Next Issue
Volume 7, June
Previous Issue
Volume 6, December

Gels, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the most common malignant neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract and is a major contributor to mortality worldwide. Current therapies forecast total resection of primary tumor when possible and partial liver resection at advanced stages, along with systemic intravenous therapies consisting of chemotherapeutic agents. These cures are definitely not exempt from drawbacks and heavy side effects. Biocompatible hydrogels, in bulk and colloid forms, which can load a variety of molecules, are suitable for this purpose and tunable to individual patient scheduling, shortening side effects. Moreover, they do not require surgical removal, thanks to spontaneous degradation, and guarantee an extended cargo release, maintaining high chemotherapeutic concentrations. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Swelling and Drug Release in Polymers through the Theory of Poisson–Kac Stochastic Processes
Gels 2021, 7(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010032 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Experiments on swelling and solute transport in polymeric systems clearly indicate that the classical parabolic models fail to predict typical non-Fickian features of sorption kinetics. The formulation of moving-boundary transport models for solvent penetration and drug release in swelling polymeric systems is addressed [...] Read more.
Experiments on swelling and solute transport in polymeric systems clearly indicate that the classical parabolic models fail to predict typical non-Fickian features of sorption kinetics. The formulation of moving-boundary transport models for solvent penetration and drug release in swelling polymeric systems is addressed hereby employing the theory of Poisson–Kac stochastic processes possessing finite propagation velocity. The hyperbolic continuous equations deriving from Poisson–Kac processes are extended to include the description of the temporal evolution of both the Glass–Gel and the Gel–Solvent interfaces. The influence of polymer relaxation time on sorption curves and drug release kinetics is addressed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gels: 6th Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Biopolymers Hybrid Particles Used in Dentistry
Gels 2021, 7(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010031 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 920
Abstract
This literature review provides an overview of the fabrication and application of biopolymer hybrid particles in dentistry. A total of 95 articles have been included in this review. In the review paper, the common inorganic particles and biopolymers used in dentistry are discussed [...] Read more.
This literature review provides an overview of the fabrication and application of biopolymer hybrid particles in dentistry. A total of 95 articles have been included in this review. In the review paper, the common inorganic particles and biopolymers used in dentistry are discussed in general, and detailed examples of inorganic particles (i.e., hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, and bioactive glass) and biopolymers such as collagen, gelatin, and chitosan have been drawn from the scientific literature and practical work. Among the included studies, calcium phosphate including hydroxyapatite is the most widely applied for inorganic particles used in dentistry, but bioactive glass is more applicable and multifunctional than hydroxyapatite and is currently used in clinical practice. Today, biopolymer hybrid particles are receiving more attention as novel materials for several applications in dentistry, such as drug delivery systems, bone repair, and periodontal regeneration surgery. The literature published on the biopolymer gel-assisted synthesis of inorganic particles for dentistry is somewhat limited, and therefore, this article focuses on reviewing and discussing the biopolymer hybrid particles used in dentistry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Cellulose-Based Hydrogels for Wastewater Treatment: A Concise Review
Gels 2021, 7(1), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010030 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Finding affordable and environment-friendly options to decontaminate wastewater generated with heavy metals and dyes to prevent the depletion of accessible freshwater resources is one of the indispensable challenges of the 21st century. Adsorption is yet to be the most effective and low-cost wastewater [...] Read more.
Finding affordable and environment-friendly options to decontaminate wastewater generated with heavy metals and dyes to prevent the depletion of accessible freshwater resources is one of the indispensable challenges of the 21st century. Adsorption is yet to be the most effective and low-cost wastewater treatment method used for the removal of pollutants from wastewater, while naturally derived adsorbent materials have garnered tremendous attention. One promising example of such adsorbents is hydrogels (HGs), which constitute a three-dimensional polymeric network of hydrophilic groups that is highly capable of adsorbing a large quantity of metal ions and dyes from wastewater. Although HGs can also be prepared from synthetic polymers, natural polymers have improved environmental benignity. Recently, cellulose-based hydrogels (CBHs) have been extensively studied owing to their high abundance, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and excellent adsorption capacity. This review emphasizes different CBH adsorbents in the context of dyes and heavy metals removal from wastewater following diverse synthesis techniques and adsorption mechanisms. This study also summarizes various process parameters necessary to optimize adsorption capacity followed by future research directions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Local Use of Hydrogel with Amiodarone in Cardiac Surgery: Experiment and Translation to the Clinic
Gels 2021, 7(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010029 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
