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Fermentation, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The production and commercialization of sustainable chemicals from biomass and wastes is necessary for a circular economy built on renewable natural resources. These challenges can be met by utilizing low-cost byproducts from agricultural processing to yield platform chemicals. Specifically, sugar crop processing (e.g., sugarcane, sugar beet) is a mature industry that produces high volumes of byproducts with significant potential for valorization. This review focuses on the production of C4 platform chemicals with emphasis on microbial conversion, strain development, and targeted upgrading. Highlighting these strategies is important because it puts microbial conversion on the road to being cost effective as a component of circular economy development for biofuels and biochemicals. View this paper
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Article
Impact of Oil Sources on In Vitro Fermentation, Microbes, Greenhouse Gas, and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050242 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
This study estimated the effects of oil sources on fermentation characteristics, greenhouse gas, microbial diversity, and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. In vitro ruminal incubation was performed with 7 mg of oil source, 15 mL rumen buffer, and 150 mg of [...] Read more.
This study estimated the effects of oil sources on fermentation characteristics, greenhouse gas, microbial diversity, and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. In vitro ruminal incubation was performed with 7 mg of oil source, 15 mL rumen buffer, and 150 mg of synthetic diet at 39 °C for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Oil sources consisted of corn oil (CO; linoleic acid (C18:2n-6)), linseed oil (LSO; linolenic acid (C18:3n-3)), or Ca-salts (protected C18:2n-6). The ruminal gas was collected for CH4 and CO2 analysis. Incubated rumen buffer was sub-sampled for the analysis of microbial quantification, fermentation characteristics, and fatty acid profiles. The results showed that Ca-salt increased acetate (p = 0.013), while CO increased propionate (p = 0.007). Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and R. albus increased (p < 0.05) with Ca-salt after 12 h of incubation, while Streptococcus bovis increased (p < 0.05) by LSO. The CO and Ca-salt resulted in the highest C18:2n-6 (p = 0.002), while LSO resulted in the highest C18:3n-3 (p = 0.001). The Ca-salt had the lowest C18:0 (p = 0.002), but the highest C18:1cis-9 (p = 0.004). In conclusion, Ca-salt supplementation resisted biohydrogenation to some extent, decreased methanogenic archaea and protozoa, and exerted less toxic effects on fibrolytic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rumen Fermentation Efficiency)
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Article
Optimization of Alpha-Amylase Production by a Local Bacillus paramycoides Isolate and Immobilization on Chitosan-Loaded Barium Ferrite Nanoparticles
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050241 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
We set out to isolate alpha-amylase producers from soil samples, optimize the production, and immobilize the enzyme on chitosan-loaded barium ferrite nanoparticles (CLBFNPs). Alpha-amylase producers were isolated on starch agar plates and confirmed by dinitrosalicylic acid assay. The potent isolate was identified by [...] Read more.
We set out to isolate alpha-amylase producers from soil samples, optimize the production, and immobilize the enzyme on chitosan-loaded barium ferrite nanoparticles (CLBFNPs). Alpha-amylase producers were isolated on starch agar plates and confirmed by dinitrosalicylic acid assay. The potent isolate was identified by phenotypic methods, 16S-rRNA sequencing, and phylogenetic mapping. Sequential optimization of α-amylase production involved the use of Plackett–Burman (P–BD) and central composite designs (CCD), in addition to exposing the culture to different doses of gamma irradiation. Alpha-amylase was immobilized on CLBFNPs, and the nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, with energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray analysis. Forty-five α-amylase producers were isolated from 100 soil samples. The highest activity (177.12 ± 6.12 U/mg) was detected in the MS009 isolate, which was identified as Bacillus paramycoides. The activity increased to 222.3 ± 5.07 U/mg when using the optimal culture conditions identified by P–BD and CCD, and to 319.45 ± 4.91 U/mg after exposing the culture to 6 kGy. Immobilization of α-amylase on CLBFNPs resulted in higher activity (246.85 ± 6.76 U/mg) compared to free α-amylase (222.254 ± 4.89 U/mg), in addition to retaining activity for up to five cycles of usage. Gamma irradiation improved α-amylase production, while immobilization on CLBFNPs enhanced activity, facilitated enzyme recovery, and enabled its repetitive use. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Selenium on Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Metagenome in Goats
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050240 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of selenium yeast (SY) on rumen fermentation parameters, rumen bacterial diversity, and expression pathways in goats. A total of 18 Qianbei-pockmarked weather goats from Guizhou (body weight, 25.75 ± 1.75 kg; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of selenium yeast (SY) on rumen fermentation parameters, rumen bacterial diversity, and expression pathways in goats. A total of 18 Qianbei-pockmarked weather goats from Guizhou (body weight, 25.75 ± 1.75 kg; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to three groups according to a completely randomized design. Control group (CON, n = 6) kids were fed a basal diet, while treatment 1 (LS, n = 6) and treatment 2 (HS, n = 6) kids were fed a basal diet with 2.4 and 4.8 mg/kg SY, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 74 days. The results indicated that the ruminal fluid of LS goats had significantly higher levels of propionic, caproic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acids than that of the CON. The levels of butyric and valeric acids were higher in the HS group than in the CON. The acetate:propionate ratio was significantly higher in the CON than in the two treatments. In addition, the inclusion of 2.4 mg/kg SY can lead to a significant decrease in the relative abundances of Euryarchaeota, and Proteobacteria at the phylum level compared to the CON and the HS groups. At the genus level, the LS group had a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter and Sarcina, whereas it could lead to a significant increase in the relative abundance of Clostridium in the ruminal fluid relative of the other two groups. At the species level, the LS group had a significant decrease in the relative abundance of bacterium_P3, bacterium_P201, and Sarcina_sp._DSM_11001 compared to the other groups. Moreover, the CON group had a significant decrease in the relative abundance of bacterium_P201 compared to the other two treatments. Compared to the CON, the addition of 2.4 mg/kg SY significantly enriched carbohydrate metabolism pathways in the ruminal fluid for gene encoding. Additionally, goats receiving SY showed a significant upregulation of glycosyl transferase and carbohydrate binding module pathways. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with SY modulates fermentation parameters, and it affects microbial diversity and microbial metagenome in the rumen of Qianbei-pockmarked goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rumen Fermentation Efficiency)
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Article
Enhancing Rumen Fermentation Characteristic and Methane Mitigation Using Phytonutrient Pellet in Beef Cattle
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050239 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit peel pellet (CRP) supplementation on rumen fermentation, feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance in crossbred beef cattle. Four [...] Read more.
