOQOL-BREF(PT) (the questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Grpup for quality of life assessment), when applied to Portuguese elderly people residing in a community setting. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric qualities of the WHOQOL-BREF(PT) (the questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Grpup for quality of life assessment), when applied to Portuguese elderly people residing in a community setting. The psychometric qualities were assessed by confirmatory factor analysis. A hierarchical second-order model and a third model were performed, and all three models presented similar and reasonable adjustment indexes. The data analysis showed that the construct failed only regarding discriminant validity because the correlations between the first-order factors were higher, associated with lower values of average variance extracted. The psychometric qualities found in the original translation/validation of the WHOQOL-BREF(PT) were compared with those found in this study; this study found higher correlations between domains but a similar level of factor reliability. The findings of this study lead to three recommendations: (i) to compute each factor score for each participant using the factor score weights obtained from confirmatory analysis models instead of adopting a unitary weight for each item, as proposed by the authors of the original translation/validation of the WHOQOL-BREF(PT); (ii) to compute a QOL score, which is not included in the original translation/validation; and (iii) to analyze differences between individual scores for each participants, which should be done by a group of health experts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Meet Frail Older People’s Needs? Results from the Randomized Controlled Study CGA-Swed
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040101 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Background: The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) designed to manage frail older people requiring acute medical care, is responsible for diagnostics, assessment, treatment, and planning while addressing a person’s medical, psychological, social, and functional capabilities. The aim was to investigate if CGA had an [...] Read more.
Background: The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) designed to manage frail older people requiring acute medical care, is responsible for diagnostics, assessment, treatment, and planning while addressing a person’s medical, psychological, social, and functional capabilities. The aim was to investigate if CGA had an impact on frail older people’s activities of daily living (ADL) status, self-rated health, and satisfaction with hospital care. Methods: A two-armed design with frail people aged 75 or older who required an unplanned hospital admission were randomized to either the CGA ward or to an acute medical ward. Analyses were made based on the intention-to-treat principle (ITT). The primary outcome was ADL. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and odds ratio. A subgroup analysis was performed due to non-adherence and contamination. Results: One-hundred and fifty-five people participated in the study; 78 in the intervention and 77 in the control. Participants in the intervention group had a higher odds ratio of reporting having received written information and felt that care met their needs during their hospital stay. No additional statistically significant results for the primary or secondary outcomes in the ITT analysis were achieved. Conclusion: Participants felt that the care they received with the CGA ward met their needs. The lack of additional results supporting the CGA could be due to difficulties performing pragmatic intervention trials in clinical hospital settings, and because a CGA during one hospital stay is probably not enough to have long-term effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rehabilitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Intake, Protein Mealtime Distribution and Seafood Consumption in Elderly Norwegians: Associations with Physical Function and Strength
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040100 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Protein intake is considered important in the maintenance of muscle health in ageing. However, both the source and mealtime distribution of protein might affect the intake of protein and its effect on muscle protein synthesis. In this study, protein intake, mealtime distribution of [...] Read more.
Protein intake is considered important in the maintenance of muscle health in ageing. However, both the source and mealtime distribution of protein might affect the intake of protein and its effect on muscle protein synthesis. In this study, protein intake, mealtime distribution of protein, and seafood consumption were assessed in 92 older adults (aged 65+), and associations with physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)), grip strength and gait speed were assessed in a multiple linear regression analysis. The participants had a mean age of 73 ± 8.9 years. Mean protein intake was 1.1 g/kg body weight. Protein intake was well distributed, with coefficient of variance between meals (CV meals) 0.6 ± 0.3. However, dinner had the highest protein intake. No associations were found between the nutrition factors and physical performance or strength; however, this result might have been caused by a ceiling effect in the chosen test batteries, as the mean score on SPPB was 10.3 ± 2.7, and 48.9% of the participants reached the top score of 12 points. Mean grip strength was 44.4 ± 9.4 kg (men) and 26.2 ± 6.8 kg (women). Mean gait speed was 1.0 ± 0.3 m/s. The interaction analysis suggests that there might be gender differences in the effect of seafood consumption on gait speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Persons)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship of Prevalent Fragility Fracture in Dementia Patients: Three Years Follow up Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040099 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
Introduction: dementia increases the risk of falls by 2–3 times and cognitively impaired patients are three times more likely to have hip fracture following a fall when compared to cognitively intact individuals. However, there is not enough evidence that explores the relationship between [...] Read more.