The objective of this study was to study the use of the hydrogel biopolymer based on sodium alginate (“Colegel”) with a drug substance—amiodarone—for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in cardiac surgery. The experimental part of the study was performed on 46 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to study the use of the hydrogel biopolymer based on sodium alginate (“Colegel”) with a drug substance—amiodarone—for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in cardiac surgery. The experimental part of the study was performed on 46 rabbits. Five groups were formed: in the first group, the dose of amiodarone in hydrogel was 1 mg; in the second group—3 mg; in the third group—6 mg; in the fourth group, hydrogel was used without amiodarone; in the fifth group, 60 mg amiodarone was administered intravenously. The animals from each group were removed from the experiment for the pathomorphological study of the heart after 3, 7 and 14 days. The studied endpoints were: the heart rate control; the development of the blockades of the conduction system of the heart; and the development of inflammation according to laboratory pathomorphological studies. The translational clinical part involved a randomized clinical trial which included 60 patients, with an average age of 62 ± 8.5 years. All patients were randomized into two groups: the study group (n = 30, with the application of amiodarone hydrogel) and the control group (n = 30, without the application of amiodarone hydrogel). The dose of amiodarone in the hydrogel material was 60 mg for all patients. The heart rhythm was monitored during 5 days. The primary endpoint was the development of POAF. Secondary endpoints were: the dynamics of heart rate; the duration of the QT and PQ intervals; the development of blockades of the cardiac conduction system; as well as the dynamics of AST and ALT. According to the results of the experimental part, it was found that the method of the local epicardial delivery of amiodarone by the hydrogel material was safe. Hydrogel with amiodarone is effective for reducing the heart rate in the animal experiment in comparison to the control group and the group with the intravenous administration of the drug. The optimal dose of amiodarone in hydrogel was 1 mg per 1 kg. According to the results of the clinical part, it was found that the method of the local epicardial delivery of amiodarone as a hydrogel material proved its safety. Hydrogel with amiodarone at a dose of 60 mg was effective in preventing POAF in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations in comparison to the control group (p < 0.001). The age and procedure of application of the amiodarone gel were significantly associated with POAF (p = 0.009 and p = 0.011, respectively). The use of hydrogel with amiodarone reduced the probability of developing POAF 18.9-fold. The method of the local epicardial delivery of amiodarone in the form of a hydrogel material is safe. The use of hydrogel with amiodarone after CABG reduced the probability of developing POAF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gels for Cardiac Tissue Regeneration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Incorporation of Dual-Stimuli Responsive Microgels in Nanofibrous Membranes for Cancer Treatment by Magnetic Hyperthermia
Gels 2021, 7(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010028 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The delivery of multiple anti-cancer agents holds great promise for better treatments. The present work focuses on developing multifunctional materials for simultaneous and local combinatory treatment: Chemotherapy and hyperthermia. We first produced hybrid microgels (MG), synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization, consisting of Poly [...] Read more.
The delivery of multiple anti-cancer agents holds great promise for better treatments. The present work focuses on developing multifunctional materials for simultaneous and local combinatory treatment: Chemotherapy and hyperthermia. We first produced hybrid microgels (MG), synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization, consisting of Poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm), chitosan (40 wt.%), and iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) (5 wt.%) as the inorganic component. PNIPAAm MGs with a hydrodynamic diameter of about 1 μm (in their swollen state) were successfully synthesized. With the incorporation of chitosan and NPs in PNIPAAm MG, a decrease in MG diameter and swelling capacity was observed, without affecting their thermosensitivity. We then sought to produce biocompatible and mechanically robust membranes containing these dual-responsive MG. To achieve this, MG were incorporated in poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) fibers through colloidal electrospinning. The presence of NPs in MG decreases the membrane swelling ratio from 10 to values between 6 and 7, and increases the material stiffness, raising its Young modulus from 20 to 35 MPa. Furthermore, magnetic hyperthermia assay shows that PVP-MG-NP composites perform better than any other formulation, with a temperature variation of about 1 °C. The present work demonstrates the potential of using multifunctional colloidal membranes for magnetic hyperthermia and may in the future be used as an alternative treatment for cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Gel Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Polyurea-Crosslinked Alginate Aerogels for Seawater Decontamination
Gels 2021, 7(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010027 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Polyurea-crosslinked Ca-alginate (X-Ca-alginate) aerogel beads (diameter: 3.3 mm) were evaluated as adsorbents of metal ions, organic solvents, and oils. They were prepared via reaction of an aromatic triisocyanate (Desmodur RE) with pre-formed Ca-alginate wet gels and consisted of 54% polyurea and 2% calcium. [...] Read more.
Polyurea-crosslinked Ca-alginate (X-Ca-alginate) aerogel beads (diameter: 3.3 mm) were evaluated as adsorbents of metal ions, organic solvents, and oils. They were prepared via reaction of an aromatic triisocyanate (Desmodur RE) with pre-formed Ca-alginate wet gels and consisted of 54% polyurea and 2% calcium. X-Ca-alginate aerogels are hydrophobic nanoporous materials (90% v/v porosity), with a high BET surface area (459 m2/g−1), and adsorb PbII not only from ultrapure water (29 mg/g−1) but also from seawater (13 mg/g−1) with high selectivity. The adsorption mechanism involves replacement of CaII by PbII ions coordinated to the carboxylate groups of the alginate backbone. After treatment with a Na2EDTA solution, the beads can be reused, without significant loss of activity for at least two times. X-Ca-alginate aerogels can also uptake organic solvents and oil from seawater; the volume of the adsorbate can be as high as the total pore volume of the aerogel (6.0 mL/g−1), and the absorption is complete within seconds. X-Ca alginate aerogels are suitable for the decontamination of aquatic environments from a broader range of inorganic and organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerogels 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Microemulsions as Solubilizers and Penetration Enhancers for Minoxidil Release from Gels
Gels 2021, 7(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010026 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Micro- and nanoemulsions are potential drug solubilizers and penetration enhancers through the high surfactant/co-surfactant content. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of minoxidil (MXD) solubilized in the microemulsions (MEs) on drug release by in vitro/ex vivo diffusion through the semi-permeable membrane Spectra/Por [...] Read more.