The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit peel pellet (CRP) supplementation on rumen fermentation, feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance in crossbred beef cattle. Four beef cattle crossbred bulls (Brahman 75% × Thai native 25%), with 250 ± 15 kg of liveweight at 18 months old, were randomly selected to receive four dietary treatment groups: no supplementation (control) and the supplementation of CRP at 2, 4 and 6% of dry matter intake (DMI) by using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The cattle were fed a concentrate at 2 kg/day, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. The results showed that rumen pH at 4 h and average post-feeding values were in the normal range, though they were slightly reduced with CRP supplementation at 4 and 6% DMI (p < 0.05). Rumen temperature, ammonia nitrogen level, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate (C2), and butyrate (C4) production were similar among treatments. Nevertheless, propionate (C3) concentration was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the CRP groups at 2 and 4% DMI. In addition, the C2/C3 ratio and CH4 production were significantly reduced in the CRP groups, especially at 2 and 4% DMI. Rice straw intake and total feed intake in terms of %BW were significantly higher in the groups with CRP at 2 and 4% DMI (p < 0.05). The apparent nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the treatments. Nitrogen intake, nitrogen absorption, and nitrogen retention were significantly enhanced by the CRP supplementation (p < 0.05). Moreover, feces and total nitrogen excretion were not different among treatments (p > 0.05). Ultimately, the supplementation of CRP at 2 and 4% DMI significantly improved the C3 concentration, reduced the C2/C3 ratio, mitigated methane production, and enhanced feed intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. Therefore, CRP supplementation shows promise as a rumen dietary enhancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals)
Article
Rapid Production of Fish Sauce from the Internal Organs of White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050238 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The internal organs of white sturgeon in Miyazaki Prefecture are discarded during processing. Therefore, we tried to produce fish sauce using a short-term manufacturing method. The minced internal organs were autolyzed by endogenous proteases at 50 °C. During autolysis, the protein contents of [...] Read more.
The internal organs of white sturgeon in Miyazaki Prefecture are discarded during processing. Therefore, we tried to produce fish sauce using a short-term manufacturing method. The minced internal organs were autolyzed by endogenous proteases at 50 °C. During autolysis, the protein contents of the supernatant and precipitate after centrifugation were analyzed by the Kjeldahl method, and the protein size was monitored by SDS-PAGE. This analysis showed that the extraction rate was about 60% after treatment at 50 °C for 24 h. The major bands at 200 kDa, 43 kDa, and 40 kDa detected before the start of the treatment gradually disappeared over time. Fifteen components were detected as the main volatile components. These components increased sharply and then decreased during incubation at 50 °C for 24 h. The fish sauce produced had a good aroma after incubation at 50 °C for 72 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Fermentation Technology in Fishery and Aquaculture)
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Article
Assessment of Feed Value of Chicory and Lucerne for Poultry, Determination of Bioaccessibility of Their Polyphenols and Their Effects on Caecal Microbiota
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050237 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Chicory and lucerne possess high feed value for poultry being good sources of protein and fiber. In addition, they are rich in polyphenols that help the body build an integrated antioxidant system to prevent damage from free radicals and positively modulate microbial populations [...] Read more.
Chicory and lucerne possess high feed value for poultry being good sources of protein and fiber. In addition, they are rich in polyphenols that help the body build an integrated antioxidant system to prevent damage from free radicals and positively modulate microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract. These health-promoting effects of polyphenols depend on their bioaccessibility and absorption in the animal body. The present paper aimed to study the bioaccessibility of polyphenols from chicory and lucerne after subjecting the samples to gastric and intestinal phases of digestion in an in vitro model of chicken gut and assessment of their feed value by measuring the presence of fermentable substrates (in terms of gas production), SCFAs produced and their effects on gut microbiota population during in vitro cecal fermentation. Results revealed that the bioaccessibility of polyphenols varied with different polyphenol compounds. The highest bioaccessibility was recorded for p-hydroxybenzoic acid (90.8%) from chicory following the intestinal phase of digestion. The lowest bioaccessibility was observed for quercetin-3-rhamnoside (12.6%) from chicory after the gastric phase of digestion. From lucerne, the highest bioaccessibility was recorded for kaempferol-3-glucoside (77.5%) after the intestinal phase of digestion. Total gas production was higher for lucerne (39.9 mL/g) than chicory (28.1 mL/g). Similarly, total SCFAs production was higher after 24 h of cecal fermentation with lucerne (42.2 mmol L−1) as compared to chicory (38.1 mmol L−1). Results also revealed that the relative abundance of Clostridium was reduced with chicory (0.225%) and lucerne (0.176%) as compared to the control (0.550%) after 24 h of cecal fermentation. The relative abundance of Streptococcus was reduced by lucerne (4.845%) but was increased with chicory (17.267%) as compared to the control (5.204%) after 24 h of fermentation. These findings indicated that chicory and lucerne differentially affected the microbial populations during in vitro cecal fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Fermentation)
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Article
Thermosonication of Broccoli Florets Prior to Fermentation Increases Bioactive Components in Fermented Broccoli Puree
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050236 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of thermosonication (18 kHz at 60 °C for 7 min) pre-treatment with thermal treatment alone (60 °C for 7 min) of broccoli florets prior to pureeing and fermentation on selected bioactive components of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of thermosonication (18 kHz at 60 °C for 7 min) pre-treatment with thermal treatment alone (60 °C for 7 min) of broccoli florets prior to pureeing and fermentation on selected bioactive components of fermented broccoli puree. Both thermal and thermosoncation pre-treatments significantly increased the rate of acidification of broccoli puree compared to control untreated broccoli puree, with the time to reach pH 4 being 8.25, 9.9, and 24 h, respectively, for thermally treated, thermosonicated, and control samples. The highest sulforaphane yield of 7268 µmol/kg dry weight (DW) was observed in the thermosonicated samples, followed by 6227 µmol/kg DW and 3180 µmol/kg DW in the thermally treated and untreated samples, respectively. The measurable residual glucoraphanin content was 1642 µmol/kg DW, 1187 µmol/kg DW, and 1047 µmol/kg DW, respectively, in the thermonsonicated, thermally pre-treated, and control fermented samples, indicating that pre-treatment specially by thermosonication increases the extractability of glucoraphanin. The higher sulforaphane yield in the thermosonicated and thermally pre-treated samples could be due to increased extractability and accessibility of glucoraphanin and interaction with myrosinase in addition to the inactivation of epthiospecifier protein (ESP), which directs conversion away from sulforaphane into sulforaphane nitrile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 3.0)
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Article
Bacterial Composition and Interactions in Raw Milk and Teat Skin of Dairy Cows
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050235 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
The microbiota in raw milk plays an important role in the health of dairy cows and the safety of dairy products, which might be influenced by that in teat skin. However, the microbiota composition in raw milk and teat skin, as well as [...] Read more.
