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Article

Ethanol Production from Olive Stones through Liquid Hot Water Pre-Treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation. Influence of Enzyme Loading, and Pre-Treatment Temperature and Time

1
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Campus ‘Las Lagunillas’, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
2
Center for Advanced Studies in Olive Grove and Olive Oils, Science and Technology Park GEOLIT, 23620 Mengíbar, Spain
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor García González, 1, 41012 Seville, Spain
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Campus ‘Fuente Nueva’, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 14 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Wastes: Feedstock for Value-Added Products 2.0)
Olive table industry, olive mills and olive pomace oil extraction industries annually generate huge amounts of olive stones. One of their potential applications is the production of bioethanol by fractionation of their lignocellulose constituents and subsequent fermentation of the released sugars using yeasts. In this work, we studied the influence of temperature (175–225 °C) and residence time (0–5 min) in the liquid hot-water pre-treatment of olive stones as well as the initial enzyme loading (different mixtures of cellulases, hemicellulases and β–glucosidases) in the later enzymatic hydrolysis on the release of fermentable sugars. The Chrastil’s model was applied to the d-glucose data to relate the severity of pre-treatment to enzyme diffusion through the pre-treated cellulose. Finally, the hydrolysate obtained under the most suitable conditions (225 °C and 0 min for pre-treatment; 24 CE initial enzyme concentration) was fermented into ethanol using the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 32691. Considering the overall process, 6.4 dm3 ethanol per 100 kg olive stones were produced. View Full-Text
Keywords: autohydrolysis; bioethanol; Chrastil’s model; enzymatic hydrolysis; olive stones; Pachysolen tannophilus autohydrolysis; bioethanol; Chrastil’s model; enzymatic hydrolysis; olive stones; Pachysolen tannophilus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cuevas, M.; García Martín, J.F.; Bravo, V.; Sánchez, S. Ethanol Production from Olive Stones through Liquid Hot Water Pre-Treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation. Influence of Enzyme Loading, and Pre-Treatment Temperature and Time. Fermentation 2021, 7, 25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7010025

AMA Style

Cuevas M, García Martín JF, Bravo V, Sánchez S. Ethanol Production from Olive Stones through Liquid Hot Water Pre-Treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation. Influence of Enzyme Loading, and Pre-Treatment Temperature and Time. Fermentation. 2021; 7(1):25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7010025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cuevas, Manuel, Juan F. García Martín, Vicente Bravo, and Sebastián Sánchez. 2021. "Ethanol Production from Olive Stones through Liquid Hot Water Pre-Treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation. Influence of Enzyme Loading, and Pre-Treatment Temperature and Time" Fermentation 7, no. 1: 25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7010025

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