Micro- and nanoemulsions are potential drug solubilizers and penetration enhancers through the high surfactant/co-surfactant content. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of minoxidil (MXD) solubilized in the microemulsions (MEs) on drug release by in vitro/ex vivo diffusion through the semi-permeable membrane Spectra/Por® (Spectrum Laboratory, Gardena, CA, USA) and porcine ear skin. Moreover, a residual amount of drug in the skin after ex vivo diffusion was evaluated. The reference MER, lecithin-containing MEL, and gelatin-containing MEG were characterized in terms of their size, polydispersity index, density, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension. Based on the in vitro diffusion, it can be argued that MEL slowed down the drug release, while MER and MEG have no significant effect compared to the sample, in which propylene glycol (PG) was used as a solubilizer. Determination of the residual drug amount in the skin after 6 h of the ex vivo permeation was demonstrated as the most valuable method to evaluate the effectiveness of the ME’s application. The results indicate that the most optimal MXD permeation enhancers in alginate gel were the natural surfactants containing MEs. MXD solubilization in MEG and MEL had caused more than 5% of the drug remaining in the skin, which is almost a 1.5-fold higher amount compared to the reference gel. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Nonlinear Elasticity on the Swelling Behaviors of Highly Swollen Polyelectrolyte Gels
Gels 2021, 7(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010025 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
Polyelectrolyte gels exhibit swelling behaviors that are dependent on the external environment. The swelling behaviors of highly charged polyelectrolyte gels can be well explained using the Flory–Rehner model combined with the Gibbs–Donnan effect and Manning’s counterion condensation effect (the FRGDM model). This study [...] Read more.
Polyelectrolyte gels exhibit swelling behaviors that are dependent on the external environment. The swelling behaviors of highly charged polyelectrolyte gels can be well explained using the Flory–Rehner model combined with the Gibbs–Donnan effect and Manning’s counterion condensation effect (the FRGDM model). This study investigated the swelling properties of a series of model polyelectrolyte gels, namely tetra-polyacrylic acid-polyethylene glycol gels (Tetra-PAA-PEG gels), and determined the applicability of the FRGDM model. The swelling ratio (Vs/V0) was well reproduced by the FRGDM model in the moderate swelling regime (Vs/V0 < 10). However, in the high swelling regime (Vs/V0 > 10), the FRGDM model is approx. 1.6 times larger than the experimental results. When we introduced the finite extensibility to the elastic free energy in the FRGDM model, the swelling behavior was successfully reproduced even in the high swelling regime. Our results reveal that finite extensibility is one of the factors determining the swelling equilibrium of highly charged polyelectrolyte gels. The modified FRGDM model reproduces well the swelling behavior of a wide range of polyelectrolyte gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Recently Developed Carbohydrate Based Gelators and Their Applications
Gels 2021, 7(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010024 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Carbohydrate based low molecular weight gelators have been an intense subject of study over the past decade. The self-assembling systems built from natural products have high significance as biocompatible materials and renewable resources. The versatile structures available from naturally existing monosaccharides have enriched [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate based low molecular weight gelators have been an intense subject of study over the past decade. The self-assembling systems built from natural products have high significance as biocompatible materials and renewable resources. The versatile structures available from naturally existing monosaccharides have enriched the molecular libraries that can be used for the construction of gelators. The bottom-up strategy in designing low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) for a variety of applications has been adopted by many researchers. Rational design, along with some serendipitous discoveries, has resulted in multiple classes of molecular gelators. This review covers the literature from 2017–2020 on monosaccharide based gelators, including common hexoses, pentoses, along with some disaccharides and their derivatives. The structure-based design and structure to gelation property relationships are reviewed first, followed by stimuli-responsive gelators. The last section focuses on the applications of the sugar based gelators, including their utilization in environmental remediation, ion sensing, catalysis, drug delivery and 3D-printing. We will also review the available LMWGs and their structure correlations to the desired properties for different applications. This review aims at elucidating the design principles and structural features that are pertinent to various applications and hope to provide certain guidelines for researchers that are working at the interface of chemistry, biochemistry, and materials science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Gels: New Knowledge)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Fabrication and Evaluation of Silk Sericin-Derived Hydrogel for the Release of the Model Drug Berberine
Gels 2021, 7(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010023 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
Silk sericin (SS) produced by Bombyx mori is normally discarded as waste in manufacturing processes, which causes environmental pollution. Therefore, investigating the use of silk sericin has economic and environmental benefits. As a three-dimensional structure, the sericin-derived hydrogel was explored in different applications. [...] Read more.