The microbiota in raw milk plays an important role in the health of dairy cows and the safety of dairy products, which might be influenced by that in teat skin. However, the microbiota composition in raw milk and teat skin, as well as the bacterial interaction between the two adjacent spatial locations, remains elusive. Here, we investigated the composition, diversity, and co-occurrence network of the bacterial communities in raw milk and on teat skin, as well as the shift of bacterial communities during the teat bath using 469 samples from 156 individual cows. We observed that raw milk and teat skin harbored significantly different bacterial communities according to an assessment of the genera numbers (p < 0.05) and PCoA analysis (ANOSIM p < 0.05). The microbiota in raw milk was dominated by Proteobacteria (58.5% in relative abundance) at the phylum level and by Pseudomonas (51.2%) at the genus level, while that in teat skin was dominated by Firmicutes (46.9%) at the phylum level and by Pseudomonas (11.0%) at the genus level. We observed a massive difference between the bacterial subnetworks in raw milk and teat, and the bacterial abundance in these two adjacent spatial locations was positively correlated (p < 0.05). Using Bayesian algorithms, we identified that 92.1% of bacteria in raw milk were transferred from teat skin, while 63.6% of bacteria on teat skin were transferred from raw milk. Moreover, microbiota composition in teat skin could be affected by the teat bath with iodine disinfectant, which tended to be more similar to that in raw milk after the teat bath (p < 0.05), while the abundance of the dominant genus Pseudomonas significantly increased (p < 0.05). These findings expand our knowledge on the microbiota composition in teat skin and raw milk, as well as the interaction between these two adjacent spatial locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
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Article
Use of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Culture of Pasteurized Milk Adobera Cheese
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050234 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Adobera, a genuine, brick-shaped, lightly ripened, unstretched pasta filata-like cheese from Western México, is one of the most important market-share wise but is usually made with raw milk and prepared following artisanal procedures. A pasteurized milk cheese is needed to assess its safety [...] Read more.
Adobera, a genuine, brick-shaped, lightly ripened, unstretched pasta filata-like cheese from Western México, is one of the most important market-share wise but is usually made with raw milk and prepared following artisanal procedures. A pasteurized milk cheese is needed to assess its safety and guarantee standardized quality features. However, no commercial Adobera cheese culture is available, as specific lactic acid bacteria relevant for its production have not been thoroughly identified. This study is aimed at comparing the technological and quality features of Adobera cheeses made with pasteurized milk inoculated with a mixture of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc strains) to those of traditional raw milk cheeses, hypothesizing that no significant differences would be found between them. Milk pasteurization promoted water retention into the cheese matrix, impacting its texture and color profiles. Raw milk cheeses were harder, more cohesive, and less elastic than pasteurized milk cheeses. Ripening markers were significantly higher in raw milk cheeses at all sampling times, although its evolution over time showed that the starter culture could exhibit similar proteolytic activity than that of native milk microbiota under favorable ripening conditions. The principal component analysis revealed apparent overall differences between raw Adobera cheeses and those made with pasteurized cheese milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Food Processing and Preservation)
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Article
Evaluation of the Biocontrol Potential of a Commercial Yeast Starter against Fuel-Ethanol Fermentation Contaminants
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050233 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brettanomyces bruxellensis are the main contaminants of bioethanol fermentations. Those contaminations affect Saccharomyces cerevisiae performance and reduce ethanol yields and productivity, leading to important economic losses. Currently, chemical treatments such as acid washing and/or antibiotics are used to [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brettanomyces bruxellensis are the main contaminants of bioethanol fermentations. Those contaminations affect Saccharomyces cerevisiae performance and reduce ethanol yields and productivity, leading to important economic losses. Currently, chemical treatments such as acid washing and/or antibiotics are used to control those contaminants. However, these control measures carry environmental risks, and more environmentally friendly methods are required. Several S. cerevisiae wine strains were found to secrete antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) during alcoholic fermentation that are active against LAB and B. bruxellensis strains. Thus, in the present study, we investigated if the fuel-ethanol commercial starter S. cerevisiae Ethanol Red (ER) also secretes those AMPs and evaluated its biocontrol potential by performing alcoholic fermentations with mixed-cultures of ER and B. bruxellensis strains and growth assays of LAB in ER pre-fermented supernatants. Results showed that all B. bruxellensis strains were significantly inhibited by the presence of ER, although LAB strains were less sensitive to ER fermentation metabolites. Peptides secreted by ER during alcoholic fermentation were purified by gel-filtration chromatography, and a bioactive fraction was analyzed by ELISA and mass spectrometry. Results confirmed that ER secretes the AMPs previously identified. That bioactive fraction was used to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against several LAB and B. bruxellensis strains. MICs of 1–2 mg/mL were found for B. bruxellensis strains and above 2 mg/mL for LAB. Our study demonstrates that the AMPs secreted by ER can be used as a natural preservative in fuel-ethanol fermentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
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Article
Regulation of β-Disaccharide Accumulation by β-Glucosidase Inhibitors to Enhance Cellulase Production in Trichoderma reesei
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050232 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
Trichoderma reesei is a high-yield producer of cellulase for applications in lignocellulosic biomass conversion, but its cellulase production requires induction. A mixture of glucose and β-disaccharide has been demonstrated to achieve high-level cellulase production. However, as inducers, β-disaccharides are prone to be hydrolyzed [...] Read more.
