Previous Issue
Volume 7, September

Fermentation, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 97 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Plant Biomass Production in Constructed Wetlands Treating Swine Wastewater in Tropical Climates
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040296 (registering DOI) - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 189
Abstract
The production of both aboveground and belowground plant biomass in constructed wetlands (CW) is a poorly understood topic, although vegetation plays an important role in the process of pollutant removal from wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aboveground and [...] Read more.
The production of both aboveground and belowground plant biomass in constructed wetlands (CW) is a poorly understood topic, although vegetation plays an important role in the process of pollutant removal from wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aboveground and belowground biomass production of Typha latifolia and Canna hybrids in a large-scale constructed wetland treating swine wastewater in tropical climates. Parameters, such as temperature, DO, pH, COD, TSS, TN, TP, and TC, as well as destructive and non-destructive biomass, were evaluated. It was found that, despite the high concentrations of pollutants, the vegetation adapted easily and also grew healthily despite being exposed to high concentrations of pollutants from swine water. Although Typha latifolia (426 plants) produced fewer plants than Canna hybrids (582 plants), the higher biomass of the Typha latifolia species was slightly higher than that of Canna hybrids by 5%. On the other hand, the proximity of the water inlet to the system decreased the capacity for the development of a greater number of seedlings. As for the elimination of pollutants, after treatment in the constructed wetland, COD: 83.6 ± 16.9%; TSS: 82.2 ± 17.7%; TN: 94.4 ± 15.8%; TP: 82.4 ± 23.2%; and TC: 94.4 ± 4.4% were significantly reduced. These results show that wetlands constructed as tertiary systems for the treatment of swine wastewater produce a large amount of plant biomass that significantly helps to reduce the concentrations of pollutants present in this type of water in tropical areas. The use of these plants is recommended in future wetland designs to treat swine wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Biogenic Gas, Waste and Wastewater Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Production of Pigments by Filamentous Fungi Cultured on Agro-Industrial by-Products Using Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation Methods
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 295; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040295 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 216
Abstract
The food and pharmaceutical industries are searching for natural colour alternatives as required by consumers. Over the last decades, fungi have emerged as producers of natural pigments. In this paper, five filamentous fungi; Penicillium multicolour, P. canescens, P. herquie, Talaromyces verruculosus [...] Read more.
The food and pharmaceutical industries are searching for natural colour alternatives as required by consumers. Over the last decades, fungi have emerged as producers of natural pigments. In this paper, five filamentous fungi; Penicillium multicolour, P. canescens, P. herquie, Talaromyces verruculosus and Fusarium solani isolated from soil and producing orange, green, yellow, red and brown pigments, respectively, when cultured on a mixture of green waste and whey were tested. The culture media with varying pH (4.0, 7.0 and 9.0) were incubated at 25 °C for 14 days under submerged and solid-state fermentation conditions. Optimal conditions for pigment production were recorded at pH 7.0 and 9.0 while lower biomass and pigment intensities were observed at pH 4.0. The mycelial biomass and pigment intensities were significantly higher for solid-state fermentation (0.06–2.50 g/L and 3.78–4.00 AU) compared to submerged fermentation (0.220–0.470 g/L and 0.295–3.466 AU). The pigment intensities were corroborated by lower L* values with increasing pH. The λmax values for the pigments were all in the UV region. Finally, this study demonstrated the feasibility of pigment production using green waste:whey cocktails (3:2). For higher biomass and intense pigment production, solid-state fermentation may be a possible strategy for scaling up in manufacturing industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Wastes: Feedstock for Value-Added Products 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Supplemental Aspergillus Lipase and Protease Preparations Display Powerful Bifidogenic Effects and Modulate the Gut Microbiota Community of Rats
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040294 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Aspergillus-derived protease and lipase, which are involved in the production of Aspergillus-fermented foods, are consumed as digestive enzyme supplements. A marked bifidogenic effect of supplemental Aspergillus protease preparation (AP) in rats fed with a high-fat diet was identified. This study was [...] Read more.
Aspergillus-derived protease and lipase, which are involved in the production of Aspergillus-fermented foods, are consumed as digestive enzyme supplements. A marked bifidogenic effect of supplemental Aspergillus protease preparation (AP) in rats fed with a high-fat diet was identified. This study was conducted to examine whether the consumption of Aspergillus-derived lipase exerts similar bifidogenic effect. Rats were fed diets supplemented with either an Aspergillus-derived lipase preparation (AL) or AP at 0.1% for two weeks. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that supplemental AL and AP markedly influenced cecal microbial community. At the phylum level, treatment with AL and AP resulted in a lower relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but a higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria than the control rats (p < 0.05). At the genus level, AL and AP remarkedly elevated the relative abundances of Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Enterococcus, but significantly reduced those of Oscillospira, Dorea, and Coprobacillus (p < 0.05). These modulations were similar to those reported by several studies with typical prebiotic oligosaccharides. Notably, the bifidogenic effect of AL was much greater than that of AP. Our results show that the two different Aspergillus-derived preparations, AL and AP, have strong bifidogenic effects and can change the microbiota’s composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Microbes Related to Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Changes of Main Nutrient Components and Volatile Flavor Substances in Processing of Canned Bamboo Shoots
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 293; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040293 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Canned bamboo shoots, a popular endurable storage product preserved by canning, can be used directly as a raw material for preparing dishes and processing many other downstream products. Fermentation and high temperature sterilization are decisive for product quality. During 3 days of fermentation [...] Read more.
