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Fusion Genes and RNAs in Cancer Development

1
Isotope Science Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
2
Cancer Genomics and Precision Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1 Midorigaoka Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs and Cancer Genetics)
Fusion RNAs are a hallmark of some cancers. They result either from chromosomal rearrangements or from splicing mechanisms that are non-chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal rearrangements that result in gene fusions are particularly prevalent in sarcomas and hematopoietic malignancies; they are also common in solid tumors. The splicing process can also give rise to more complex RNA patterns in cells. Gene fusions frequently affect tyrosine kinases, chromatin regulators, or transcription factors, and can cause constitutive activation, enhancement of downstream signaling, and tumor development, as major drivers of oncogenesis. In addition, some fusion RNAs have been shown to function as noncoding RNAs and to affect cancer progression. Fusion genes and RNAs will therefore become increasingly important as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for cancer development. Here, we discuss the function, biogenesis, detection, clinical relevance, and therapeutic implications of oncogenic fusion genes and RNAs in cancer development. Further understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate how fusion RNAs form in cancers is critical to the development of therapeutic strategies against tumorigenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: fusion RNAs; gene fusions; chromosomal rearrangements; trans-splicing; cis-splicing; FISH; RT-PCR; non-RT-based assay; RNA sequence fusion RNAs; gene fusions; chromosomal rearrangements; trans-splicing; cis-splicing; FISH; RT-PCR; non-RT-based assay; RNA sequence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Taniue, K.; Akimitsu, N. Fusion Genes and RNAs in Cancer Development. Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7, 10. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ncrna7010010

AMA Style

Taniue K, Akimitsu N. Fusion Genes and RNAs in Cancer Development. Non-Coding RNA. 2021; 7(1):10. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ncrna7010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Taniue, Kenzui, and Nobuyoshi Akimitsu. 2021. "Fusion Genes and RNAs in Cancer Development" Non-Coding RNA 7, no. 1: 10. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ncrna7010010

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