Silk sericin (SS) produced by Bombyx mori is normally discarded as waste in manufacturing processes, which causes environmental pollution. Therefore, investigating the use of silk sericin has economic and environmental benefits. As a three-dimensional structure, the sericin-derived hydrogel was explored in different applications. However, many developed gelation procedures raise concerns regarding safety, cost, and duration of gelation time. In this work, “thiol-ene” click chemistry was used to quickly and controllably prepare an SS-derived hydrogel to resolve these early concerns. Then, berberine was loaded and used as a model for investigating the drug-release profiles of the prepared hydrogel. The experimental results revealed that this hydrogel is eligible for a long-term release of berberine. Throughout the antibacterial experiments, the released berberine maintained its antibacterial activity. Our work expands the application of SS in biomedical industries in an eco-friendly way. Furthermore, the discussed strategy could provide a reference for the subsequent development of SS-derived materials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Polymer Networks Synthesized from Poly(Sorbitol Adipate) and Functionalized Poly(Ethylene Glycol)
Gels 2021, 7(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010022 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Polymer networks were prepared by Steglich esterification using poly(sorbitol adipate) (PSA) and poly(sorbitol adipate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) mono methyl ether (PSA-g-mPEG12) copolymer. Utilizing multi-hydroxyl functionalities of PSA, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was first grafted onto a PSA backbone. Then the [...] Read more.
Polymer networks were prepared by Steglich esterification using poly(sorbitol adipate) (PSA) and poly(sorbitol adipate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) mono methyl ether (PSA-g-mPEG12) copolymer. Utilizing multi-hydroxyl functionalities of PSA, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was first grafted onto a PSA backbone. Then the cross-linking of PSA or PSA-g-mPEG12 was carried out with disuccinyl PEG of different molar masses (Suc-PEGn-Suc). Polymers were characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The degree of swelling of networks was investigated through water (D2O) uptake studies, while for detailed examination of their structural dynamics, networks were studied using 13C magic angle spinning NMR (13C MAS NMR) spectroscopy, 1H double quantum NMR (1H DQ NMR) spectroscopy, and 1H pulsed field gradient NMR (1H PFG NMR) spectroscopy. These solid state NMR results revealed that the networks were composed of a two component structure, having different dipolar coupling constants. The diffusion of solvent molecules depended on the degree of swelling that was imparted to the network by the varying chain length of the PEG based cross-linking agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Gel Materials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
An On-Demand Dissoluble Chitosan Hydrogel Containing Dynamic Diselenide Bond
Gels 2021, 7(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010021 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
A new kind of on-demand dissolution hydrogel is successfully synthesized by modification of chitosan using γ-selenobutyrolactone. The chitosan hydrogel with different selenium contents is formed by ring opening of γ-selenobutyrolactone with the amines of D-glucosamine units on the chitosan backbone. The structure of [...] Read more.
A new kind of on-demand dissolution hydrogel is successfully synthesized by modification of chitosan using γ-selenobutyrolactone. The chitosan hydrogel with different selenium contents is formed by ring opening of γ-selenobutyrolactone with the amines of D-glucosamine units on the chitosan backbone. The structure of the hydrogel was confirmed by 1H NMR, XRD and XPS. Its physical and biological properties were evaluated by rheology characterization, degradation tests and cytotoxicity test. The hydrogel showed excellent biocompatibility and good degradation properties under oxidation or reduction conditions. All the evidence demonstrated that this type of material has good prospects for dressing applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Ion-Induced Volume Transition in Gels and Its Role in Biology
Gels 2021, 7(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010020 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Incremental changes in ionic composition, solvent quality, and temperature can lead to reversible and abrupt structural changes in many synthetic and biopolymer systems. In the biological milieu, this nonlinear response is believed to play an important functional role in various biological systems, including [...] Read more.
Incremental changes in ionic composition, solvent quality, and temperature can lead to reversible and abrupt structural changes in many synthetic and biopolymer systems. In the biological milieu, this nonlinear response is believed to play an important functional role in various biological systems, including DNA condensation, cell secretion, water flow in xylem of plants, cell resting potential, and formation of membraneless organelles. While these systems are markedly different from one another, a physicochemical framework that treats them as polyelectrolytes, provides a means to interpret experimental results and make in silico predictions. This article summarizes experimental results made on ion-induced volume phase transition in a polyelectrolyte model gel (sodium polyacrylate) and observations on the above-mentioned biological systems indicating the existence of a steep response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyelectrolyte Gels: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Luminescent Behavior of Gels and Sols Comprised of Molecular Gelators
Gels 2021, 7(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010019 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
We present a brief review of some important conceptual and practical aspects for the design and properties of molecular luminescent gelators and their gels. Topics considered include structural and dynamic aspects of the gels, including factors important to their ability to emit radiation [...] Read more.