Introduction: dementia increases the risk of falls by 2–3 times and cognitively impaired patients are three times more likely to have hip fracture following a fall when compared to cognitively intact individuals. However, there is not enough evidence that explores the relationship between dementia and fragility fractures. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships of prevalent fragility fracture in patients with dementia admitted with an acute illness to the hospital. Methods: the existing Health Board records were reviewed retrospectively for all patients admitted diagnosed with dementia in the year 2016. All patients were followed up for a maximum of three years. All of the the dementia patients were divided into three groups: group 1—“no fractures”; group 2—“all fractures”; group 3—“fragility fractures”. Clinical outcomes were analysed for hospital stay, discharge destination (new care home), post-discharge hip fracture data, and mortality. Results: dementia patients with a prevalent fracture were significantly older, 62% were women. A significantly higher proportion of dementia patients with prevalent fractures were care home residents and taking a significantly higher number of medications. The mean Charlson comorbidity index was similar in patients with or without fracture. Dementia patients with a prevalent fracture required a new care home and this is significantly higher when compared to those with no fracture. Mortality at one year and three year was not statistically different in patients with or without prevalent fractures. A significantly higher number (21.5%) of dementia patients with prevalent fragility fracture sustained a new hip fracture when compared to those with no prevalent osteoporotic fracture (2.9%) over the three years follow up (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: dementia patients with a prevalent fragility fracture is associated with a statistically significant higher risk of a new care home placement following acute hospital admission. This sub-group is also at risk of a new hip fracture in the next three years. Whilst clinical judgement remains crucial in the care of frail older people, it is prudent to consider medical management of osteoporosis in dementia if deemed to be beneficial following the comprehensive geriatric assessment. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Responding to COVID-19: Lessons Learned from a Senior Living and Social Service Organization
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040098 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 731
Abstract
This case study analyzes one senior living and social service organization’s coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis response. We conducted interviews with n = 14 department managers to explore the organization’s pivot to remote work and service provision. We used the Pearson and Mitroff Crisis Management [...] Read more.
This case study analyzes one senior living and social service organization’s coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis response. We conducted interviews with n = 14 department managers to explore the organization’s pivot to remote work and service provision. We used the Pearson and Mitroff Crisis Management Framework to organize themes. A pre-existing culture of teamwork, willingness to adapt and adopt new approaches, and responsiveness to new policies and procedures facilitated the COVID-19 crisis response. However, low levels of digital literacy among staff, decreased job satisfaction due to no face-to-face interaction between care recipient and service provider, and lack of proactive policies for crisis response, which decreased the speed of enacting remote service provision, were obstacles in effective crisis response. Lessons learned from this case study highlight the need for pre-emptive policy creation on remote service provision and work from home policies, as well as training considerations for senior living and social service organizations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Adherence to Beers Criteria in Geriatrics: A Retrospective Study in a Saudi Teaching Hospital
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040097 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Background: The aging process makes geriatric populations more prone to various chronic diseases. Such diseases require older patients to be on more medications than any other age group and make them more susceptible to adverse drug events related to potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). [...] Read more.
Background: The aging process makes geriatric populations more prone to various chronic diseases. Such diseases require older patients to be on more medications than any other age group and make them more susceptible to adverse drug events related to potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Aim: To identify the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications among older people and explore the most commonly prescribed PIMs in hospitalized patients. Design and Setting: A retrospective study conducted in a large tertiary hospital among patients hospitalized in a 4 year period from January 2015 to December 2018. Methods: The 2019 Beers Criteria were used to assess PIMs in all inpatient prescribed medications focusing on the first class (i.e., drug/drug class to be avoided in older adults). Results: The mean age was 75.17 ± 7.66 years. A total of 684 (80.6%) patients were prescribed at least one medication listed in the first-class category of the 2019 Beers Criteria. Top five drugs were proton pump inhibitors (40.3%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (10.2%), metoclopramide (9.3%), benzodiazepines (8.4%), and insulin (5.4%). Conclusions: The prevalence of PIMs is high among older patients admitted to the hospital. More efforts are needed to investigate the potential reasons and develop action plans to improve concordance to Beers Criteria among healthcare providers. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
The Impact of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Metropolitan City of Naples
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040096 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Urinary incontinence is a hygienic and psychosocial problem that often brings people to restrict their social life and to experience depression. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life among residents of the [...] Read more.