Canned bamboo shoots, a popular endurable storage product preserved by canning, can be used directly as a raw material for preparing dishes and processing many other downstream products. Fermentation and high temperature sterilization are decisive for product quality. During 3 days of fermentation at 25 °C, the protein and total amino acids of bamboo shoots increased remarkably and the total phenols changed a little. After steam sterilization, the total sugar decreased by 56.82%, and the protein of bamboo shoots decreased from 2.41 ± 0.04 g/100 g to 2.03 ± 0.30 g/100 g. The process significantly increased from zero the total sugar, protein and total amino acids in sterilization bamboo shoots soaking solution. GC-MS-ROAV was used for the detection of volatile flavor substances (VFCs) of bamboo shoots and soaking solution in the four processing stages. Fermented bamboo shoots after 72 h showed a strong aroma of orange oil, which was the evaluator’s preferred aroma. In the process of sterilization, Maillard reaction leads to the increase of pyrazines and furans in bamboo shoots and soaking solution, including dibenzofuran, furaneol, trimethyl-pyrazine and 2,3-dimethyl-pyrazine. Due to these volatile flavor components, the sterilized bamboo shoots spread a light caramel and cocoa flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Changes in Bioactive Compounds of Coffee Pulp through Fermentation-Based Biotransformation Using Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 543 and Its Antioxidant Activities
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040292 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 220
Abstract
The use of biotransformation has become a popular trend in the food and cosmetic industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used due to their safety and beneficial effects on human health. Coffee pulp, a by-product obtained from coffee production, has antioxidant activity [...] Read more.
The use of biotransformation has become a popular trend in the food and cosmetic industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used due to their safety and beneficial effects on human health. Coffee pulp, a by-product obtained from coffee production, has antioxidant activity because it contains different classes of phenolic compounds. To investigate the factors affecting the biotransformation process of coffee pulp using L. plantarum TISTR 543, a systematic study using 23 factorial designs in a completely randomized design (CRD) was done. After the coffee pulp was bio-transformed, its bacterial count, pH, phenol contents, flavonoid contents, tannin contents, changes in bioactive compounds by LC-QQQ, and antioxidant properties were studied. The highest phenolic content was obtained in the sample containing the substrate, water, and sugar in the ratio of 3:10:3 with a 5% starter. After the fermentation was done, for 24–72 h, total bacteria count, total phenol contents, and antioxidant activities significantly increased compared to their initial values. Protocatechuic acid also markedly increased after 24 h of the biotransformation process. Hence, the fermentation of coffee pulp with L. plantarum TISTR 543 can produce substances with a higher biological activity which can be further studied and used as functional foods or active ingredients in cosmetic application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation Process Design)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Valorisation of CO2 into Value-Added Products via Microbial Electrosynthesis (MES) and Electro-Fermentation Technology
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 291; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040291 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Microbial electrocatalysis reckons on microbes as catalysts for reactions occurring at electrodes. Microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells are well-known in this context; both prefer the oxidation of organic and inorganic matter for producing electricity. Notably, the synthesis of high energy-density chemicals [...] Read more.
Microbial electrocatalysis reckons on microbes as catalysts for reactions occurring at electrodes. Microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells are well-known in this context; both prefer the oxidation of organic and inorganic matter for producing electricity. Notably, the synthesis of high energy-density chemicals (fuels) or their precursors by microorganisms using bio-cathode to yield electrical energy is called Microbial Electrosynthesis (MES), giving an exceptionally appealing novel way for producing beneficial products from electricity and wastewater. This review accentuates the concept, importance and opportunities of MES, as an emerging discipline at the nexus of microbiology and electrochemistry. Production of organic compounds from MES is considered as an effective technique for the generation of various beneficial reduced end-products (like acetate and butyrate) as well as in reducing the load of CO2 from the atmosphere to mitigate the harmful effect of greenhouse gases in global warming. Although MES is still an emerging technology, this method is not thoroughly known. The authors have focused on MES, as it is the next transformative, viable alternative technology to decrease the repercussions of surplus carbon dioxide in the environment along with conserving energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels Production and Processing Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Wine Saccharomyces Yeasts for Beer Fermentation
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040290 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Multiple studies in recent years have shown the potential of Saccharomyces wild yeasts to produce craft beers with new flavour profiles and other desirable properties. Yeasts isolated from food (wine, bread, kombucha…) have shown potential promise for application in brewing. The aim of [...] Read more.
Multiple studies in recent years have shown the potential of Saccharomyces wild yeasts to produce craft beers with new flavour profiles and other desirable properties. Yeasts isolated from food (wine, bread, kombucha…) have shown potential promise for application in brewing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of 141 Saccharomyces yeast strains isolated from the Madrilenian agriculture (from grapes, must, wine, vineyard, and cellars) to produce a novel ale beer. Fermentation activity of the strains was compared against the commercial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Safale S-04. In addition to the other aspects such as melatonin production, thirty-three volatile compounds belonging to higher alcohols, esters, aldehydes/cetones, acids, lactones and phenolic groups, were analysed by GC for selection of the strains. Ten strains were finally chosen, among which the most relevant was the strain G 520 showing a higher production of esters, higher alcohols and acids compared with S-04. The apparent attenuation for this strain was lower than commercial strain, which translates into more residual sugars. Furthermore, G 520 was more capable of producing significantly higher amounts of melatonin studied by HPLC, as well as showing a higher antioxidant capacity. Consumer study showed that G 520 strain could be used to produce a potential beer that has a place in the current market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine Fermentation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Nutritional Contributions and Health Associations of Traditional Fermented Foods
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040289 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
The growing interest in the consumption and study of traditionally fermented food worldwide has led to the development of numerous scientific investigations that have focused on analyzing the microbial and nutritional composition and the health effects derived from the consumption of these foods. [...] Read more.
