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Article

A History of Heart Failure Is an Independent Risk Factor for Death in Patients Admitted with Coronavirus 19 Disease

1
Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10467, USA
2
Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10467, USA
3
Department of Medicine, NYC Health & Hospitals/Jacobi, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10461, USA
4
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Boriani
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(7), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8070077
Received: 5 June 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 27 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
Aims: The association between cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension, and worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients has been previously demonstrated. However, the effect of a prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction on COVID-19 outcomes has not yet been established. Methods and Results: We retrospectively studied all adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to our institution from March 1st to 2nd May 2020. Patients were grouped based on the presence or absence of HF. We used competing events survival models to examine the association between HF and death, need for intubation, or need for dialysis during hospitalization. Of 4043 patients admitted with COVID-19, 335 patients (8.3%) had a prior diagnosis of HF. Patients with HF were older, had lower body mass index, and a significantly higher burden of co-morbidities compared to patients without HF, yet the two groups presented to the hospital with similar clinical severity and similar markers of systemic inflammation. Patients with HF had a higher cumulative in-hospital mortality compared to patients without HF (49.0% vs. 27.2%, p < 0.001) that remained statistically significant (HR = 1.383, p = 0.001) after adjustment for age, body mass index, and comorbidities, as well as after propensity score matching (HR = 1.528, p = 0.001). Notably, no differences in mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, or renal replacement therapy were observed among HF patients with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Conclusions: The presence of HF is a risk factor of death, substantially increasing in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; COVID-19; corona virus 2019; risk factor heart failure; cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; COVID-19; corona virus 2019; risk factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castagna, F.; Kataria, R.; Madan, S.; Ali, S.Z.; Diab, K.; Leyton, C.; Arfaras-Melainis, A.; Kim, P.; Giorgi, F.M.; Vukelic, S.; Saeed, O.; Patel, S.R.; Sims, D.B.; Jorde, U.P. A History of Heart Failure Is an Independent Risk Factor for Death in Patients Admitted with Coronavirus 19 Disease. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 77. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8070077

AMA Style

Castagna F, Kataria R, Madan S, Ali SZ, Diab K, Leyton C, Arfaras-Melainis A, Kim P, Giorgi FM, Vukelic S, Saeed O, Patel SR, Sims DB, Jorde UP. A History of Heart Failure Is an Independent Risk Factor for Death in Patients Admitted with Coronavirus 19 Disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2021; 8(7):77. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8070077

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castagna, Francesco, Rachna Kataria, Shivank Madan, Syed Z. Ali, Karim Diab, Christopher Leyton, Angelos Arfaras-Melainis, Paul Kim, Federico M. Giorgi, Sasa Vukelic, Omar Saeed, Snehal R. Patel, Daniel B. Sims, and Ulrich P. Jorde 2021. "A History of Heart Failure Is an Independent Risk Factor for Death in Patients Admitted with Coronavirus 19 Disease" Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 8, no. 7: 77. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcdd8070077

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