Trichoderma reesei is a high-yield producer of cellulase for applications in lignocellulosic biomass conversion, but its cellulase production requires induction. A mixture of glucose and β-disaccharide has been demonstrated to achieve high-level cellulase production. However, as inducers, β-disaccharides are prone to be hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase (BGL) during fermentation, therefore β-disaccharides need to be supplemented through feeding to overcome this problem. Here, miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, was investigated as a BGL inhibitor, and exhibited an IC50 value of 2.93 μg/mL. The cellulase titer was more than two-fold when miglitol was added to the fermentation medium of T. reesei. This method was similar to the prokaryotic expression system using unmetabolized isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) as the inducer instead of lactose to continuously induce gene expression. However, cellulase activity was not enhanced with BGL inhibition when lactose or cellulose was used as an inducer, which demonstrated that the transglycosidase activity of BGL is important for the inducible activity of lactose and cellulose. This novel method demonstrates potential in stimulating cellulase production and provides a promising system for T. reesei protein expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Microorganisms and Industrial/Food Enzymes)
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Article
Optimisation of PLS Calibrations for Filtered and Untreated Samples towards In-Line Monitoring of Phenolic Extraction during Red-Wine Fermentations
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050231 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Infrared spectroscopy provides an efficient, robust, and multivariate means to measure phenolic levels during red-wine fermentations. However, its use is currently limited to off-line sampling. In this study, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to investigate the possibility of using spectral data [...] Read more.
Infrared spectroscopy provides an efficient, robust, and multivariate means to measure phenolic levels during red-wine fermentations. However, its use is currently limited to off-line sampling. In this study, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to investigate the possibility of using spectral data from minimally pre-treated or untreated samples for the optimisation of prediction calibrations towards an in-line monitoring set-up. The evaluation of the model performance was conducted using a variety of metrics. Limits of detection and quantification of the PLS calibrations were used to assess the ability of the models to predict lower levels of phenolics from the start of fermentation. The calibrations were shown to be useful for the quantification of phenolic compounds and phenolic parameters with minimal or no sample pre-treatment during red-wine fermentation. Upon evaluation of performance, the calibrations built for attenuated-transmission Fourier-transform mid-infrared (ATR-FT-MIR) and diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform near-infrared (DR-FT-NIR) were shown to be the most suitable spectroscopy techniques for eventual application in an automated and in-line system with values for limits of detection and quantification being suitable for the entire duration of fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Food Processing and Preservation)
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Article
Medium Optimization for GA4 Production by Gibberella fujikuroi Using Response Surface Methodology
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050230 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Gibberellin is an important plant growth regulator that has been widely used in agricultural production with great market prospects. However, the low yield from Gibberella fujikuroi restricts its application. To improve the production of gibberellin A4 (GA4), the response surface methodology was used [...] Read more.
Gibberellin is an important plant growth regulator that has been widely used in agricultural production with great market prospects. However, the low yield from Gibberella fujikuroi restricts its application. To improve the production of gibberellin A4 (GA4), the response surface methodology was used in this study to explore the effect of different types and concentrations of vegetable oil and precursors on the production of GA4. Based on a single factor experiment, the Behnken box and central composite designs were used to establish the fermentation condition model, and the response surface method was used for analysis. The results indicated that the optimum formula was 0.55% palm oil, 0.60% cottonseed oil, 0.64% sesame oil, 0.19 g/L pyruvic acid, 0.21 g/L oxaloacetic acid, and 0.21 g/L citric acid for 48 h, which produced a yield 4.32 times higher than that without optimization. This suggests that the mathematical model is valid for predicting GA4 production in Gibberella fujikuroi QJGA4-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Microorganisms and Industrial/Food Enzymes)
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Article
Cofactor Self-Sufficient Whole-Cell Biocatalysts for the Relay-Race Synthesis of Shikimic Acid
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050229 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Shikimic acid (SA) is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino-acid biosynthetic pathway, as well as an important precursor for synthesizing many valuable antiviral drugs. The asymmetric reduction of 3-dehydroshikimic acid (DHS) to SA is catalyzed by shikimate dehydrogenase (AroE) using NADPH as [...] Read more.
Shikimic acid (SA) is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino-acid biosynthetic pathway, as well as an important precursor for synthesizing many valuable antiviral drugs. The asymmetric reduction of 3-dehydroshikimic acid (DHS) to SA is catalyzed by shikimate dehydrogenase (AroE) using NADPH as the cofactor; however, the intracellular NADPH supply limits the biosynthetic capability of SA. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is an efficient enzyme which is typically used for NAD(P)H regeneration in biocatalytic processes. In this study, a series of NADPH self-sufficient whole-cell biocatalysts were constructed, and the biocatalyst co-expressing BmgdharoE showed the highest conversion rate for the reduction of DHS to SA. Then, the preparation of whole-cell biocatalysts by fed-batch fermentation without supplementing antibiotics was developed on the basis of the growth-coupled l-serine auxotroph. After optimizing the whole-cell biocatalytic conditions, a titer of 81.6 g/L SA was obtained from the supernatant of fermentative broth in 98.4% yield (mol/mol) from DHS with a productivity of 40.8 g/L/h, and cofactor NADP+ or NADPH was not exogenously supplemented during the whole biocatalytic process. The efficient relay-race synthesis of SA from glucose by coupling microbial fermentation with a biocatalytic process was finally achieved. This work provides an effective strategy for the biosynthesis of fine chemicals that are difficult to obtain through de novo biosynthesis from renewable feedstocks, as well as for biocatalytic studies that strictly rely on NAD(P)H regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
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Article
Effect of Ammoniated and/or Basidiomycete White-Rot Fungi Treatment on Rice Straw Proximate Composition, Cell Wall Component, and In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050228 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Various pretreatments are employed to increase the utilization of rice straw as a ruminant feed ingredient to minimize its negative environmental impact. However, an efficient alternative is still needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of ammonia and/or white-rot [...] Read more.