The growing interest in the consumption and study of traditionally fermented food worldwide has led to the development of numerous scientific investigations that have focused on analyzing the microbial and nutritional composition and the health effects derived from the consumption of these foods. Traditionally fermented foods and beverages are a significant source of nutrients, including proteins, essential fatty acids, soluble fiber, minerals, vitamins, and some essential amino acids. Additionally, fermented foods have been considered functional due to their prebiotic content, and the presence of specific lactic acid bacterial strains (LAB), which have shown positive effects on the balance of the intestinal microbiota, providing a beneficial impact in the treatment of diseases. This review presents a bibliographic compilation of scientific studies assessing the effect of the nutritional content and LAB profile of traditional fermented foods on different conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fermentation for Better Nutrition, Health and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Novel Propagation Strategy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Enhanced Xylose Metabolism during Fermentation on Softwood Hydrolysate
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 288; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040288 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 175
Abstract
An economically viable production of second-generation bioethanol by recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires higher xylose fermentation rates and improved glucose–xylose co-consumption. Moreover, xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae recognises xylose as a non-fermentable rather than a fermentable carbon source, which might partly explain why xylose is [...] Read more.
An economically viable production of second-generation bioethanol by recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires higher xylose fermentation rates and improved glucose–xylose co-consumption. Moreover, xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae recognises xylose as a non-fermentable rather than a fermentable carbon source, which might partly explain why xylose is not fermented into ethanol as efficiently as glucose. This study proposes propagating S. cerevisiae on non-fermentable carbon sources to enhance xylose metabolism during fermentation. When compared to yeast grown on sucrose, cells propagated on a mix of ethanol and glycerol in shake flasks showed up to 50% higher xylose utilisation rate (in a defined xylose medium) and a double maximum fermentation rate, together with an improved C5/C6 co-consumption (on an industrial softwood hydrolysate). Based on these results, an automated propagation protocol was developed, using a fed-batch approach and the respiratory quotient to guide the ethanol and glycerol-containing feed. This successfully produced 71.29 ± 0.91 g/L yeast with an average productivity of 1.03 ± 0.05 g/L/h. These empirical findings provide the basis for the design of a simple, yet effective yeast production strategy to be used in the second-generation bioethanol industry for increased fermentation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Production from Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) from Organic Wastes by Pseudomonas oleovorans
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040287 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 140
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a biodegradable polymer from organic wastes by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from acidogenic fermentations of chicken manure (VFAs-CM) and potato peels (VFAs-PP), rich in organic matter majorly acetic (49.9%), butyric [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a biodegradable polymer from organic wastes by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from acidogenic fermentations of chicken manure (VFAs-CM) and potato peels (VFAs-PP), rich in organic matter majorly acetic (49.9%), butyric (15%) and propionic acids (11.1%) were utilized as substrates for microbial processes. During 72 h of cultivations, samples were withdrawn at intervals and analyzed for cell growth parameters, PHAs accumulation and polymeric properties. The highest biopolymer accumulation (0.39 g PHAs/g DCW) was achieved at 48 h of cultivation from medium containing VFAs-PP as the sole source of carbon. On characterization, the produced biopolymers were shown to be semi-crystalline of carbonyl C=O group. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the produced biopolymers demonstrated the capability to withstand thermal degradation above prescribed temperatures at which cross-linking isomerization reaction occurs, which is a vital property denoting the thermal stability of biopolymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Paper Mulberry Silage on the Growth Performance, Rumen Microbiota and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Hu Lambs
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040286 - 28 Nov 2021
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) is widely ensiled to feed sheep in southwestern China, as unconventional woody forage. Feeding lambs with paper mulberry silage (PMS) may improve certain feeding characteristics, thereby affecting the growth performance and meat quality. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) is widely ensiled to feed sheep in southwestern China, as unconventional woody forage. Feeding lambs with paper mulberry silage (PMS) may improve certain feeding characteristics, thereby affecting the growth performance and meat quality. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of four diets of PMS on growth performance, rumen microbial composition, and muscle fatty acids profile in Hu lambs. The results showed that 30% and 40% PMS increased the dry matter intake and average daily gain of Hu lambs compared to the control group. PMS30 and PMS40 increased the content of C24:1, and PMS40 increased the content of C20:5n-3. The content of microbial protein (MCP) was higher in PMS40 than in others, but PMS30 and PMS40 reduced the total volatile fatty acid in rumen. PMS30 significantly increased the ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid. The abundance of ruminal Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and norank_f_Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group was significantly higher in PMS30 and PMS40 groups. Moreover, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group had a significant positive correlation with n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid. PMS40 might lead to a relatively high content of unsaturated fatty acids in longissimus dorsi muscle by increasing the relative abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group in rumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silage Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dynamic Optimisation of Beer Fermentation under Parametric Uncertainty
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040285 - 28 Nov 2021
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Fermentation is one of the most important stages in the entire brewing process. In fermentation, the sugars are converted by the brewing yeast into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a variety of by-products which affect the flavour of the beer. Fermentation temperature profile plays [...] Read more.