Urinary incontinence is a hygienic and psychosocial problem that often brings people to restrict their social life and to experience depression. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life among residents of the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy, using a newly designed multidimensional questionnaire. The secondary objective was to find which variables affect the quality of life and symptom severity in these patients. To do so, a sample composed of twenty-eight patients was recruited in a multicentre cross-sectional study. Most of the participants had a mild impairment (60%) concerning social life and self-perception, especially those whose education was above the primary level (p = 0.036) and those who followed a pelvic floor rehabilitation program (p = 0.002). Overflow urinary incontinence was associated with a greater deterioration in the aspirational and occupational domain (p = 0.044). Symptom severity was worse in those who had comorbidities (p = 0.038), who had a high body mass index (p = 0.008) or who used diuretics (p = 0.007). In conclusion, our results suggest that there is a significant impairment of quality of life in patients who have only primary education and who follow a pelvic floor rehabilitation program. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutrients and Pathways that Regulate Health Span and Life Span
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040095 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 937
Abstract
Both life span and health span are influenced by genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. With the genetic influence on human life span estimated to be about 20–25%, epigenetic changes play an important role in modulating individual health status and aging. Thus, a main [...] Read more.
Both life span and health span are influenced by genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. With the genetic influence on human life span estimated to be about 20–25%, epigenetic changes play an important role in modulating individual health status and aging. Thus, a main part of life expectance and healthy aging is determined by dietary habits and nutritional factors. Excessive or restricted food consumption have direct effects on health status. Moreover, some dietary interventions including a reduced intake of dietary calories without malnutrition, or a restriction of specific dietary component may promote health benefits and decrease the incidence of aging-related comorbidities, thus representing intriguing potential approaches to improve healthy aging. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood as well as the mechanisms by which nutrients and nutritional status may affect health span and longevity in model organisms. The broad effect of different nutritional conditions on health span and longevity occurs through multiple mechanisms that involve evolutionary conserved nutrient-sensing pathways in tissues and organs. These pathways interacting each other include the evolutionary conserved key regulators mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway and sirtuins. In this review we provide a summary of the main molecular mechanisms by which different nutritional conditions, i.e., specific nutrient abundance or restriction, may affect health span and life span. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Persons)
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Open AccessArticle
Missing Diagnosis, Pain, and Loss of Function in Older Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Insufficiency Fractures: A Qualitative Study of the Patient’s Perspective
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040094 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a chronic, progressive inflammation in the joints and leads to substantial pain, disability, and other morbidities. Few studies document the occurrence of insufficiency fractures, but no studies document the patient’s perspective on incurring an insufficiency fracture. The [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a chronic, progressive inflammation in the joints and leads to substantial pain, disability, and other morbidities. Few studies document the occurrence of insufficiency fractures, but no studies document the patient’s perspective on incurring an insufficiency fracture. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the patients’ perspective on how insufficiency fractures influence their level of activity and to detect their need for rehabilitation. Two focus-group interviews were performed with 10 patients diagnosed with RA and insufficiency fractures. The data from the focus-group interviews were subjected to thematic analysis to provide a sense of the important themes. The 10 patients were all females, aged 57–88 years. Magnetic resonance imaging were performed at a mean of six months and seven days. All patients identified the delayed diagnosis of fracture as a significant burden. They experienced pain but did not receive a diagnosis. When the patients were immobilised, some of them were offered aids such as crutches, which they were unable to use due to their RA. The patients needed a focus on diagnosis and individually customised rehabilitation, taking into account RA and including guidance concerning daily activities, aids, and the regain of physical function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rheumatology)
Open AccessArticle
Functional Predictors for Home Discharge after Hip Fracture in Patients Living in Sloped Neighborhoods or Islands: An 8-Year Retrospective Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040093 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Functional predictors of home discharge after hip fractures have been widely reported; however, no study has considered the geographical features surrounding patients’ homes. This study aimed to identify home discharge predictors and determine the cutoff points required for home discharge of patients living [...] Read more.
Functional predictors of home discharge after hip fractures have been widely reported; however, no study has considered the geographical features surrounding patients’ homes. This study aimed to identify home discharge predictors and determine the cutoff points required for home discharge of patients living in sloped neighborhoods or islands. A total of 437 postoperative hip fracture patients were included and classified into the flat, slope, and island groups according to their residential area before the fracture. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant home discharge predictors, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis to calculate cutoff values. In all the groups, the functional independence measure-motor score was a significant home discharge predictor, with cutoff values of 69 for the flat group and 65 points for the slope and island group. In the slope group, the 6-minute walking distance (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.04) and revised Hasegawa dementia scale score (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.12) were also identified as predictors, with cutoff values of 150 m and 18 points, respectively. The outcomes required for home discharge after hip fracture differ depending on the neighborhood terrain, especially for patients living in areas with many slopes and stairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rehabilitation)
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Open AccessEditorial
Frailty Assessment in Clinical Practice: Opportunity in the Midst of a Pandemic
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040092 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Emerging evidence from studies of older adults hospitalised with COVID-19 suggests that there is a high prevalence of frailty in this patient group. We reflect on the measurement of frailty in older patients hospitalized as an emergency and the translation of frailty from [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence from studies of older adults hospitalised with COVID-19 suggests that there is a high prevalence of frailty in this patient group. We reflect on the measurement of frailty in older patients hospitalized as an emergency and the translation of frailty from a research to a clinical concept. We consider whether, despite the contemporary challenges in the care of older adults as a result of COVID-19, there are opportunities for care quality improvement during a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the Elderly)
Open AccessArticle
The Medical Referral Process and Motor-Vehicle Crash Risk for Drivers with Dementia
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040091 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Cognitive and physical impairment can occur with dementia and reduce driving ability. In the United States, individual states have procedures to refer and evaluate drivers who may no longer be fit to drive. The license review process is not well understood for drivers [...] Read more.
Cognitive and physical impairment can occur with dementia and reduce driving ability. In the United States, individual states have procedures to refer and evaluate drivers who may no longer be fit to drive. The license review process is not well understood for drivers with dementia. This study uses comprehensive data from the Iowa Department of Transportation to compare the referral process for drivers with and without dementia from January 2014 through November 2019. The likelihood of failing an evaluation test was compared between drivers with and without dementia using logistic regression. The risk of motor-vehicle crash after referral for review of driving ability was compared using a Cox proportional hazard model. Analysis controlled for the age and sex of the referred driver. Drivers with dementia performed worse on all tests evaluated except the visual screening test. After the referral process, the risk of crash was similar between those with and without dementia. Drivers with dementia were denied their license more frequently than referred drivers without dementia. However, drivers with dementia who successfully kept their license as a result of the license review process were not at an increased risk of crash compared to other referred drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving, Aging, Safety and Health)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Intergroup ‘Skype’ Quiz Sessions in Care Homes to Reduce Loneliness and Social Isolation in Older People
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040090 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Video calls using software such as Skype, Zoom and FaceTime can improve socialisation among older people and family, however it is unknown if video calls are able to improve socialisation among older people and their peers. Twenty-two residents across three British care homes [...] Read more.
Video calls using software such as Skype, Zoom and FaceTime can improve socialisation among older people and family, however it is unknown if video calls are able to improve socialisation among older people and their peers. Twenty-two residents across three British care homes engaged with each other using ‘Skype quiz’ sessions with the support of staff once a month over an eight-month trial. Video calls were accessed via a ‘Skype on Wheels’ intervention that comprised a wheeled device that could hold an iPad, or through Skype TV. Residents met other residents from the three care homes to build new friendships and participate in a thirty-minute quiz session facilitated by eight staff. Staff were collaborators who recruited older people, implemented the intervention and provided feedback that was analysed using thematic analysis. Residents enjoyed being able to see other residents’ faces and surroundings. Analysis of the field notes revealed five themes of: residents with dementia remember faces not technology, inter and intra connectedness, re-gaining sense of self and purpose, situational loneliness overcome and organisational issues create barriers to long-term implementation. Inter-care home connection through video calls to reduce feelings of loneliness in residents seems acceptable and a feasible, low cost model, especially during times of public crisis such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
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Open AccessReview
Associations between Pet Ownership and Frailty: A Systematic Review
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040089 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability due to age-related decline in reserve and function across multiple physiological systems. Increasing physical activity level is considered to be a measure to counteract frailty. Some studies have indicated that pet owners are more [...] Read more.
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability due to age-related decline in reserve and function across multiple physiological systems. Increasing physical activity level is considered to be a measure to counteract frailty. Some studies have indicated that pet owners are more engaged in physical activity than non-owners. We conducted a systematic review regarding associations between pet ownerships and frailty among community-dwelling older adults and critically assessed the findings. PubMed was searched in April 2020 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for cross-sectional or prospective studies examining associations between pet ownership and frailty in community-dwelling older adults with a mean age of 60 or above. A supplementary search was done using Google Scholar. Identified articles were reviewed by two investigators independently and assessed for methodological quality. The search identified 48 studies, among which three studies (two cross-sectional and one prospective) were included in this review. These studies suggested that pet ownership may be associated with a lower risk of frailty. This systematic review found only a limited amount of relevant research. More research is needed to establish the link between pet ownership and frailty as well as healthy aging and well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Convergent Validity of the electronic Frailty Index (eFI) with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040088 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Background: Different scales are being used to measure frailty. This study examined the convergent validity of the electronic Frailty Index (eFI) with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Method: The cross-sectional study recruited patients from three regional community nursing teams in the South East [...] Read more.