Various pretreatments are employed to increase the utilization of rice straw as a ruminant feed ingredient to minimize its negative environmental impact. However, an efficient alternative is still needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of ammonia and/or white-rot fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus) to degrade lignin, increase the nutritional value, and enhance the rumen fermentability of rice straw. Rice straw was treated with ammonia and/or basidiomycete white-rot fungi (P. ostreatus) with untreated straw as control under solid-state fermentation employing a completely randomized design. The crude protein increased from 2.05% in the control to 3.47% in ammoniated rice straw, 5.24% in basidiomycete white-rot fungi (P. ostreatus), and 6.58% in ammoniated-basidiomycete white-rot fungi-treated (P. ostreatus) rice straw. The ammoniated-basidiomycete white-rot fungi-treated (P. ostreatus) rice straw had the least lignin content (3.76%). Ammoniated-basidiomycete white-rot fungi-treated (P. ostreatus) rice straw had improved in vitro dry matter digestibility (65.52%), total volatile fatty acid (76.56 mM), and total gas production (56.78 mL/g) compared to ammoniated rice straw (56.16%, 67.71 mM, 44.30 mL/g) or basidiomycete white-rot fungi-treated (P. ostreatus) rice straw (61.12%, 75.36 mM, 49.31 mL/g), respectively. The ammoniated-basidiomycete white-rot fungi (P. ostreatus) treatment improved rice straw’s nutritional value, in vitro dry matter digestibility, volatile fatty acids, and gas production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation Process Design)
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Article
Influence of Operating Conditions on Reuterin Production Using Resting Cells of Limosilactobacillus reuteri DPC16
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050227 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Limosilactobacillus reuteri strains can secrete a potentially valuable chemical and broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance named reuterin (3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-HPA). L. reuteri DPC16 is a novel and patented probiotic strain that is used commercially because of its proven ability to kill various foodborne pathogens. A two-step [...] Read more.
Limosilactobacillus reuteri strains can secrete a potentially valuable chemical and broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance named reuterin (3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-HPA). L. reuteri DPC16 is a novel and patented probiotic strain that is used commercially because of its proven ability to kill various foodborne pathogens. A two-step process has been developed for reuterin production from glycerol using L. reuteri DPC16. Cells were grown, followed by harvesting, and then were incubated with glycerol for reuterin production. Parameters investigated during the glycerol conversion included the initial glycerol concentration, the biomass concentration, pH, culture age at harvesting, conversion time, and temperature. The highest reuterin yield was obtained using 21 g/L 24 h old cells, to convert glycerol solution (300 mmol/L) in 1 h at 30 °C and pH 6.2. The most efficient transformation of glycerol to reuterin was achieved in approximately 20 h of growth of cells at 25 °C and pH 6.8. Using the regression equation of this study, the maximum concentration of reuterin can be obtained using 25 g/L 20 h old DPC6 cells to ferment 350 mmol/L glycerol (initial concentration) for 2 h at 25 °C and pH 6.8 The ranking of effects on reuterin production for the six single factors was glycerol concentration > pH > conversion time > biomass concentration > temperature > culture age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioreactors: Control, Optimization and Applications)
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Article
The Influence of Sugar Composition and pH Regulation in Batch and Continuous Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol Fermentation
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050226 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation is influenced by external conditions. This work aimed to study the influence of pH regulation on monosaccharide composition in batch and continuous fermentation processes to determine butanol production and productivity. Batch fermentations with ammonium acetate or calcium carbonate combined with [...] Read more.
Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation is influenced by external conditions. This work aimed to study the influence of pH regulation on monosaccharide composition in batch and continuous fermentation processes to determine butanol production and productivity. Batch fermentations with ammonium acetate or calcium carbonate combined with minimum pH control (pH ≥ 4.8 or 5.1) were assessed with pure xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures (ratios of 1:1 and 3:1). Continuous two-stage fermentation was developed using plastic rings to retain the biomass. Although batch fermentations with pure xylose performed better without active minimum pH control with both buffers, minimum pH control was necessary to metabolize xylose in the presence of glucose. Xylose uptake was favored by the use of calcium carbonate and pH ≥ 5.1 at a ratio of 1:1, while ammonium acetate and a pH ≥ 4.8 was the best option for a 3:1 ratio. The best butanol production and productivity values with sugar mixtures in batch reactors were 8.8 g L−1 and 0.61 g L−1 h−1 with an ammonium acetate pH ≥ 4.8 (ratio 3:1). The glucose/xylose ratio combined with pH regulation thus modulated xylose metabolism and solvent production in batch modes. Immobilized cells combined with operating at D = 0.333 h−1 and pH regulation increased butanol productivity almost fourfold up to 2.4 ± 0.2 g L−1 h−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Waste Valorization into Added-Value Products)
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Article
Designing a Waste-Based Culture Medium for the Production of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms Based on Cladodes Juice from Opuntia ficus-indica Pruning
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050225 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 747
Abstract
The production of beneficial microorganisms is the first step to obtain a commercial-based product for application in agriculture. In this study, prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) pruning waste was evaluated as a raw material for the production of large amounts of Plant [...] Read more.
The production of beneficial microorganisms is the first step to obtain a commercial-based product for application in agriculture. In this study, prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) pruning waste was evaluated as a raw material for the production of large amounts of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms (PGPMs) reducing the number of generated wastes. Specifically, five PGPMs constituting a synthetic microbial consortium with complementing plant growth-promoting traits were grown on a laboratory scale and, subsequently, on a pilot scale using a 21-L bioreactor. Primarily, the physical-chemical characterization of the culture medium obtained from the juice of Opuntia cladodes was carried out, revealing the presence of sugars and organic acids with different molar ratios. Compared to conventional media, the waste medium did not show significant differences in bacterial growth efficiency. Instead, the survival rates of the bacteria grown in cladodes juice media, after air-drying on zeolite or freeze-drying, were significantly higher than those observed when they were grown in conventional media. The present work is the first conducted on a pilot-scale that maximizes the production of PGPMs in submerged fermentation using cladodes juice from Opuntia, reducing both economic and environmental impacts associated with the generation of wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Food Waste Valorization)
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Article
Ecological Distribution and Oenological Characterization of Native Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an Organic Winery
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050224 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The relation between regional yeast biota and the organoleptic characteristics of wines has attracted growing attention among winemakers. In this work, the dynamics of a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae population was investigated in an organic winery. In this regard, the occurrence and the persistence [...] Read more.
The relation between regional yeast biota and the organoleptic characteristics of wines has attracted growing attention among winemakers. In this work, the dynamics of a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae population was investigated in an organic winery. In this regard, the occurrence and the persistence of native S. cerevisiae were evaluated in the vineyard and winery and during spontaneous fermentation of two nonconsecutive vintages. From a total of 98 strains, nine different S. cerevisiae biotypes were identified that were distributed through the whole winemaking process, and five of them persisted in both vintages. The results of the oenological characterization of the dominant biotypes (I and II) show a fermentation behavior comparable to that exhibited by three common commercial starter strains, exhibiting specific aromatic profiles. Biotype I was characterized by some fruity aroma compounds, such as isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate, while biotype II was differentiated by ethyl hexanoate, nerol, and β-damascenone production also in relation to the fermentation temperature. These results indicate that the specificity of these resident strains should be used as starter cultures to obtain wines with distinctive aromatic profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Microbiology)
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Article
Effect of Fermented Camel Milk Containing Pumpkin Seed Milk on the Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Experimental Rats
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050223 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
Oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, nephrotoxicity, and renal damage. The consumption of plant-based dairy alternatives has increased rapidly worldwide due to their health effects. Bioactive components from natural sources, such as plants, are effective in protecting against oxidative stress. The present [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, nephrotoxicity, and renal damage. The consumption of plant-based dairy alternatives has increased rapidly worldwide due to their health effects. Bioactive components from natural sources, such as plants, are effective in protecting against oxidative stress. The present study evaluated the physicochemical and sensory properties of fermented camel milk made from camel milk mixed with pumpkin seed milk. Fermented camel milk consists of camel milk mixed with 25% and 50% pumpkin seed milk. This blend (fermented camel milk containing 50% pumpkin seed milk) was evaluated as an antioxidant agent in oxidative stress induced rats. A total of thirty-two male adult albino rats of Sprague Dawley® Rat strain weighing 150–180 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8). The first group was solely administered the standard diet and served as the negative control. The other rats (n = 24), received a basal diet, including being intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride, with a single dose at a rate of 2 mL/kg body weight) as a model for oxidative stress. The oxidative stress rats were divided into three groups; the first group did not receive any treatment and served as the positive control. The second and third groups were administered 10 g/day fermented camel milk and fermented camel milk containing 50% pumpkin seed milk. The results revealed that mixing the camel milk with pumpkin seed milk was more effective in increasing the total solids, protein, ash, fiber, acidity, viscosity, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. These enhancements were proportional to the mixing ratio. Fermented camel milk containing 50% pumpkin seed milk exhibited the highest scores for sensory properties compared with the other fermented camel milk treatments. The group of rats with oxidative stress treated with fermented camel milk containing 50% pumpkin seed milk showed a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol (CL), triglycerides (TGs), AST, ALT, creatinine, and urea, and increased (p ≤ 0.05) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total protein and albumin compared with rats with oxidative stress. Consumption of fermented camel milk containing 50% pumpkin seed milk by the oxidative stress rat groups caused significant improvement in all of these factors compared with the positive control group. This study revealed that the administration of fermented camel milk containing 50% pumpkin seed milk to rats with oxidative stress prevented disorders related to oxidative stress compared with the untreated oxidative stress group. Thus, incorporating fermented camel milk might play a beneficial role in patients with oxidative stress. Full article
Article
Analysis of the Composition of Substrate for Industrial Fermentation of Agaricus bisporus Based on Secondary and Tertiary Fermentation Mode Composition Analysis of Industrial Fermentation Substrates of A. bisporus
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050222 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 604
Abstract
In this study, changes in metabolites during the fermentation of Agaricus bisporus compost under the Shanghai Lianzhong secondary fermentation method and Jiangsu Yuguan tertiary fermentation method were analysed by applying gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to understand the differences in metabolites under different fermentation [...] Read more.
In this study, changes in metabolites during the fermentation of Agaricus bisporus compost under the Shanghai Lianzhong secondary fermentation method and Jiangsu Yuguan tertiary fermentation method were analysed by applying gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to understand the differences in metabolites under different fermentation methods and find metabolic markers at different fermentation stages in different fermentation methods. The results showed that 1002 compounds were identified. Based on the differential metabolites from pathways of significant enrichment, it was found that L-aspartic acid and 5-aminobenzolevulinic acid could be used as potential metabolic markers to evaluate the phase 2 fermentation method of Shanghai Lianzhong and the phase 3 fermentation method of Jiangsu Yuguan, respectively. This study provides a reference for the preparation of quality-stable fermentation materials and further understanding of the cultivation of A. bisporus with fermentation materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Metabolism in Fermentation Process)
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Article
Utilization of Agroresidues for the Production of Xylanase by Bacillus safensis XPS7 and Optimization of Production Parameters
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050221 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to investigate the utilization of various agro-industrial wastes such as wheat bran, wheat husk, wheat straw, peanut powder, pomace, corn cobs, rice straw, sawdust and sugarcane bagasse for the cost-effective production of xylanase by Bacillus safensis [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the utilization of various agro-industrial wastes such as wheat bran, wheat husk, wheat straw, peanut powder, pomace, corn cobs, rice straw, sawdust and sugarcane bagasse for the cost-effective production of xylanase by Bacillus safensis XPS7 using the one-variable-at-a-time approach. A number of bacterial strains were isolated from different locations in the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Among these, the hyperproducing strain designated as XPS7 was selected for optimized production of xylanase and identified as B. safensis based on 16S rDNA gene analysis. B. safensis XPS7 produced the maximum xylanase (141.28 U/mL) at 45 °C, pH 9, 24 h incubation time, 2% (w/v) wheat straw and wheat bran mixture as carbon source and 1.5% (w/v) ammonium nitrate as the nitrogen source in modified Riviere’s medium. The results showed that the combination of wheat straw and wheat bran proved to be a cheap and abundant source for the hyper production of xylanase and can be used as an inexpensive base (carbon source) for large scale industrial production of enzymes. In addition, the use of waste for the economic production of enzymes will also help to minimize the environmental problems associated with the disposal of agro-industrial waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
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Article
Synergistic Hypolipidemic and Immunomodulatory Activity of Lactobacillus and Spirulina platensis
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050220 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Hyperlipidemia is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to investigate hypolipidemic effects of Lactobacillus, Spirulina and their combination on Swiss albino mice fed a regular or high-cholesterol diet. Rosuvastatin was used as [...] Read more.