Fermentation is one of the most important stages in the entire brewing process. In fermentation, the sugars are converted by the brewing yeast into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a variety of by-products which affect the flavour of the beer. Fermentation temperature profile plays an essential role in the progression of fermentation and heavily influences the flavour. In this paper, the fermentation temperature profile is optimised. As every process model contains experimentally determined parameters, uncertainty on these parameters is unavoidable. This paper presents approaches to consider the effect of uncertain parameters in optimisation. Three methods for uncertainty propagation (linearisation, sigma points, and polynomial chaos expansion) are used to determine the influence of parametric uncertainty on the process model. Using these methods, an optimisation formulation considering parametric uncertainty is presented. It is shown that for the non-linear beer fermentation model, the linearisation approach performed worst amongst the three methods, while second-order polynomial chaos worked the best. Using the techniques described below, a fermentation process can be optimised for ensuring high alcohol content or low fermentation time while ensuring the quality constraints. As we explicitly consider uncertainty in the process, the solution, even though conservative, will be more robust to parametric uncertainties in the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Digital Technologies on Beverage Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Lipase Addition, Hydrothermal Processing, Their Combination, and Co-Digestion with Crude Glycerol on Food Waste Anaerobic Digestion
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 284; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040284 - 27 Nov 2021
Viewed by 222
Abstract
To enhance anaerobic fermentation during food waste (FW) digestion, pretreatments can be applied or the FW can be co-digested with other waste. In this study, lipase addition (LA), hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP), and a combination of both methods (HL) were applied to hydrolyze organic [...] Read more.
To enhance anaerobic fermentation during food waste (FW) digestion, pretreatments can be applied or the FW can be co-digested with other waste. In this study, lipase addition (LA), hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP), and a combination of both methods (HL) were applied to hydrolyze organic matter in FW. Furthermore, the effects of crude glycerol (CG), which provided 5%, 10%, and 15% of the volatile solids (VS) as co-substrate (denoted as CG5, CG10, and CG15, respectively), on the anaerobic digestion of FW were assessed. With an increasing proportion of CG in the co-digestion experiment, CG10 showed higher methane production, while CG15 negatively affected the anaerobic digestion (AD) performance owing to propionic acid accumulation acidifying the reactors and inhibiting methanogen growth. As the pretreatments partially decomposed hard-to-degrade substances in advance, pretreated FW showed a stronger methane production ability compared with raw FW, especially using the HL method, which was significantly better than co-digestion. HL pretreatment was shown to be a promising option for enhancing the methane potential value (1.773 NL CH4/g VS) according to the modified Gompertz model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Biogenic Gas, Waste and Wastewater Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Metabolic Regulators and Aeration on Isocitric Acid Synthesis by Yarrowia lipolytica Grown on Ester-Aldehyde Fraction
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 283; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040283 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Isocitric acid (ICA) has found wide application in medicine as a promising compound with powerful antioxidant activity to combat oxidative stress. In the known microbiological processes of ICA production by non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the pure carbon sources are commonly used. ICA [...] Read more.
Isocitric acid (ICA) has found wide application in medicine as a promising compound with powerful antioxidant activity to combat oxidative stress. In the known microbiological processes of ICA production by non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the pure carbon sources are commonly used. ICA can be also synthetized by Y. lipolytica from ester-aldehyde fraction (EAF)-waste of the ethanol production process. A highly effective method of ICA production from EAF based on regulation of key enzymes (aconitate hydratase and isocitrate lyase) by metabolic regulators (iron and itaconic acid) and aeration was developed. It is recommended to cultivate Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 under nitrogen deficiency conditions, a high aeration (60% of air saturation), an addition of 15 mM itaconic acid, and 2.4 mg/L iron. Under optimal conditions, Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced 83 g/L ICA with isocitrate to citrate ratio of 4.1:1 and mass yield of 1.1 g/g. The putative mechanism of ICA overproduction from EAF by Y. lipolytica was suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Methods for Oxygenation of Continuous Cultures of Brewer’s Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040282 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Maintaining steady-state, aerobic cultures of yeast in a bioreactor depends on the configuration of the bioreactor system as well as the growth medium used. In this paper, we compare several conventional aeration methods with newer filter methods using a novel optical sensor array [...] Read more.
Maintaining steady-state, aerobic cultures of yeast in a bioreactor depends on the configuration of the bioreactor system as well as the growth medium used. In this paper, we compare several conventional aeration methods with newer filter methods using a novel optical sensor array to monitor dissolved oxygen, pH, and biomass. With conventional methods, only a continuously stirred tank reactor configuration gave high aeration rates for cultures in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium. For filters technologies, only a polydimethylsiloxan filter provided sufficient aeration of yeast cultures. Further, using the polydimethylsiloxan filter, the YPD medium gave inferior oxygenation rates of yeast compared to superior results with Synthetic Complete medium. It was found that the YPD medium itself, not the yeast cells, interfered with the filter giving the low oxygen transfer rates based on the volumetric transfer coefficient (KLa). The results are discussed for implications of miniaturized bioreactors in low-gravity environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biotechnology 5.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Concentrated Buffalo Whey as Substrate for Probiotic Cultures and as Source of Bioactive Ingredients: A Local Circular Economy Approach towards Reuse of Wastewaters
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040281 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 137
Abstract
Waste reduction and reuse is a crucial target of current research efforts. In this respect, the present study was focused on providing an example of local investment in a simple process configuration that converts whey into value-added compounds and allows recovery of a [...] Read more.