We present a brief review of some important conceptual and practical aspects for the design and properties of molecular luminescent gelators and their gels. Topics considered include structural and dynamic aspects of the gels, including factors important to their ability to emit radiation from electronically excited states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Gel Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fast and Large Shrinking of Thermoresponsive Hydrogels with Phase-Separated Structures
Gels 2021, 7(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010018 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels have been attracting attention in a variety of functional materials, such as biomaterials, because they exhibit a volume phase transition phenomenon near physiological temperatures. However, the slow kinetics and small volume shrinkage of bulk PNIPAAm hydrogels upon [...] Read more.
Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels have been attracting attention in a variety of functional materials, such as biomaterials, because they exhibit a volume phase transition phenomenon near physiological temperatures. However, the slow kinetics and small volume shrinkage of bulk PNIPAAm hydrogels upon heating greatly limit their practical application. Here, we report PNIPAAm hydrogels with phase-separated structures that exhibited ultrafast shrinking upon heating. The phase separation into a PNIPAAm-rich phase and a water-rich phase was formed through aqueous polymerization in the presence of NaClO4 salt. Through structural analysis of the hydrogels, a topologically heterogeneous and porous structure was observed, which was highly dependent on the NaClO4 concentration in the polymerization step. Compared to conventional PNIPAAm hydrogels, the phase-separated hydrogels exhibited much faster and larger shrinkage upon heating. Simultaneously, the hydrogels quickly released a large amount of water owing to the effective water channels inside them. The present method can be widely applied to general hydrogels, and it can address the numerous limitations of hydrogels in terms of operating programmability and deformation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Modeling the Mechanobiology of Cancer Cell Migration Using 3D Biomimetic Hydrogels
Gels 2021, 7(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010017 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Understanding how cancer cells migrate, and how this migration is affected by the mechanical and chemical composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to investigate and possibly interfere with the metastatic process, which is responsible for most cancer-related deaths. In this article [...] Read more.
Understanding how cancer cells migrate, and how this migration is affected by the mechanical and chemical composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to investigate and possibly interfere with the metastatic process, which is responsible for most cancer-related deaths. In this article we review the state of the art about the use of hydrogel-based three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds as artificial platforms to model the mechanobiology of cancer cell migration. We start by briefly reviewing the concept and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the materials commonly used to recreate the cancerous ECM. Then we summarize the most relevant knowledge about the mechanobiology of cancer cell migration that has been obtained using 3D hydrogel scaffolds, and relate those discoveries to what has been observed in the clinical management of solid tumors. Finally, we review some recent methodological developments, specifically the use of novel bioprinting techniques and microfluidics to create realistic hydrogel-based models of the cancer ECM, and some of their applications in the context of the study of cancer cell migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen-Based Hydrogels: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
One-Shot Preparation of Polybasic Ternary Hybrid Cryogels Consisting of Halloysite Nanotubes and Tertiary Amine Functional Groups: An Efficient and Convenient Way by Freezing-Induced Gelation
Gels 2021, 7(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010016 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
A convenient method for the preparation of polybasic ternary hybrid cryogels consisting of Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and tertiary amine functional groups by freezing-induced gelation is proposed. Ternary hybrid gels were produced via one-shot radical terpolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS), [...] Read more.
A convenient method for the preparation of polybasic ternary hybrid cryogels consisting of Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and tertiary amine functional groups by freezing-induced gelation is proposed. Ternary hybrid gels were produced via one-shot radical terpolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS), and DEAEMA in the presence of HNTs. The equilibrium swelling in various swelling media and the mechanical properties of the produced ternary hybrid gels were analyzed to investigate their network structure and determine their final performance. The swelling ratio of HNT-free gels was significantly higher than the ternary hybrid gels composed of high amount of HNTs. The addition of HNTs to terpolymer network did not suppress pH- and temperature-sensitive behavior. While DEAEMA groups were effective for pH-sensitive swelling, it was determined that both HEMA and DEAEMA groups were effective in temperature-sensitive swelling. Ternary hybrid gels simultaneously demonstrated both negative and positive temperature-responsive swelling behavior. The swelling ratio changed considerably according to swelling temperature. Both DEAEMA and HEMA monomers in terpolymer structure were dominant in temperature-sensitive swelling. Mechanical tests in compression of both as-prepared and swollen-state demonstrated that strength and modulus of hybrid cryogels significantly increased with addition of HNTs without significant loss of mechanical strength. Ultimately, the results of the current system can benefit characterization with analysis tools for the application of innovative materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
In Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of a Not Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel on Human Keratinocytes for Mesotherapy
Gels 2021, 7(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010015 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The multicomponent preparations for mesotherapy are based on the principle that skin and hair aging can be prevented by supplying the fundamental substrates for correct cellular functioning, such as nucleotides, vitamins, amino acids, and biomolecules including hyaluronic acid (HA) that promote skin hydration [...] Read more.
The multicomponent preparations for mesotherapy are based on the principle that skin and hair aging can be prevented by supplying the fundamental substrates for correct cellular functioning, such as nucleotides, vitamins, amino acids, and biomolecules including hyaluronic acid (HA) that promote skin hydration and several biological activities. The study provides evidence for the application of HYDRO DELUXE BIO (Matex Lab S.p.A), a biocompatible hydrogel containing not cross-linked HA, for the treatment of the scalp’s skin by mesotherapy. Using an in vitro model of immortalized human keratinocytes, we studied markers involved in hair aging prevention and growth, such as inflammatory markers, angiogenesis, and oxidative damage. HYDRO DELUXE BIO showed high biocompatibility and the ability to significantly reduce the expression of the inflammation marker interleukin (IL)-8 in Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-stimulated cells. Then, we evaluated angiogenesis, a pivotal event during hair growth, measuring the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression that resulted to be significantly increased in treated cells, suggesting a pro-angiogenetic capability. A protective activity against the oxidative stress agent was showed, increasing the survival rate in treated cells. Concluding, HYDRO DELUXE BIO is suitable for treatment by mesotherapy of the scalp’s skin as it modulates the expression levels of markers involved in the biorevitalization of the hair follicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications: New Knowledge)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Peptide Gelators to Template Inorganic Nanoparticle Formation
Gels 2021, 7(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010014 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The use of peptides to template inorganic nanoparticle formation has attracted great interest as a green route to advance structures with innovative physicochemical properties for a variety of applications that range from biomedicine and sensing, to catalysis. In particular, short-peptide gelators offer the [...] Read more.
The use of peptides to template inorganic nanoparticle formation has attracted great interest as a green route to advance structures with innovative physicochemical properties for a variety of applications that range from biomedicine and sensing, to catalysis. In particular, short-peptide gelators offer the advantage of providing dynamic supramolecular environments for the templating effect on the formation of inorganic nanoparticles directly in the resulting gels, and ideally without using further reductants or chemical reagents. This mini-review describes the recent progress in the field to outline future research directions towards dynamic functional materials that exploit the synergy between supramolecular chemistry, nanoscience, and the interface between organic and inorganic components for advanced performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gels from the Self-Assembling of Peptide-Based Compounds 2.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A Rapid Crosslinkable Maleimide-Modified Hyaluronic Acid and Gelatin Hydrogel Delivery System for Regenerative Applications
Gels 2021, 7(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010013 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Hydrogels have played a significant role in many applications of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their versatile properties in realizing design and functional requirements. However, as bioengineered solutions are translated towards clinical application, new hurdles and subsequent material requirements can arise. [...] Read more.
Hydrogels have played a significant role in many applications of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their versatile properties in realizing design and functional requirements. However, as bioengineered solutions are translated towards clinical application, new hurdles and subsequent material requirements can arise. For example, in applications such as cell encapsulation, drug delivery, and biofabrication, in a clinical setting, hydrogels benefit from being comprised of natural extracellular matrix-based materials, but with defined, controllable, and modular properties. Advantages for these clinical applications include ultraviolet light-free and rapid polymerization crosslinking kinetics, and a cell-friendly crosslinking environment that supports cell encapsulation or in situ crosslinking in the presence of cells and tissue. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of maleimide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin, which are crosslinked using a bifunctional thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. Synthesized products were evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet visibility spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography, and pH sensitivity, which confirmed successful HA and gelatin modification, molecular weights, and readiness for crosslinking. Gelation testing both by visual and NMR confirmed successful and rapid crosslinking, after which the hydrogels were characterized by rheology, swelling assays, protein release, and barrier function against dextran diffusion. Lastly, biocompatibility was assessed in the presence of human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, showing continued proliferation with or without the hydrogel. These initial studies present a defined, and well-characterized extracellular matrix (ECM)-based hydrogel platform with versatile properties suitable for a variety of applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogels for Drug Delivery 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Modulation and Characterization of Wax-Based Olive Oil Organogels in View of Their Application in the Food Industry
Gels 2021, 7(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010012 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Olive oil has recognized health benefits but lacks structural resilience to act in a similar fashion as do the typically used triglycerides (TAGs) when applied in food manufacturing. Therefore, olive oil structuring is critical to widening its use as a healthier alternative in [...] Read more.
Olive oil has recognized health benefits but lacks structural resilience to act in a similar fashion as do the typically used triglycerides (TAGs) when applied in food manufacturing. Therefore, olive oil structuring is critical to widening its use as a healthier alternative in spreadable products. Foreseeing the development of an application for the food industry, three types of natural waxes were used as organogelators, generating olive oil organogels with distinct properties. Retail-simulated storage conditions were used to mimic real-life industrial and commercial use. Organogel systems were evaluated according to their oxidation stability and textural and rheological properties. Textural and rheological parameters increased in response to increasing gelator concentration, while oxidation values (below 1.5 meq O2·kg−1) remained within legal limits. Organogels displayed similar textural properties to those of commercially available spreadable products, while displaying a low critical gelation concentration. In short, it was shown that tailoring the physicochemical properties of organogels towards specific applications is possible. The produced organogels showed similar properties to the ones of commercially available spreadable products, revealing favourable oxidative profiles. Therefore, an industrial application can be easily foreseen, building on the natural characteristics of olive oil as a healthier alternative to current spreadable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oleogels and Organogels: A Promising Tool for New Functionalities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Crossover of Rate-Limiting Process in Plasma Gel Growth by Contact with Source of Gelator
Gels 2021, 7(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010011 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Plasma is regarded as a solution of precursor polymers specifically transformed to gel-forming polymers by a reaction with initiators. We developed a theory for the gel growth dynamics of plasma induced by contact with a source of gelators that are yielded by the [...] Read more.
Plasma is regarded as a solution of precursor polymers specifically transformed to gel-forming polymers by a reaction with initiators. We developed a theory for the gel growth dynamics of plasma induced by contact with a source of gelators that are yielded by the initiation. In developing the theory, we combined the Ginzburg–Landau type dynamics with the gelator diffusion dynamics expressed by the moving boundary picture. The theory predicts the crossover of the rate-limiting process in the time course of the thickness of the gel layer X from the energy-limited process expressed by Xt to the diffusion-limited process expressed by Xt, where t is the time elapsed from when the plasma comes into contact with the source of gelators. A demonstration experiment was performed by placing a tissue factor coating plate as the initiator in plasma. Log–log plot of X vs. t showed a crossover as predicted by the theory, and the parameters characterizing plasma were determined. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Hydrogels of Sodium Alginate as Sustained Release Carrier
Gels 2021, 7(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010010 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to fabricate naturally derived polymer based hydrogels for controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) for a long duration of time. In this research work, sodium alginate-co-poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulphonic acid) (SA-co-poly(AMPS)) hydrogels were prepared by the free [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to fabricate naturally derived polymer based hydrogels for controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) for a long duration of time. In this research work, sodium alginate-co-poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulphonic acid) (SA-co-poly(AMPS)) hydrogels were prepared by the free radical polymerization technique, where sodium alginate (SA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) were used as the polymer and monomer while ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) and N,N′-Methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) were used as the initiator and cross-linker, respectively. A swelling study was performed to determine the swelling index of developed hydrogels in both acidic (pH 1.2) and basic (pH 7.4) media and pH-independent swelling was observed due to the presence of AMPS. An in vitro release study was conducted to evaluate the percentage of drug released, and a high release of the drug was found at the higher pH of 7.4. Sol–gel analysis was performed to analyze the crosslinked and uncrosslinked part of the hydrogels, and results showed a rise in gel fraction as the composition of SA, AMPS and MBA increased while the sol fraction decreased and vice versa. This work demonstrated a potential for sustained delivery of diclofenac sodium by employing various concentration of SA, AMPS and MBA. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Gels in 2020
Gels 2021, 7(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010009 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Gels maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Topical Mucoadhesive Alginate-Based Hydrogel Loading Ketorolac for Pain Management after Pharmacotherapy, Ablation, or Surgical Removal in Condyloma Acuminata
Gels 2021, 7(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010008 - 23 Jan 2021
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Condyloma acuminata is an infectious disease caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) and one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is manifested as warts that frequently cause pain, pruritus, burning, and occasional bleeding. Treatment (physical, chemical, or surgical) can result [...] Read more.
Condyloma acuminata is an infectious disease caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) and one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is manifested as warts that frequently cause pain, pruritus, burning, and occasional bleeding. Treatment (physical, chemical, or surgical) can result in erosion, scars, or ulcers, implying inflammatory processes causing pain. In this work, a biocompatible topical hydrogel containing 2% ketorolac tromethamine was developed to manage the painful inflammatory processes occurring upon the removal of anogenital condylomas. The hydrogel was physically, mechanically, and morphologically characterized: it showed adequate characteristics for a topical formulation. Up to 73% of ketorolac in the gel can be released following a one-phase exponential model. Upon application on human skin and vaginal mucosa, ketorolac can permeate through both of these and it can be retained within both tissues, particularly on vaginal mucosa. Another advantage is that no systemic side effects should be expected after application of the gel. The hydrogel showed itself to be well tolerated in vivo when applied on humans, and it did not cause any visible irritation. Finally, ketorolac hydrogel showed 53% anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting that it is a stable and suitable formulation for the treatment of inflammatory processes, such as those occurring upon chemical or surgical removal of anogenital warts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gels in Medicine and Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Injectable Hydrogels for Improving Cardiac Cell Therapy—In Vivo Evidence and Translational Challenges
Gels 2021, 7(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010007 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Cell therapy has the potential to regenerate cardiac tissue and treat a variety of cardiac diseases which are currently without effective treatment. This novel approach to treatment has demonstrated clinical efficiency, despite low retention of the cell products in the heart. It has [...] Read more.
Cell therapy has the potential to regenerate cardiac tissue and treat a variety of cardiac diseases which are currently without effective treatment. This novel approach to treatment has demonstrated clinical efficiency, despite low retention of the cell products in the heart. It has been shown that improving retention often leads to improved functional outcome. A feasible method of improving cell graft retention is administration of injectable hydrogels. Over the last decade, a variety of injectable hydrogels have been investigated preclinically for their potential to improve the effects of cardiac cell therapy. These hydrogels are created with different polymers, properties, and additional functional motifs and differ in their approaches for encapsulating different cell types. Only one combinational therapy has been tested in a clinical randomized controlled trial. In this review, the latest research on the potential of injectable hydrogels for delivery of cell therapy is discussed, together with potential roadblocks for clinical translation and recommendations for future explorations to facilitate future translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gels for Cardiac Tissue Regeneration)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Advances in Bio-Based Polymers for Colorectal Cancer Treatment: Hydrogels and Nanoplatforms
Gels 2021, 7(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010006 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the most common malignant neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract and is a major contributor to mortality worldwide. Invasiveness and metastatic behavior are typical of malignant tumors and, because of its portal drainage, the liver is the closest capillary [...] Read more.
Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the most common malignant neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract and is a major contributor to mortality worldwide. Invasiveness and metastatic behavior are typical of malignant tumors and, because of its portal drainage, the liver is the closest capillary bed available in this case, hence the common site of metastatic dissemination. Current therapies forecast total resection of primary tumor when possible and partial liver resection at advanced stages, along with systemic intravenous therapies consisting of chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil. These cures are definitely not exempt from drawbacks and heavy side effects. Biocompatible polymeric networks, both in colloids and bulk forms, able to absorb large quantities of water and load a variety of molecules-belong to the class of innovative drug delivery systems, thus suitable for the purpose and tunable on each patient can represent a promising alternative. Indeed, the implantation of polymeric scaffolds easy to synthesize can substitute chemotherapy and combination therapies scheduling, shortening side effects. Moreover, they do not require a surgical removal thanks to spontaneous degradation and guarantees an extended and regional cargo release, maintaining high drug concentrations. In this review, we focus our attention on the key role of polymeric networks as drug delivery systems potentially able to counteract this dramatic disease. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Cellulose Nanofibrils/Xyloglucan Bio-Based Aerogels with Shape Recovery
Gels 2021, 7(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010005 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Bio-based aerogels containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are promising materials due to the inherent physical properties of CNF. The high affinity of cellulose to plant hemicelluloses (xyloglucan, xylan, pectin) is also an opportunity to develop biomaterials with new properties. Here, we prepared aerogels from [...] Read more.
Bio-based aerogels containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are promising materials due to the inherent physical properties of CNF. The high affinity of cellulose to plant hemicelluloses (xyloglucan, xylan, pectin) is also an opportunity to develop biomaterials with new properties. Here, we prepared aerogels from gelled dispersions of CNFs and xyloglucan (XG) at different ratios by using a freeze-casting procedure in unidirectional (UD) and non-directional (ND) manners. As showed by rheology analysis, CNF and CNF/XG dispersions behave as true gels. We investigated the impact of the freezing procedure and the gel’s composition on the microstructure and the water absorption properties. The introduction of XG greatly affects the microstructure of the aerogel from lamellar to cellular morphology. Bio-based aerogels showed high water absorption capacity with shape recovery after compression. The relation between morphology and aerogel compositions is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerogels 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Investigation of Aerogel Production Processes: Solvent Exchange under High Pressure Combined with Supercritical Drying in One Apparatus
Gels 2021, 7(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010004 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
This work aims to contribute to the theoretical and experimental research of supercritical processes for intensification and combination in one apparatus. Investigation is carried out to improve production technology of organic alginate aerogels. It is proposed within the investigation to carry out the [...] Read more.
This work aims to contribute to the theoretical and experimental research of supercritical processes for intensification and combination in one apparatus. Investigation is carried out to improve production technology of organic alginate aerogels. It is proposed within the investigation to carry out the solvent exchange stage, an important stage of organic aerogels production, under pressure in a carbon dioxide medium in the same apparatus used for supercritical drying. The phase behavior in the system “carbon dioxide–water–2-propanol”, which arises during such a solvent exchange stage, is studied theoretically. An experimental study of the process of step-by-step solvent exchange under pressure was carried out through multiphase and homogeneous regions of the phase diagram of such a system. As a result, new highly efficient technology for the production of organic aerogels was proposed, which can be implemented by combining the two main stages of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerogels 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A Constitutive Model for Alginate-Based Double Network Hydrogels Cross-Linked by Mono-, Di-, and Trivalent Cations
Gels 2021, 7(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gels7010003 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
In this contribution, a micro-mechanically based constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear inelastic rubber-like features of alginate-based double network hydrogel cross-linked via various counterions. To this end, the lengthening of the polysaccharide polymer chain after a fully stretched state is characterized. [...] Read more.
In this contribution, a micro-mechanically based constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear inelastic rubber-like features of alginate-based double network hydrogel cross-linked via various counterions. To this end, the lengthening of the polysaccharide polymer chain after a fully stretched state is characterized. A polymer chain is firstly considered behaving entropically up to the fully stretched state. Then, enthalpic behavior is accounted for concerning the following lengthening. To calculate enthalpic behavior, the macroscopic material properties, such as elastic modulus, are integrated into the proposed model. Thus, a new energy concept for a polymer chain is proposed. The model is constituted by the proposed energy concept, the network decomposition model, the Arruda–Boyce eight chain model and the network alteration theory. The model is compared against the cyclic tensile test data of alginate-based double network hydrogels cross-linked via mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Good agreement between the model and experiments is obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Gel-Based Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop