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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 6 articles

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Open AccessEditorial
The Editors’ Personal Biography of Professor Robert Anderson
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8010006 - 19 Jan 2021
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Abstract
Robert (Bob) Henry Anderson was born in Wellington, Shropshire, UK, in 1942 and he completed his medical training in Manchester (UK) in 1966 [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Critical Assessment of the Concepts and Misconceptions of the Cardiac Conduction System over the Last 100 Years: The Personal Quest of Robert H. Anderson
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8010005 - 19 Jan 2021
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Abstract
Anatomical concepts regarding the conduction system of the heart have been a matter of debate since pioneering work done at the beginning of the 20th century. Robert H. Anderson was actively involved in this field for half a century. We aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Anatomical concepts regarding the conduction system of the heart have been a matter of debate since pioneering work done at the beginning of the 20th century. Robert H. Anderson was actively involved in this field for half a century. We aimed to investigate how his own concepts evolved over time. We have assessed anatomical concepts relating to the cardiac conduction system appearing since the key contributions made in the initial decade of the 20th century, analyzing them from the perspective of Robert H. Anderson, particularly focusing on the anatomical aspects of structures such as accessory atrioventricular pathways, including the so-called Mahaim-type fibers, connections between the atrioventricular node and the atrial myocardium, and so-called “specialized” internodal atrial tracts. To accomplish this task, we have taken as our starting point the initial concepts published in the first decade of the century, along with those subsequently reported up to 1976, and assessing them in the light of our most recently published works. The concepts put forward by Robert Anderson with regard to atrioventricular nodal bypass tracts, atrioventricular nodal inputs, decrementally conducting accessory pathways, and “tracts” for internodal atrial conduction, have remained consistent along the time frame of half a century. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Unlocking the Secrets of the Regenerating Fish Heart: Comparing Regenerative Models to Shed Light on Successful Regeneration
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8010004 - 16 Jan 2021
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Abstract
The adult human heart cannot repair itself after injury and, instead, forms a permanent fibrotic scar that impairs cardiac function and can lead to incurable heart failure. The zebrafish, amongst other organisms, has been extensively studied for its innate capacity to repair its [...] Read more.
The adult human heart cannot repair itself after injury and, instead, forms a permanent fibrotic scar that impairs cardiac function and can lead to incurable heart failure. The zebrafish, amongst other organisms, has been extensively studied for its innate capacity to repair its heart after injury. Understanding the signals that govern successful regeneration in models such as the zebrafish will lead to the development of effective therapies that can stimulate endogenous repair in humans. To date, many studies have investigated cardiac regeneration using a reverse genetics candidate gene approach. However, this approach is limited in its ability to unbiasedly identify novel genes and signalling pathways that are essential to successful regeneration. In contrast, drawing comparisons between different models of regeneration enables unbiased screens to be performed, identifying signals that have not previously been linked to regeneration. Here, we will review in detail what has been learnt from the comparative approach, highlighting the techniques used and how these studies have influenced the field. We will also discuss what further comparisons would enhance our knowledge of successful regeneration and scarring. Finally, we focus on the Astyanax mexicanus, an intraspecies comparative fish model that holds great promise for revealing the secrets of the regenerating heart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Heart Development, Regeneration, and Disease Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Physiological Age- and Sex-Related Profiles for Local (Aortic) and Regional (Carotid-Femoral, Carotid-Radial) Pulse Wave Velocity and Center-to-Periphery Stiffness Gradient, with and without Blood Pressure Adjustments: Reference Intervals and Agreement between Methods in Healthy Subjects (3–84 Years)
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8010003 - 12 Jan 2021
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Abstract
In addition to being a marker of cardiovascular (CV) aging, aortic stiffening has been shown to be independently associated with increased CV risk (directly and/or indirectly due to stiffness-gradient attenuation). Arterial stiffness determines the rate at which the pulse pressure wave propagates (i.e., [...] Read more.