Waste reduction and reuse is a crucial target of current research efforts. In this respect, the present study was focused on providing an example of local investment in a simple process configuration that converts whey into value-added compounds and allows recovery of a clean water stream. In particular, buffalo milk whey obtained during mozzarella manufacturing was ultrafiltered in-house on spiral membrane modules (20 kDa), and the two obtained fractions, namely the retentate and the permeate, provided by the dairy factory, were further processed during this work. The use of an additional nanofiltration step allowed the recovery of high-quality water to be reused in the production cycle (machine rinsing water within the facility) and/or in agriculture, also reducing disposal costs and the environmental impact. The ultrafiltration retentate, on the other hand, was spray-dried and the powder obtained was used as the main substrate for the cultivation of Lactobacillus fermentum, a widely studied probiotic with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cholesterol-lowering properties. In addition, the same sample was tested in vitro on a human keratinocytes model. Resuspended concentrated whey powder improved cell reparation rate in scratch assays, assisted through time-lapse video-microscopy. Overall these data support the potential of buffalo whey as a source of biologically active components and recyclable water in the frame of a local circular economy approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Waste Valorization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Selection of Three Indigenous Lebanese Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Physiological Traits from Grape Varieties in Western Semi-Desert and Pedoclimatic Conditions in the Bekaa Valley
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040280 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Wine production depends on the fermentation process performed by yeasts, especially (but not solely) strains of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is a technique that has been practiced from the Middle Ages till modern days. Selecting indigenous starters offers a beneficial technique [...] Read more.
Wine production depends on the fermentation process performed by yeasts, especially (but not solely) strains of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is a technique that has been practiced from the Middle Ages till modern days. Selecting indigenous starters offers a beneficial technique to manage alcoholic grape juice fermentation, conserving the particular sensory qualities of wine produced from specific regions. This paper investigated yeast biodiversity of four grape varieties (Carignan, Syrah, Grenache, and Aswad Karesh) grown in the pedoclimatic western semi-desert Bekaa Valley. Further research identified, characterized, and selected strains with the most industrial wine interest and economic value to Lebanon. By using molecular methods and by the ITS PCR analysis, the isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces genus were identified. These isolates taken from four varieties were further characterized by amplification with Interdelta and δ12/δ21 primer pairs, permitting the identification of 96 S. cerevisiae strains. Forty-five genomically homogenous groups were classified through the comparison between their mtDNA RFLP patterns. Based on physiological characterization analysis (H2S and SO2 production, killer phenotype, sugar consumption, malic and acetic acid, etc.), three strains (NL28629, NL28649, and NL28652) showed interesting features, where they were also vigorously fermented in a synthetic medium. These strains can be used as a convenient starter for typical wine production. In particular, Carignan and Syrah had the highest percentage of strains with the most desirable physiological parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Agro-Industrial Wastes: A Substrate for Multi-Enzymes Production by Cryphonectria parasitica
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040279 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 174
Abstract
This study aims to produce a mix of enzymes through Solid State Fermentation (SSF) of raw materials. Four different, easily available, agro-industrial wastes were evaluated as SSF substrates for enzymes production by Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. environmental strains named CpA, CpB2, CpC4, and [...] Read more.
This study aims to produce a mix of enzymes through Solid State Fermentation (SSF) of raw materials. Four different, easily available, agro-industrial wastes were evaluated as SSF substrates for enzymes production by Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. environmental strains named CpA, CpB2, CpC4, and CpC7. Among the tested wastes, organic wheat bran for human use and wheat bran for animal feed better supports C. parasitica growth and protease production without any supplements. SDS-PAGE analyses highlighted the presence of three bands corresponding to an extracellular laccase (77 kDa), to the endothiapepsin (37 kDa), and to a carboxylesterase (60.6 kDa). Protease, laccase, and esterase activities by C. parasitica in SSF were evaluated for 15 days, showing the maximum protease activity at day 9 (3955.6 AU/gsf,). Conversely, the best laccase and esterase production was achieved after 15 days. The C. parasitica hypovirulent CpC4 strain showed the highest laccase and esterase activity (93.8 AU/gsf and 2.5 U/gsf, respectively). These results suggest the feasibility of a large-scale production of industrially relevant enzymes by C. parasitica strains in SSF process on low value materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotransformation of Plant Materials by Molds and Higher Fungi)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Influence of Environmental Microbiota on the Activity and Metabolism of Starter Cultures Used in Coffee Beans Fermentation
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040278 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Microbial activity is an integral part of agricultural ecosystems and can influence the quality of food commodities. During on-farm processing, coffee growers use a traditional method of fermentation to remove the cherry pulp surrounding the beans. Here, we investigated the influence of the [...] Read more.
Microbial activity is an integral part of agricultural ecosystems and can influence the quality of food commodities. During on-farm processing, coffee growers use a traditional method of fermentation to remove the cherry pulp surrounding the beans. Here, we investigated the influence of the coffee farm microbiome and the resulting fermentation process conducted with selected starter cultures (Pichia fermentans YC5.2 and Pediococcus acidilactici LPBC161). The microbiota of the coffee farm (coffee fruits and leaves, over-ripe fruits, cherries before de-pulping, depulped beans, and water used for de-pulping beans) was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and Saccharomycetales, as determined by llumina-based amplicon sequencing. In addition, 299 prokaryotes and 189 eukaryotes were identified. Following the fermentation process, Pichia and the family Lactobacillaceae (which includes P. acidilactici) represented more than 70% of the total microbial community. The positive interaction between the starters resulted in the formation of primary metabolites (such as ethanol and lactic acid) and important aroma-impacting compounds (ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and ethyl isobutyrate). The success competitiveness of the starters towards the wild microbiota indicated that coffee farm microbiota has little influence on starter culture-added coffee fermentation. However, hygiene requirements in the fermentation process should be indicated to prevent the high microbial loads present in coffee farm soil, leaves, fruits collected on the ground, and over-ripe fruits from having access to the fermentation tank and transferring undesirable aromas to coffee beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biotechnology 5.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Applying Cassava Stems Biochar Produced from Agronomical Waste to Enhance the Yield and Productivity of Maize in Unfertile Soil
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040277 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Many agronomical wastes are produced annually in significant amounts after cultivation, especially in agricultural countries. This study applied biochar produced from the pyrolysis of cassava stems to improve soil with low fertility for maize cultivation. The effect of soil biochar incorporation on maize [...] Read more.