Background: Different scales are being used to measure frailty. This study examined the convergent validity of the electronic Frailty Index (eFI) with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Method: The cross-sectional study recruited patients from three regional community nursing teams in the South East of England. The CFS was rated at recruitment, and the eFI was extracted from electronic health records (EHRs). A McNemar test of paired data was used to compare discordant pairs between the eFI and the CFS, and an exact McNemar Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated. Findings: Of 265 eligible patients consented, 150 (57%) were female, with a mean age of 85.6 years (SD = 7.8), and 78% were 80 years and older. Using the CFS, 68% were estimated to be moderate to severely frail, compared to 91% using the eFI. The eFI recorded a greater degree of frailty than the CFS (OR = 5.43, 95%CI 3.05 to 10.40; p < 0.001). This increased to 7.8 times more likely in men, and 9.5 times in those aged over 80 years. Conclusions: This study found that the eFI overestimates the frailty status of community dwelling older people. Overestimating frailty may impact on the demand of resources required for further management and treatment of those identified as being frail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Determining the Choice of a Career in Geriatrics among Students in Geriatric in-Hospital Training: A Prospective Study of 74 Medical Students
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040087 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
To understand why students in the 2nd cycle of medical studies choose to complete a Diploma of Specialized Studies (DSS) in geriatrics, we conducted a study to identify the factors influencing the choice of a future specialty. In addition, we assessed the impact [...] Read more.
To understand why students in the 2nd cycle of medical studies choose to complete a Diploma of Specialized Studies (DSS) in geriatrics, we conducted a study to identify the factors influencing the choice of a future specialty. In addition, we assessed the impact of clinical in-hospital training (CIHT) in a geriatric hospital on the students’ selection of their future specialty. We included all students who completed CIHT in the geriatric facility of our University Hospital between 1 May and 31 October 2018. Data were collected using a two-part questionnaire: one part was given before CIHT and the other after. The students were classified into two groups: those considering a career in geriatrics (CIG) before CIHT, forming the group DSS geriatrics+ (GDSSG+), and those not considering it, constituting the group DSS geriatrics− (GDSSG−). Seventy-four students aged 22 years old were included. Of these students, 26% were considering a CIG before CIHT. This rate increased significantly to 42% after CIHT (p = 0.04). However, none of the students who indicated that they were potentially interested in pursuing geriatrics before CIHT preselected geriatrics as their first option. For more than 92% of the students, the comprehensive care of geriatric patients was an asset. The main drawbacks were diagnostic and therapeutic limitations (60% of students), then managing aging, disability, and neurocognitive disorders (55% of students). After CIHT, the view of geriatrics improved by 74%. In conclusion, geriatric CIHT improves students’ opinions of geriatrics and increases the number of students considering a CIG. However, geriatrics still suffers from a lack of prestige. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Examining Additional Aspects of Muscle Function with a Digital Handgrip Dynamometer and Accelerometer in Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040086 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
Background: Maximal handgrip strength (HGS) could be an incomplete and unidimensional measure of muscle function. This pilot study sought to examine the relationships between maximal HGS, radial and ulnar digit grip strength, submaximal HGS force control, HGS fatigability, neuromuscular HGS steadiness, and HGS [...] Read more.
Background: Maximal handgrip strength (HGS) could be an incomplete and unidimensional measure of muscle function. This pilot study sought to examine the relationships between maximal HGS, radial and ulnar digit grip strength, submaximal HGS force control, HGS fatigability, neuromuscular HGS steadiness, and HGS asymmetry in older adults. Methods: A digital handgrip dynamometer and accelerometer was used to collect several HGS measurements from 13 adults aged 70.9 ± 4.0 years: maximal strength, radial and ulnar digit grip strength, submaximal force control, fatigability, neuromuscular steadiness, and asymmetry. Pearson correlations determined the relationships between individual HGS measurements. A principal component analysis was used to derive a collection of new uncorrelated variables from the HGS measures we examined. Results: The individual HGS measurements were differentially correlated. Maximal strength (maximal HGS, radial digit strength, ulnar digits strength), contractile steadiness (maximal HGS steadiness, ulnar digit grip strength steadiness), and functional strength (submaximal HGS force control, HGS fatigability, HGS asymmetry, HGS fatigability steadiness) emerged as dimensions from the HGS measurements that we evaluated. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these additional measures of muscle function may differ from maximal HGS alone. Continued research is warranted for improving how we assess muscle function with more modern technologies, including handgrip dynamometry and accelerometry. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Multi-Morbidity and Polypharmacy in Older People: Challenges and Opportunities for Clinical Practice
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040085 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy are common in older people and pose a challenge for health and social care systems, especially in the context of global population ageing. They are complex and interrelated concepts in the care of older people that require early detection and [...] Read more.
Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy are common in older people and pose a challenge for health and social care systems, especially in the context of global population ageing. They are complex and interrelated concepts in the care of older people that require early detection and patient-centred shared decision making underpinned by multi-disciplinary team-led comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) across all health and social care settings. Personalised care plans need to remain responsive and adaptable to the needs and wishes of the patient, enabling the individual to maintain their independence. In this review, we aim to give an up-to-date account of the recognition and management of multi-morbidity and polypharmacy in the older person. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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Open AccessReview
Global Cognitive Impairment Prevalence and Incidence in Community Dwelling Older Adults—A Systematic Review
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040084 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
(1) Background: We proposed to review worldwide estimates of cognitive impairment prevalence and incidence in adults older than 50 years of age living in the community. (2) Methods: Systematic searches were performed in January 2019 using MEDLINE/PubMed. Articles were selected if they referred [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We proposed to review worldwide estimates of cognitive impairment prevalence and incidence in adults older than 50 years of age living in the community. (2) Methods: Systematic searches were performed in January 2019 using MEDLINE/PubMed. Articles were selected if they referred to cognitive impairment, prevalence, incidence, elders, and population or community-based studies. Analysis, aggregated by different methodologic features, was performed. (3) Results: Prevalence (80 studies) ranged between 5.1% and 41% with a median of 19.0% (25th percentile = 12.0%; 75th percentile = 24.90%). Incidence (11 studies) ranged from 22 to 76.8 per 1000 person-years with a median of 53.97 per 1000 person-years (25th percentile = 39.0; 75th percentile = 68.19). No statistically significant effects were found except for inclusion age. (4) Conclusion: We propose that the homogenization and clarification of the definition of what constitutes cognitive impairment are essential to refine the epidemiological understanding of this entity. The results of this review reinforce the importance of adherence to standardized cut-off scores for cognitive tests to promote study comparability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lower Limb Strength Profile in Elderly with Different Pathologies: Comparisons with Healthy Subjects
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040083 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 396
Abstract
Sarcopenia and muscle strength reduction are a frequent disorder in non-communicable chronic diseases. The aims of this study are: (a) to verify if the absolute and relative to body weight muscle strength of lower limb is affected by the presence of pathology; (b) [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia and muscle strength reduction are a frequent disorder in non-communicable chronic diseases. The aims of this study are: (a) to verify if the absolute and relative to body weight muscle strength of lower limb is affected by the presence of pathology; (b) to verify if the trends are different among knee and ankles joints. One-hundred and forty-five elderly were recruited (16 liver transplant recipients, 48 kidney transplant recipients, 52 elderly with obesity, 30 healthy elderly). Muscular strength of lower limb was evaluated. Evaluation protocol included maximal isometric knee extension, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion, maximal isokinetic ankle (both right and left) extension and flexion. A statistically significant interaction between measurement and group membership was found for absolute strength measure (F (4.23, 170.56) = 3.316, p = 0.011, partial η2 (η2p) = 0.076), and relative strength measure(F (4.44, 174.72) = 16.407, p < 0.01, partial η2 (η2p) = 0.294). Elderly patients living with kidney transplants showed the lower level of absolute muscular strength, while relative muscular strength is mainly lacking in the elderly with obesity. The strength profile of elderly subjects is affected by obesity, liver transplantation, and kidney transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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Open AccessReview
Is IDDSI an Evidence-Based Framework? A Relevant Question for the Frail Older Population
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040082 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
To delay impacts of aging, optimal nutritional status is essential. Several factors can reduce food intake, such as isolation, income, and cognitive/physical decline. Additionally, chewing and swallowing difficulties, or dysphagia, often disrupt the ability to consume life-long favorite dishes. Food and liquids could [...] Read more.
To delay impacts of aging, optimal nutritional status is essential. Several factors can reduce food intake, such as isolation, income, and cognitive/physical decline. Additionally, chewing and swallowing difficulties, or dysphagia, often disrupt the ability to consume life-long favorite dishes. Food and liquids could require modification of texture or consistency to ensure a comfortable or safe swallow. The food industry, foodservices facilities, and caregivers need quality control benchmarks to provide adequate nourishment and meet these new feeding challenges. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) is proposing the IDDSI framework and testing methods to describe food used in nutritional care plans to circumvent dysphagia and improve communication among caregivers. This systematic review assesses the validity and reliability of the IDDSI testing methods using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). Two publications presented content validity whereas 19 publications looked at construct validity or reliability for the IDDSI testing methods. One study was conducted in older adults presenting dysphagia. This review concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend the IDDSI testing methods. Further research, conducted with robust methodological design and reporting, is needed to develop and assess nutritious adapted food for frail older populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Combined HIV and Geriatrics Clinic for Older People Living with HIV: The Silver Clinic in Brighton, UK
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040081 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
As life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased, the focus of management has shifted to preventing and treating chronic illnesses, but few services exist for the assessment and management of these individuals. Here, we provide an initial description of a [...] Read more.