In addition to being a marker of cardiovascular (CV) aging, aortic stiffening has been shown to be independently associated with increased CV risk (directly and/or indirectly due to stiffness-gradient attenuation). Arterial stiffness determines the rate at which the pulse pressure wave propagates (i.e., pulse wave velocity, PWV). Thus, propagated PWV (i.e., the distance between pressure-wave recording sites divided by the pulse transit time) was proposed as an arterial stiffness index. Presently, aortic PWV is considered a gold-standard for non-invasive stiffness evaluation. The limitations ascribed to PWV have hampered its use in clinical practice. To overcome the limitations, different approaches and parameters have been proposed (e.g., local PWV obtained by wave separation and pulse wave analysis). In turn, it has been proposed to determine PWV considering blood pressure (BP) levels (β-PWV), so as to evaluate intrinsic arterial stiffness. It is unknown whether the different approaches used to assess PWV or β-PWV are equivalent and there are few data regarding age- and sex-related reference intervals (RIs) for regional and local PWV, β-PWV and PWV ratio. Aims: (1) to evaluate agreement between data from different stiffness indexes, (2) to determine the need for sex-specific RIs, and (3) to define RIs for PWV, β-PWV and PWV ratio in a cohort of healthy children, adolescents and adults. Methods: 3619 subjects (3–90 y) were included, 1289 were healthy and non-exposed to CV risk factors. Carotid-femoral (cfPWV) and carotid-radial (crPWV) PWV were measured (SphygmoCor System (SCOR)) and PWV ratio (cfPWV/crPWV) was quantified. Local aortic PWV was obtained directly from carotid waves (aoPWV-Carotid; SCOR) and indirectly (generalized transfer function use) from radial (aoPWV-Radial; SCOR) and brachial (aoPWV-Brachial; Mobil-O-Graph system (MOG)) recordings. β-PWV was assessed by means of cardio-ankle brachial (CAVI) and BP-corrected CAVI (CAVIo) indexes. Analyses were done before and after adjustment for BP. Data agreement was analyzed (correlation, Bland-Altman). Mean and standard deviation (age- and sex-related) equations were obtained for PWV parameters (regression methods based on fractional polynomials). Results: The methods and parameters used to assess aortic stiffness showed different association levels. Stiffness data were not equivalent but showed systematic and proportional errors. The need for sex-specific RIs depended on the parameter and/or age considered. RIs were defined for all the studied parameters. The study provides the largest data set related to agreement and RIs for stiffness parameters obtained in a single population. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Malignant Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse: A Continuum of Clinical Challenges from Diagnosis to Risk Stratification and Patient Management
by , and
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8010002 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valvular disease, which may remain a benign condition for a long period of time. However, some patients experience malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). It is still largely unknown how to risk-stratify these patients, [...] Read more.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valvular disease, which may remain a benign condition for a long period of time. However, some patients experience malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). It is still largely unknown how to risk-stratify these patients, and no specific recommendations have been proposed to help the clinical decision-making. We present the case of a young man whose first clinical presentation was an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and was subsequently diagnosed with MVP. We highlighted the possible risk factors for SCD and the challenges in the clinical management of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitral Valve Development and Disease)
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Open AccessCase Report
Left Pulmonary Artery from the Ascending Aorta: A Case Report and Review of Published Cases
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8010001 - 25 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The left pulmonary artery arising from the ascending aorta is an infrequent finding. It may be found isolated or with intracardiac anomalies. We present a new case of the left pulmonary artery arising from the ascending aorta and pool these findings with those [...] Read more.
The left pulmonary artery arising from the ascending aorta is an infrequent finding. It may be found isolated or with intracardiac anomalies. We present a new case of the left pulmonary artery arising from the ascending aorta and pool these findings with those of previously reported cases. Associated cardiac, extracardiac, and syndromic findings are discussed along with the implications of these in the evaluation and management of this condition. Full article
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