Many agronomical wastes are produced annually in significant amounts after cultivation, especially in agricultural countries. This study applied biochar produced from the pyrolysis of cassava stems to improve soil with low fertility for maize cultivation. The effect of soil biochar incorporation on maize yield and productivity was also investigated. Eight experimental plots, each with four replicates, were applied with cassava stem biochar (CSB) at different rates of 0.5 kg/m2 (TB0.5), 2.5 kg/m2 (TB2.5) and 3.0 kg/m2 (TB3.0), fertilizer at 0.56 kg/m2 (TM), fertilizer at 0.56 kg/m2 mixed with CSB at 0.5 kg/m2 (TMB0.5), 2.5 kg/m2 (TMB2.5), 3.0 kg/m2 (TMB3.0) and untreated soil (TC). Pyrolysis of cassava stems at 450–500 °C produced strongly alkaline CSB with pH 9.6 and increased nutrient contents. Specific surface area and total pore volume increased, and pores were classified as mesoporous, while average pore diameter decreased. CSB had a highly stable carbon content of 58.46%, with high aromaticity and polarity obtained from O/C and H/C ratios. Results indicated that CSB enhanced and supported maize growth by improving soil physicochemical properties to suit cultivation. Applying CSB into the soil gave higher maize yield and productivity than cultivation using fertilizer. The highest yield and nutrition contents were obtained in seed from cultivation using fertilizer mixed with biochar at 3.0 kg/m2. Biochar production from cassava stems generated a useful commodity from waste material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Waste Valorization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Biomethanation of Carbon Monoxide by Hyperthermophilic Artificial Archaeal Co-Cultures
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040276 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
Climate neutral and sustainable energy sources will play a key role in future energy production. Biomethanation by gas to gas conversion of flue gases is one option with regard to renewable energy production. Here, we performed the conversion of synthetic carbon monoxide (CO)-containing [...] Read more.
Climate neutral and sustainable energy sources will play a key role in future energy production. Biomethanation by gas to gas conversion of flue gases is one option with regard to renewable energy production. Here, we performed the conversion of synthetic carbon monoxide (CO)-containing flue gases to methane (CH4) by artificial hyperthermophilic archaeal co-cultures, consisting of Thermococcus onnurineus and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Methanocaldococcus vulcanius, or Methanocaldococcus villosus. Experiments using both chemically defined and complex media were performed in closed batch setups. Up to 10 mol% CH4 was produced by converting pure CO or synthetic CO-containing industrial waste gases at a high rate using a co-culture of T. onnurineus and M. villosus. These findings are a proof of principle and advance the fields of Archaea Biotechnology, artificial microbial ecosystem design and engineering, industrial waste-gas recycling, and biomethanation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Biogenic Gas, Waste and Wastewater Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exploration of the Potential for Efficient Fiber Degradation by Intestinal Microorganisms in Diqing Tibetan Pigs
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040275 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 198
Abstract
In order to study the potential for efficient fiber degradation by intestinal microorganisms in Diqing Tibetan pigs, we first investigated the dietary structure of Diqing Tibetan pigs in their original habitat, then 60 healthy adult Diqing Tibetan pigs were randomly divided into 2 [...] Read more.
In order to study the potential for efficient fiber degradation by intestinal microorganisms in Diqing Tibetan pigs, we first investigated the dietary structure of Diqing Tibetan pigs in their original habitat, then 60 healthy adult Diqing Tibetan pigs were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 replicates each and 5 pigs in each replicate. The content of neutral detergent fiber in treatment 1 and 2 were adjusted to 20% and 40%, respectively. The total tract digestibility of nutrients and the degradation efficiency of fecal microorganisms to different types of fiber were determined. Results showed that the composition and nutritional level of Diqing Tibetan pig original diet differed greatly in different seasons. The content of crude fiber in the original diet was as high as 12.3% and the neutral detergent fiber was 32.5% in April, while the content of crude fiber was 4.9% and the neutral detergent fiber was 13.3% in October. With the increase of dietary fiber level, the total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, ether extract, and organic matter decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and the contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid in the feces were also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The ability of Diqing Tibetan pig fecal microorganisms to degrade neutral detergent fiber was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than “Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire” pig. In addition, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the degradation efficiency of the same type of fiber between NDF-20 and NDF-40 groups. Our results strongly suggested that Diqing Tibetan pigs have the potential to efficiently utilize fiber, and their unique intestinal microbial composition is the main reason for their efficient utilization of dietary fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of the Ratio of Sheep and Cow Milk on the Composition and Yield Efficiency of Lećevački Cheese
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040274 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Lećevački cheese is a traditional Croatian hard cheese, which belongs to the group of hard Mediterranean cheeses produced from mixed milk (cow and sheep). The aim of this research was to determine the influence of different ratios and compositions of sheep milk on [...] Read more.
Lećevački cheese is a traditional Croatian hard cheese, which belongs to the group of hard Mediterranean cheeses produced from mixed milk (cow and sheep). The aim of this research was to determine the influence of different ratios and compositions of sheep milk on the composition and yield of Lećevački cheese. A total of 15 batches of Lećevački cheese were selected containing different ratios of sheep and cow milk from the regular production of a dairy plant. The ratio of sheep milk was as follows: up to 39%, from 40 to 44%, and from 45 to 50%. For each ratio, five batches were randomly selected. A higher ratio of sheep milk caused a noticeable increase in fat, protein, lactose, and total solids content, while the content of solids-not-fat significantly (p < 0.05) increased. A similar trend was found for casein content (p < 0.1). The highest ratio of sheep milk in mixed milk increased (p < 0.05) the protein content by almost 1%. However, the results showed that it is not reasonable to increase the sheep milk ratio in mixed milk above 44% (v/v) because it causes a higher (p < 0.01) moisture content in the cheese, as well as a lower fat content (p < 0.01) and fat recovery (p = 0.07) during the manufacturing of Lećevački cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Foods and Microbes Related to Health)
Article
Silage Fermentation: A Potential Microbial Approach for the Forage Utilization of Cyperus esculentus L. By-Product
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040273 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Cyperus esculentus L. leaves (CLL) are agricultural by-products produced from Cyperus esculentus L. harvesting, and can be used as livestock feed despite their low economic value for human consumption. This study aims to develop a favorable approach to processing Cyperus esculentus L. by-product [...] Read more.