As life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased, the focus of management has shifted to preventing and treating chronic illnesses, but few services exist for the assessment and management of these individuals. Here, we provide an initial description of a geriatric service for people living with HIV and present data from a service evaluation undertaken in the clinic. We conducted an evaluation of the first 52 patients seen in the clinic between 2016 and 2019. We present patient demographic data, assessment outcomes, diagnoses given, and interventions delivered to those seen in the clinic. The average age of attendees was 67. Primary reasons for referral to the clinic included management of complex comorbidities, polypharmacy, and suspected geriatric syndrome (falls, frailty, poor mobility, or cognitive decline). The median (range) number of comorbidities and comedications (non-antiretrovirals) was 7 (2–19) and 9 (1–15), respectively. All attendees had an undetectable viral load. Geriatric syndromes were observed in 26 (50%) patients reviewed in the clinic, with frailty and mental health disease being the most common syndromes. Interventions offered to patients included combination antiretroviral therapy modification, further health investigations, signposting to rehabilitation or social care services, and in-clinic advice. High levels of acceptability among patients and healthcare professionals were reported. The evaluation suggests that specialist geriatric HIV services might play a role in the management of older people with HIV with geriatric syndromes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Age-Related Diseases and Driving Safety
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040080 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Due to demographic changes, the number of older drivers is steadily increasing. Mobility is highly relevant for leading an independent life in the elderly. It largely depends on car driving, which is a complex task requiring a multitude of cognitive and motor skills [...] Read more.
Due to demographic changes, the number of older drivers is steadily increasing. Mobility is highly relevant for leading an independent life in the elderly. It largely depends on car driving, which is a complex task requiring a multitude of cognitive and motor skills vulnerable to age- related functional deterioration. The almost inevitable effects of senescence may be potentiated by age-related diseases, such as stroke or diabetes mellitus. Respective pharmacological treatment may cause side effects, additionally affecting driving safety. The present article reviews the impact of age-related diseases and drug treatment of these conditions on driving fitness in elderly drivers. In essence, we focus on diseases of the visual and auditory systems, diseases of the central nervous system (i.e., stroke, depression, dementia and mild cognitive disorder, and Parkinson’s disease), sleep disorders, as well as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, and frailty. We will outline the role of functional tests and the assessment of driving behavior (by a driving simulator or in real traffic), as well as the clinical interview including questions about frequency of (near) accidents, etc. in the evaluation of driving fitness of the elderly. We also address the impact of polypharmacy on driving fitness and end up with recommendations for physicians caring for older patients. Full article
Open AccessDiscussion
Looking for the “Little Things”: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Medicines Monitoring for Older People Using the ADRe Resource
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040079 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Advances in medicines have increased the effectiveness of treatments and the social and cultural authority of doctors. However, as prescribing has become the dominant modality of treatment, the “pharmaceuticalization” of medical practice has often resulted in treatment “at a distance”, with doctors having [...] Read more.
Advances in medicines have increased the effectiveness of treatments and the social and cultural authority of doctors. However, as prescribing has become the dominant modality of treatment, the “pharmaceuticalization” of medical practice has often resulted in treatment “at a distance”, with doctors having limited contact with patients. Older and poorer people, who are socially distanced from medical prescribers, suffer more adverse drug reactions (ADRs) than the general population. A team approach to checking patients systematically for ADRs, as detailed in manufacturers’ literature, can minimise medication errors, but regular review is rare. This paper explains the benefits of medicines monitoring to protect older patients from iatrogenic harm, such as over-sedation, falls, or drug-induced Parkinsonism. We show how multidisciplinary initiatives to optimise prescribing can be supported by using a recognised resource—the adverse drug reaction profile (ADRe). The profile identifies and documents patients’ signs and symptoms of putative ADRs. Better monitoring allows professionals to adjust prescribing and respond to identified problems with agility. Implementation of systematic monitoring will require changes to the regulatory regime and better inter-professional cooperation. Providing carers, nurses and pharmacists with a structured system to monitor patients would democratise relevant medical knowledge and help address ageism and the socio-economic health divide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Geriatrics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Daily Medical Liaison Is Associated with Reduced Length of Stay and Complications in Selected Patients Admitted to a Regional Vascular Surgery Service
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040078 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Older adults undergoing vascular surgery are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes by virtue of their vascular risk factors and medical comorbidities. This study aimed to determine the impact of daily medical liaison for patients aged 65 years and older admitted to a regional [...] Read more.
Older adults undergoing vascular surgery are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes by virtue of their vascular risk factors and medical comorbidities. This study aimed to determine the impact of daily medical liaison for patients aged 65 years and older admitted to a regional vascular surgery centre. This was a descriptive before-and-after study concerning 375 patients. The primary outcome measure was length of stay (LOS). Following intervention, we identified a reduction in mean LOS in the sample from 10.75 to 7.95 days (p = 0.635, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0–5 days) with a statistically significant reduction in mean LOS for “stranded” patients admitted for more than seven days (mean 7.84 days reduction, p = 0.025, 95% CI for mean difference, 1.5 to 14 days). These patients did not display elevated 30-day readmission rates (12/60 to 8/72, p = 0.156, 95% CI −3% to 21%). A non-significant reduction in postoperative complications was seen in all patients in the post-intervention cohort (1.09 to 0.86 per person, p = 0.181, 95% CI −0.11 to 0.56), reaching statistical significance in emergency vascular admissions (1.81 to 0.97 complications per person, p = 0.01, mean difference = 0.84, 95% CI 0.21–1.46). This study demonstrated reduced LOS and complications in selected older patients admitted under vascular surgery after the introduction of a daily medical liaison model. These data are amongst the first to reproduce randomised controlled trial findings in a non-trial setting. Subgroup analysis indicates that patients admitted with acute pathology and those with long LOS may benefit most from medical liaison where resources are finite. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Validity of the GAITRite Walkway Compared to Functional Balance Tests for Fall Risk Assessment in Geriatric Outpatients
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040077 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
This study examined the concurrent validity between gait parameters from the GAITRite walkway and functional balance test commonly used in fall risk assessment. Patients were sampled from one geriatric outpatient clinic. One physiotherapist evaluated the patients on the GAITRite walkway with three repetitions [...] Read more.
This study examined the concurrent validity between gait parameters from the GAITRite walkway and functional balance test commonly used in fall risk assessment. Patients were sampled from one geriatric outpatient clinic. One physiotherapist evaluated the patients on the GAITRite walkway with three repetitions in both single- and dual-task conditions. Patients were further evaluated with Bergs Balance scale (BBS), Dynamic Gait index (DGI), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Sit To Stand test (STS). Correlations between quantitative gait parameters and functional balance test were analyzed with Spearman’s rank correlations. Correlations strength was considered as follows: negligible <0.1, weak 0.10–0.39, moderate 0.40–0.69, and strong ≥0.70. We included 24 geriatric outpatients in the study with a mean age of 80.6 years (SD: 5.9). Patients received eight (SD: 4.5) different medications on average, and seven (29.2%) patients used walkers during ambulation. Correlations between quantitative gait parameters and functional balance test ranged from weak to moderate in both single- and dual-task conditions. Moderate correlations were observed for DGI, TUG, and BBS, while STS showed weak correlations with all GAITRite parameters. For outpatients analyzed on the GAITRite while using walkers, correlations showed no clear pattern across parameters with large variation within balance tests. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Age-Related Male Hypogonadism and Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: Focus on the Effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Cognition
Geriatrics 2020, 5(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics5040076 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Background. Epidemiological data report that male hypogonadism may play a role in cognitive impairment in elderly. However, the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive abilities in this cluster of patients has not been well established. Methods. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, [...] Read more.
Background. Epidemiological data report that male hypogonadism may play a role in cognitive impairment in elderly. However, the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive abilities in this cluster of patients has not been well established. Methods. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched by using free text words and medical subject headings terms related with “male hypogonadism”, “late-onset hypogonadism”, elderly, cognition, “mild cognitive impairment”, memory, “testosterone replacement therapy” used in various combinations according to the specific clinical questions. Original articles, reviews, and randomized controlled trials written in English were selected. Results. A long-term TRT could improve specific cognitive functions, such as verbal and spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and physical vitality. However, randomized controlled trials do not provide positive results, and in most of the cases TRT might not induce beneficial effects on cognitive function in elderly men. Discussion and conclusions. Since the lengthening of life expectancy, the prevalence rate of cognitive decline in elderly men is expected to increase remarkably over the next decade with considerable healthcare and economical concerns. Therefore, this remains a relevant clinical topic and further investigations are needed for clarifying the role of TRT especially in elderly men with hypogonadism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorder)
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