Hyperlipidemia is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to investigate hypolipidemic effects of Lactobacillus, Spirulina and their combination on Swiss albino mice fed a regular or high-cholesterol diet. Rosuvastatin was used as a reference drug The highest body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C and the lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were recorded in a positive control group (G5). Treatment with Lactobacillus or Spirulina or by their combination resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, TC, TG, LDL-C and significant increase in HDL-C (p < 0.05) in both mice fed a regular diet or high-cholesterol diet. The treatments induced a significant increase in Hb, MCHC and HCT levels in mice fed a regular diet (p < 0.05). They did not induce a significant effect on these parameters in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, while treatment with standard rosuvastatin induced a significant decrease in these parameters (p < 0.05). The treatments induced a significant increase in the platelet count and WBC number in mice fed a regular diet p < 0.05), while they induced significant decrease in these parameters in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet p < 0.05. They also stimulated the innate immunity represented by both monocyte and neutrophil cells in mice fed a regular diet, while this immunity was reduced in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. It also caused a marked reduction in inflammation and an improvement in the congestion of cardiac tissues, the aorta, and the spleen. The treatment of hyperlipidemic mice with combination of Lactobacillus and Spirulina gave similar results to those obtained with treatment by rosuvastatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
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Article
Fermentation of Habanero Pepper by Two Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Effect on the Production of Volatile Compounds
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050219 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that grows in different environments; this ability arises due to the variability within the species, which may be influenced by their origin. On the other hand, habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) from Yucatan, Mexico, is [...] Read more.
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that grows in different environments; this ability arises due to the variability within the species, which may be influenced by their origin. On the other hand, habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) from Yucatan, Mexico, is characterized by its unique sensory properties such as aroma and pungency and has an annual production of more than 5000 t in the Yucatan Peninsula. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare L. plantarum from different isolation sources during habanero pepper fermentation. A 23 factorial design was made for the evaluation of the effect of two cultures a commercial (COM) and a wild (WIL) strain, in a habanero pepper puree medium (HPP); ripe and unripe peppers and different proportions of habanero pepper puree (40:60 or 60:40, HPP:water, w/w) were used to obtain the kinetic parameters of growth, lactic acid production, and volatile composition. The highest growth and lactic acid production were achieved in the 60:40 HPP:water, while WIL presented the major production of lactic acid. Characteristic volatiles in WIL fermentation were 2,3- butanedione, whereas in COM fermentation, they were limonene, cis-3-hexenyl hexanoate, and 1-hexanol. The association between COM and 1-hexanol was confirmed with principal component analysis (PCA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
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Article
Construction of L-Asparaginase Stable Mutation for the Application in Food Acrylamide Mitigation
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050218 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Acrylamide, a II A carcinogen, widely exists in fried and baked foods. L-asparaginase can inhibit acrylamide formation in foods, and enzymatic stability is the key to its application. In this study, the Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (ECA) stable variant, D60W/L211R/L310R, was obtained with molecular [...] Read more.
Acrylamide, a II A carcinogen, widely exists in fried and baked foods. L-asparaginase can inhibit acrylamide formation in foods, and enzymatic stability is the key to its application. In this study, the Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (ECA) stable variant, D60W/L211R/L310R, was obtained with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, saturation mutation, and combinatorial mutation, the half-life of which increased to 110 min from 60 min at 50 °C. Furthermore, the working temperature (maintaining the activity above 80%) of mutation expanded from 31 °C–43 °C to 35 °C–55 °C, and the relative activity of mutation increased to 82% from 65% at a pH range of 6–10. On treating 60 U/mL and 100 U/g flour L-asparaginase stable mutant (D60W/L211R/L310R) under uncontrolled temperature and pH, the acrylamide content of potato chips and bread was reduced by 66.9% and 51.7%, which was 27% and 49.9% higher than that of the wild type, respectively. These results demonstrated that the mutation could be of great potential to reduce food acrylamide formation in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Microorganisms and Industrial/Food Enzymes)
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Review
Biosynthesis and Production of Class II Bacteriocins of Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050217 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides made by bacteria that inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. Class II bacteriocins are a class of bacteriocins that are heat-resistant and do not undergo extensive posttranslational modification. In lactic acid bacteria (LAB), class [...] Read more.
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides made by bacteria that inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. Class II bacteriocins are a class of bacteriocins that are heat-resistant and do not undergo extensive posttranslational modification. In lactic acid bacteria (LAB), class II bacteriocins are widely distributed, and some of them have been successfully applied as food preservatives or antibiotic alternatives. Class II bacteriocins can be further divided into four subcategories. In the same subcategory, variations were observed in terms of amino acid identity, peptide length, pI, etc. The production of class II bacteriocin is controlled by a dedicated gene cluster located in the plasmid or chromosome. Besides the pre-bacteriocin encoding gene, the gene cluster generally includes various combinations of immunity, transportation, and regulatory genes. Among class II bacteriocin-producing LAB, some strains/species showed low yield. A multitude of fermentation factors including medium composition, temperature, and pH have a strong influence on bacteriocin production which is usually strain-specific. Consequently, scientists are motivated to develop high-yielding strains through the genetic engineering approach. Thus, this review aims to present and discuss the distribution, sequence characteristics, as well as biosynthesis of class II bacteriocins of LAB. Moreover, the integration of modern biotechnology and genetics with conventional fermentation technology to improve bacteriocin production will also be discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriocins: Production and Application)
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Review
A Review on the Production of C4 Platform Chemicals from Biochemical Conversion of Sugar Crop Processing Products and By-Products
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050216 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 805
Abstract
The development and commercialization of sustainable chemicals from agricultural products and by-products is necessary for a circular economy built on renewable natural resources. Among the largest contributors to the final cost of a biomass conversion product is the cost of the initial biomass [...] Read more.
The development and commercialization of sustainable chemicals from agricultural products and by-products is necessary for a circular economy built on renewable natural resources. Among the largest contributors to the final cost of a biomass conversion product is the cost of the initial biomass feedstock, representing a significant challenge in effective biomass utilization. Another major challenge is in identifying the correct products for development, which must be able to satisfy the need for both low-cost, drop-in fossil fuel replacements and novel, high-value fine chemicals (and/or commodity chemicals). Both challenges can be met by utilizing wastes or by-products from biomass processing, which have very limited starting cost, to yield platform chemicals. Specifically, sugar crop processing (e.g., sugarcane, sugar beet) is a mature industry that produces high volumes of by-products with significant potential for valorization. This review focuses specifically on the production of acetoin (3-hydroxybutanone), 2,3-butanediol, and C4 dicarboxylic (succinic, malic, and fumaric) acids with emphasis on biochemical conversion and targeted upgrading of sugar crop products/by-products. These C4 compounds are easily derived from fermentations and can be converted into many different final products, including food, fragrance, and cosmetic additives, as well as sustainable biofuels and other chemicals. State-of-the-art literature pertaining to optimization strategies for microbial conversion of sugar crop byproducts to C4 chemicals (e.g., bagasse, molasses) is reviewed, along with potential routes for upgrading and valorization. Directions and opportunities for future research and industrial biotechnology development are discussed. Full article
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Review
Table Olive Wastewater as a Potential Source of Biophenols for Valorization: A Mini Review
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050215 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
The table olive industry generates high amounts of wastewater annually during the alkaline treatment, fermentation, and washing steps of olives. High conductivity and salt content, as well as the high organic and biophenol contents of these waters, is a worldwide problem, especially in [...] Read more.
The table olive industry generates high amounts of wastewater annually during the alkaline treatment, fermentation, and washing steps of olives. High conductivity and salt content, as well as the high organic and biophenol contents of these waters, is a worldwide problem, especially in the Mediterranean region, which is the major table olive producing area. There is a wide variety of bioactives found in wastewater derived from table olive processing. The main compounds of table olive wastewater, such as those derived from phenolic, hydrocarbon, and sugar fractions, can be recovered and reused. In this review, the table olive manufacturing processes and the volumes and composition of wastewater generated from the different methods of table olive processing are discussed. In addition, biophenols of table olive water and their biological activities are also introduced. The high concentrations of valuable biophenols, such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, show promising potential for valorizing table olive wastewater; however, more research is needed in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Waste from Agro-Food, Food and Marine Industry)
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Article
Effectiveness of Low-Cost Bioreactors Integrated with a Gas Stripping System for Butanol Fermentation from Sugarcane Molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050214 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
The effectiveness of column bioreactors for butanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461 was investigated. This fermentation was operated at an initial pH of 6.5 and temperature of 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. A 1-L bubble column bioreactor was used [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of column bioreactors for butanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461 was investigated. This fermentation was operated at an initial pH of 6.5 and temperature of 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. A 1-L bubble column bioreactor was used with various gas circulation rates ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 L/min. The highest butanol concentration (PB, 8.72 g/L), productivity (QB, 0.24 g/L∙h) and yield (YB/S, 0.21 g/g) were obtained with a gas circulation of 0.2 L/min. To improve butanol production efficiency, gas-lift column bioreactors with internal and external loops at 0.2 L/min of circulating gas were used. Higher PB (10.50–10.58 g/L), QB (0.29 g/L∙h) and YB/S (0.22–0.23 g/g) values were obtained in gas-lift column bioreactors. These values were similar to those using a more complex 2-L stirred-tank bioreactor (PB, 10.10 g/L; QB, 0.28 g/L h and YB/S, 0.22 g/g). Hence, gas-lift column bioreactors have potential for use as low-cost fermenters instead of stirred-tank bioreactors for butanol fermentation. When the gas-lift column bioreactor with an internal loop was coupled with a gas stripping system, it yielded an enhanced PB and sugar consumption of approximately 9% and 7%, respectively, compared to a system with no gas stripping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioreactors: Control, Optimization and Applications)
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Article
The Use of Baikal Psychrophilic Actinobacteria for Synthesis of Biologically Active Natural Products from Sawdust Waste
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation8050213 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
One of the relevant areas in microbiology and biotechnology is the study of microorganisms that induce the destruction of different materials, buildings, and machines and lead to negative effects. At the same time, the positive ecological effects of degradation can be explained by [...] Read more.
One of the relevant areas in microbiology and biotechnology is the study of microorganisms that induce the destruction of different materials, buildings, and machines and lead to negative effects. At the same time, the positive ecological effects of degradation can be explained by the detoxication of industrial and agricultural wastes, chemical substances, petroleum products, xenobiotics, pesticides, and other chemical pollutants. Many of these industrial wastes include hard-to-degrade components, such as lignocellulose or plastics. The biosynthesis of natural products based on the transformation of lignocellulosic wastes is of particular interest. One of the world’s unique ecosystems is presented by Lake Baikal. This ecosystem is characterized by the highest level of biodiversity, low temperatures, and a high purity of the water. Here, we studied the ability of several psychrophilic representatives of Baikal Actinobacteria to grow on sawdust wastes and transform them into bioactive natural products. Different strains of both widely spread genus of Actinobacteria and rare genera of Actinobacteria were tested. We used the LC-MS methods to show that Actinobacteria living in sawmill wastes can produce both known and novel natural products with antibiotic activity. We demonstrated that the type of sawmill wastes and their concentration influence the Actinobacteria biosynthetic potential. We have shown for the first time that the use of Baikal psychrophilic microorganisms as a factory for biodegradation is applicable for the transformation of lignocellulosic wastes. Thus, the development of techniques for screening novel natural products leads to an elaboration on the active ingredients for novel drugs. Full article
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