Cyperus esculentus L. leaves (CLL) are agricultural by-products produced from Cyperus esculentus L. harvesting, and can be used as livestock feed despite their low economic value for human consumption. This study aims to develop a favorable approach to processing Cyperus esculentus L. by-product as coarse fodder. The chopped CLL was pretreated by (1) mixing with canola straw at a 4:1 ratio, or (2) wilting it for 8 h, then it ensiling with or without compounded lactic acid bacteria (LAB) additives for 60 days. Our results demonstrated that compounded LAB additives: improved CLL silage fermentation quality by increasing acetic acid and lactic acid contents and decreasing ethanol and ammonia-N contents; preserved nutrients by raising the level of crude protein and water soluble carbohydrates; modified the bacterial community by increasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillus while decreasing the relative abundance of undesirable Enterococcus; and also might improve animal health by increasing the relative concentrations of antioxidant substances (such as 7-galloylcatechin) and antibacterial compounds (such as ferulic acid). This study provides strong evidence that Cyperus esculentus L. by-product can be a potential livestock feed after being ensiled with compounded LAB additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silage Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Aquafeed Production from Fermented Fish Waste and Lemon Peel
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040272 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 218
Abstract
In order to obtain a high-protein-content supplement for aquaculture feeds, rich in healthy microorganisms, in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 4126 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 strains were used as starters for fermenting fish waste supplemented with lemon peel [...] Read more.
In order to obtain a high-protein-content supplement for aquaculture feeds, rich in healthy microorganisms, in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 4126 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 strains were used as starters for fermenting fish waste supplemented with lemon peel as a prebiotic source and filler. Fermentation tests were carried out for 120 h until no further growth of the selected microorganisms was observed and the pH value became stable. All the samples were tested for proteins, crude lipids, and ash determination, and submitted for fatty acid analysis. Moreover, microbiological analyses for coliform bacteria identification were carried out. At the end of the fermentation period, the substrate reached a concentration in protein and in crude lipids of 48.55 ± 1.15% and 15.25 ± 0.80%, respectively, representing adequate levels for the resulting aquafeed, whereas the ash percentage was 0.66 ± 0.03. The main fatty acids detected were palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Saturated fatty acids concentration was not affected by the fermentation process, whereas monounsaturated and polyunsaturated ones showed an opposite trend, increasing and decreasing, respectively, during the process. Coliform bacteria were not detected in the media at the end of the fermentation, whereas the amount of S. cerevisiae and L. reuteri were around 1011 and 1012 cells per g, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Waste Valorization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Selection of Bacteriocinogenic Bacillus spp. from Traditional Fermented Korean Food Products with Additional Beneficial Properties
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040271 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Two Bacillus spp. isolated from kimchi, Bacillus tequilensis ST816CD and Bacillus subtilis ST830CD, were characterized for their antimicrobial properties and safety. The proteinaceous nature of their inhibitory metabolites was confirmed after exposure to proteolytic enzymes, resulting in partial loss of the antimicrobial effect. [...] Read more.
Two Bacillus spp. isolated from kimchi, Bacillus tequilensis ST816CD and Bacillus subtilis ST830CD, were characterized for their antimicrobial properties and safety. The proteinaceous nature of their inhibitory metabolites was confirmed after exposure to proteolytic enzymes, resulting in partial loss of the antimicrobial effect. This indicated that different non-proteinaceous antimicrobial substances may also be produced by these strains. This hypothesis was later confirmed when genes associated with the production of surfactants were detected in their DNA. The expressed antimicrobial metabolites were not affected by treatment at different temperatures and pH levels, including exposure to selected chemicals. Their strong adherence to susceptible pathogens was not significantly affected by different temperatures, chemicals, or pH values. Both Bacillus strains showed inhibitory activity against clinical and food-associated pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, and some Staphylococcus species. Several genes associated with the production of antimicrobial metabolites were detected, but key virulence and beneficial genes were not present in these strains. Even though only B. tequilensis ST816CD displayed γ-hemolysin production, both selected strains were found to produce gelatinase and biogenic amines, which are considered as either potential virulence- or health-related factors. Moreover, the strains were susceptible to a variety of antibiotics except for the penicillin G [1 IU/disc] resistance of B. tequilensis ST816CD. Both strains showed proteolytic activity. Additionally, both strains showed low hydrophobicity based on bacterial adherence measured by hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biotransformation by Bacillus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bioleaching of Sorghum Straw in Bioreactors for Biomass Cleaning
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040270 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Pretreatments are often needed for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks before either thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential of bioleaching, with its superior capability of removing certain inorganic compounds compared to water leaching, to improve biomass quality for thermochemical [...] Read more.
Pretreatments are often needed for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks before either thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential of bioleaching, with its superior capability of removing certain inorganic compounds compared to water leaching, to improve biomass quality for thermochemical conversion in biofuel production. In this study, the bioleaching process was scaled up from 250 mL beakers to be carried out in custom-designed 2.5 L bioreactors. The fungus Aspergillus niger was used in the bioreactors for leaching sorghum straw biomass with an initial ash content of 6.0%. The effects of three operating parameters on leaching efficiency (i.e., residual ash content) were extensively studied, including the fungal mass added to each reactor, leaching time, and glucose concentration in the starting liquid phase. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the experiment design. The results showed that the average residual ash content of the sorghum feedstock after bioleaching was significantly lower (3.63 ± 0.19%) than that of the ash content (4.72 ± 0.13%) after water leaching (p < 0.00001). Among the three parameters, glucose concentration in the starting liquid phase had the most significant effect on leaching effectiveness (p = 0.0079). Based on this outcome, subsequent bioleaching experiments yielded reductions in residual ash content to as low as 2.73%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethanol and Value-Added Co-products 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Fermented Extracts of Aloe vera Processing Byproducts as Potential Functional Ingredients
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040269 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Aloe is widely used as a cosmetic and medicinal plant. Numerous studies have reported that aloe gel extract has antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunity, and skin antiaging properties. However, few studies have investigated the properties of fermentation products of aloe processing byproducts. Aloe stalks [...] Read more.
Aloe is widely used as a cosmetic and medicinal plant. Numerous studies have reported that aloe gel extract has antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunity, and skin antiaging properties. However, few studies have investigated the properties of fermentation products of aloe processing byproducts. Aloe stalks and leaves remain as byproducts after the aloe beverage manufacturing process. This study evaluated whether fermentation products of blender and press extracts of aloe processing byproducts (BF and PF, respectively) that remain after beverage manufacturing were useful as functional biomaterial by investigating their effects on adipocyte differentiation, hyaluronic acid (HA) production, tyrosinase activity, and antioxidant activity. Co-fermentation of G. xylinus and S. cerevisiae was conducted for fermentation of aloe processing byproducts. The BF and PF products did not induce observable cytotoxicity effects. However, BF and PF products did inhibit a 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation compared with control, with the BF product displaying greater inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation than the PF product. HA production increased in HaCaT cell cultures as the concentration of the MF product increased, as compared with the untreated control. The levels of tyrosinase inhibition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity also depended on the MF product concentration. This study indicates that the fermented products of aloe processing byproducts have biological potential for applications in the manufacturing of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and beverages. These laboratory bench results provide the foundation for future studies of scaling and practical applications at the industrial level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented and Functional Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Production of Bioethanol—A Review of Factors Affecting Ethanol Yield
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040268 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Fossil fuels are a major contributor to climate change, and as the demand for energy production increases, alternative sources (e.g., renewables) are becoming more attractive. Biofuels such as bioethanol reduce reliance on fossil fuels and can be compatible with the existing fleet of [...] Read more.
Fossil fuels are a major contributor to climate change, and as the demand for energy production increases, alternative sources (e.g., renewables) are becoming more attractive. Biofuels such as bioethanol reduce reliance on fossil fuels and can be compatible with the existing fleet of internal combustion engines. Incorporation of biofuels can reduce internal combustion engine (ICE) fleet carbon dioxide emissions. Bioethanol is typically produced via microbial fermentation of fermentable sugars, such as glucose, to ethanol. Traditional feedstocks (e.g., first-generation feedstock) include cereal grains, sugar cane, and sugar beets. However, due to concerns regarding food sustainability, lignocellulosic (second-generation) and algal biomass (third-generation) feedstocks have been investigated. Ethanol yield from fermentation is dependent on a multitude of factors. This review compares bioethanol production from a range of feedstocks, and elaborates on available technologies, including fermentation practices. The importance of maintaining nutrient homeostasis of yeast is also examined. The purpose of this review is to provide industrial producers and policy makers insight into available technologies, yields of bioethanol achieved by current manufacturing practices, and goals for future innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethanol and Value-Added Co-products 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Value-Added Products from Ethanol Fermentation—A Review
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation7040267 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Global demand for renewable and sustainable energy is increasing, and one of the most common biofuels is ethanol. Most ethanol is produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) fermentation of either crops rich in sucrose (e.g., sugar cane and sugar beet) or starch-rich crops (e.g., [...] Read more.
Global demand for renewable and sustainable energy is increasing, and one of the most common biofuels is ethanol. Most ethanol is produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) fermentation of either crops rich in sucrose (e.g., sugar cane and sugar beet) or starch-rich crops (e.g., corn and starchy grains). Ethanol produced from these sources is termed a first-generation biofuel. Yeast fermentation can yield a range of additional valuable co-products that accumulate during primary fermentation (e.g., protein concentrates, water soluble metabolites, fusel alcohols, and industrial enzymes). Distillers’ solubles is a liquid co-product that can be used in animal feed or as a resource for recovery of valuable materials. In some processes it is preferred that this fraction is modified by a second fermentation with another fermentation organism (e.g., lactic acid bacteria). Such two stage fermentations can produce valuable compounds, such as 1,3-propanediol, organic acids, and bacteriocins. The use of lactic acid bacteria can also lead to the aggregation of stillage proteins and enable protein aggregation into concentrates. Once concentrated, the protein has utility as a high-protein feed ingredient. After separation of protein concentrates the remaining solution is a potential source of several known small molecules. The purpose of this review is to provide policy makers, bioethanol producers, and researchers insight into additional added-value products that can be recovered from ethanol beers. Novel products may be isolated during or after distillation. The ability to isolate and purify these compounds can provide substantial additional revenue for biofuel manufacturers through the development of marketable co-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethanol and Value-Added Co-products 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop