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Magnetochemistry, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Octahedral nickel(II) complexes are the simplest systems that exhibit zero-field splitting. A distorted octahedral nickel(II) complex was synthesized using a tetradentate ligand. Each of the three methods (angular overlap model analysis based on diffuse reflection spectra, density functional theory calculations based on crystal structure, and simultaneous analysis of magnetic susceptibility and magnetization) showed a positive zero-field splitting parameter. The exact algebraic expression for the angular dependence of magnetization has been derived, which allows us to simulate magnetization anisotropy. The simulation shows that the complex is easily magnetized in the xy-plane direction. View this paper
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8 pages, 2098 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Current Induced Domain Wall Motion Driven by Spin Transfer Torque and by Spin Orbit Torque in Ferrimagnetic GdFeCo Wires
by Pham Van Thach, Satoshi Sumi, Kenji Tanabe and Hiroyuki Awano
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050036 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Current-induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) in magnetic wires can be driven by spin transfer torque (STT) originating from transferring angular momentums of spin-polarized conducting electrons to the magnetic DW and can be driven by spin orbit torque (SOT) originating from the spin Hall [...] Read more.
Current-induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) in magnetic wires can be driven by spin transfer torque (STT) originating from transferring angular momentums of spin-polarized conducting electrons to the magnetic DW and can be driven by spin orbit torque (SOT) originating from the spin Hall effect (SHE) in a heavy metal layer and Dzyaloshinsky Moriya (DMI) generated at an interface between a heavy metal layer and a magnetic layer. In this work, we carried out a comparative study of CIDWM driven by STT and by SOT in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo wires with magnetic perpendicular anisotropy based on structures of SiN (10 nm)/GdFeCo (8 nm)/SiN (10 nm) and Pt (5 nm)/GdFeCo (8 nm)/SiN (10 nm). We found that CIDWM driven by SOT exhibited a much lower critical current density (JC), and much higher DW mobility (µDW). Our work might be useful for the realization and the development of low-power and high-speed memory devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Materials with Tunable Magnetic Properties)
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27 pages, 11656 KiB  
Article
Novel Hybrid Ferromagnetic Fe–Co/Nanodiamond Nanostructures: Influence of Carbon on Their Structural and Magnetic Properties
by Panagiotis G. Ziogas, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Polyxeni Chatzopoulou, George P. Dimitrakopulos, Anastasios Markou and Alexios P. Douvalis
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050035 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
This study introduces a novel magnetic nanohybrid material consisting of ferromagnetic (FM) bcc Fe–Co nanoparticles (NPs) grown on nanodiamond (ND) nanotemplates. A combination of wet chemistry, which produces chemical precursors and their subsequent thermal treatment under vacuum, was utilized for its development. The [...] Read more.
This study introduces a novel magnetic nanohybrid material consisting of ferromagnetic (FM) bcc Fe–Co nanoparticles (NPs) grown on nanodiamond (ND) nanotemplates. A combination of wet chemistry, which produces chemical precursors and their subsequent thermal treatment under vacuum, was utilized for its development. The characterization and study of the prepared samples performed with a range of specialized experimental techniques reveal that thermal treatment of the as-prepared hybrid precursors under a range of annealing conditions leads to the development of Co-rich Fe–Co alloy NPs, with average sizes in the range of 6–10 nm, that exhibit uniform distribution on the surfaces of the ND nanotemplates and demonstrate FM behavior throughout a temperature range from 2 K to 400 K, with maximum magnetization values ranging between 18.9 and 21.1 emu/g and coercivities ranging between 112 and 881 Oe. Moreover, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals that apart from the predominant bcc FM Fe–Co phase, iron atoms also participate in the formation of a secondary martensitic-type Fe–Co phase. The emergence of this distinctive phase is attributed to the diffusion of carbon atoms within the Fe–Co lattices during their formation at elevated temperatures. The source of these carbon atoms is related to the unique morphological properties of the ND growth matrices, which facilitate surface sp2 formations. Apart from their diffusion within the Fe–Co NP lattice, the carbon atoms also reconstruct layered graphitic-type nanostructures enveloping the metallic alloy NPs. These non-typical nanohybrid materials, reported here for the first time in the literature, hold significant potential for use in applications related, but not limited to, biomedicine, biopharmaceutics, catalysis, and other various contemporary technological fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Magnetic Nanospecies)
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12 pages, 3422 KiB  
Article
Tuning Structure and Properties of a Ferromagnetic Organic Semiconductor via a Magnetic Field-Modified Reduction Process
by Han Zhou, Zaitian Cheng, Zhiqiang Ai, Xinyao Li, Lin Hu and Fapei Zhang
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050034 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The development of novel synthesis and assembly strategies is critical to achieving a ferromagnetic organic semiconductor with high Curie temperature. In this study, we report a high magnetic field (HMF)-modified solvothermal approach for the reduction in neutral perylene diimide (PDI) into the dianion [...] Read more.
The development of novel synthesis and assembly strategies is critical to achieving a ferromagnetic organic semiconductor with high Curie temperature. In this study, we report a high magnetic field (HMF)-modified solvothermal approach for the reduction in neutral perylene diimide (PDI) into the dianion species to prepare the PDI magnets comprising radical anions after subsequent oxidation processes. The PDI materials, assembled from the dianion solution by an HMF-modified reduction, exhibit a smaller crystallite size and an enlarged distance of the π-π stacking in the PDI aggregates. Furthermore, the PDI magnets obtained from the process under a 9T field reveal weakened ferromagnetism and the rapid degradation of electrical conductivity compared to those prepared without a magnetic field. Based on spectral and structural characterizations, such performance deterioration originates from the enhanced instability of the radical anions exposed to air, as well as the decreased crystallinity for the radical PDIs synthesized from the HMF-modified reduction process. This work demonstrates that magnetic fields offer an effective way in the material synthesis process to manipulate the structure and magnetic properties of the radical-based organic magnets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress of Magnetic Field Effect on Catalysts)
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14 pages, 4900 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Magnetic Nano-Catalyst Containing Schiff Base Unit and Its Application in the Chemical Fixation of CO2 into Cyclic Carbonates
by Na Kang, Yindi Fan, Dan Li, Xiaoli Jia and Sanhu Zhao
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050033 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 933
Abstract
The development of a catalyst for the conversion of CO2 and epoxides to the corresponding cyclic carbonates is still a very attractive topic. Magnetic nano-catalysts are widely used in various organic reactions due to their magnetic separation and recycling properties. Here, a [...] Read more.
The development of a catalyst for the conversion of CO2 and epoxides to the corresponding cyclic carbonates is still a very attractive topic. Magnetic nano-catalysts are widely used in various organic reactions due to their magnetic separation and recycling properties. Here, a magnetic nano-catalyst containing a Schiff base unit was designed, synthesized and used as a heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze CO2 and epoxides to form cyclic carbonates without solvents and co-catalysts. The catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG), VSM, SEM, TEM and BET. The results show that the magnetic nano-catalyst containing the Schiff base unit has a high activity in the solvent-free cycloaddition reaction of CO2 with epoxide under mild conditions, and is easily separated from the reaction mixture driven by external magnetic force. The recovered catalyst maintains a high performance after five cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress of Magnetic Field Effect on Catalysts)
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18 pages, 4269 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Structure and Zero-Field Splitting of Octahedral Nickel(II) Complexes with a Low-Symmetric Tetradentate Ligand
by Hiroshi Sakiyama, Rin Kimura, Haruto Oomiya, Ryoji Mitsuhashi, Sho Fujii, Katsuhiko Kanaizuka, Mohd. Muddassir, Yuga Tamaki, Eiji Asato and Makoto Handa
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050032 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Octahedral nickel(II) complexes are among the simplest systems that exhibit zero-field splitting by having two unpaired electrons. For the purpose of clarifying the relationship between structure and zero-field splitting in a low-symmetric system, distorted octahedral nickel(II) complexes were prepared with a tetradentate ligand, [...] Read more.
Octahedral nickel(II) complexes are among the simplest systems that exhibit zero-field splitting by having two unpaired electrons. For the purpose of clarifying the relationship between structure and zero-field splitting in a low-symmetric system, distorted octahedral nickel(II) complexes were prepared with a tetradentate ligand, 2-[bis(2-methoxyethyl)aminomethyl]-4-nitrophenolate(1−) [(onp)]. The complex [Ni(onp)(dmso)(H2O)][BPh4]·2dmso (1) (dmso = dimethyl sulfoxide) was characterized as a bulk sample by IR, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, electronic spectra, and magnetic properties. The powder electronic spectral data were analyzed based on the angular overlap model to conclude that the spectra were typical of D4-symmetric octahedral coordination geometry with a weak axial ligand field. Simultaneous analysis of the temperature-dependent susceptibility and field-dependent magnetization data yielded the positive axial zero-field splitting parameter D (H = guβSuHu + D[Sz2S(S + 1)/3]), which was consistent with the weak axial ligand field. Single-crystal X-ray analysis revealed the crystal structures of [Ni(onp)(dmso)(H2O)][BPh4]·dmso (2) and [Ni(onp)(dmf)2][BPh4] (3) (dmf = N,N-dimethylformamide). The density functional theory (DFT) computations based on the crystal structures indicated the D4-symmetric octahedral coordination geometries with weak axial ligand fields. This study also showed the importance of considering g-anisotropy in magnetic analysis, even if g-anisotropy is small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Magnetism)
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15 pages, 2255 KiB  
Article
A Novel Magnetic Nano-Adsorbent Functionalized with Green Tea Extract and Magnesium Oxide to Remove Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions: Synthesis, Characterization, and Adsorption Behavior
by Wenchao Lin, Yaoyao Huang, Shuang Liu, Wei Ding, Hong Li and Huaili Zheng
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050031 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 707
Abstract
In this study, a novel green tea/Mg-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent, denoted as GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs, was developed and applied to the extraction of Methylene Blue (MB) from water-based solutions. The GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs were synthesized by incorporating green tea extracts [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel green tea/Mg-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent, denoted as GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs, was developed and applied to the extraction of Methylene Blue (MB) from water-based solutions. The GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs were synthesized by incorporating green tea extracts (GTE) and Mg species onto the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using a hydrothermal method. Characterization analyses corroborated the successful functionalization of the Fe3O4 surface with GTE and Mg species, resulting in a superparamagnetic adsorbent equipped with abundant surface functional groups, which promoted MB adsorption and facilitated magnetic separation. Batch experiments revealed that different operating parameters had an impact on the adsorption behavior, such as adsorbent dosage, pH, coexisting ions, contact time, the initial MB concentration, and temperature. The investigations of adsorption kinetics and isotherms emphasized that the MB adsorption onto GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs was an exothermic process dominated by chemisorption. The experimental adsorption capacity of GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs for MB surpassed 174.93 mg g−1, markedly superior to the performance of numerous other adsorbents. Ultimately, the utilized GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs could be effectively regenerated through acid pickling, retaining over 76% of its original adsorption capacity after six adsorption–desorption cycles, which suggested that GTE-MgO-Fe3O4 NPs was a suitable adsorbent for eliminating MB from effluent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Materials in Water Treatment)
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14 pages, 16266 KiB  
Article
The Piezoresistive Performance of CuMnNi Alloy Thin-Film Pressure Sensors Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering
by Zhengtao Wu, Xiaotao He, Yu Cao, Qimin Wang, Yisong Lin, Liangliang Lin and Chao Liu
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(5), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/magnetochemistry10050030 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Effects of varying Mn and Ni concentrations on the structure and piezoresistive properties of CuMnNi films deposited by magnetron sputtering with a segmented target were investigated. An increase in the Ni content refines the CuNi film grains, inducing an increase in defects such [...] Read more.
Effects of varying Mn and Ni concentrations on the structure and piezoresistive properties of CuMnNi films deposited by magnetron sputtering with a segmented target were investigated. An increase in the Ni content refines the CuNi film grains, inducing an increase in defects such as internal micropores and a decrease in film density. At the same time, the positive piezoresistive coefficient of the film changes to negative. When 17.5 at.% Ni was added, the negative piezoresistive coefficient of the CuNi film was −2.0 × 10−4 GPa−1. The doping of Ni has a weakening effect on the positive piezoresistive effect of the film. Adding Mn into Cu refines the film grains while increasing the film density. The surface roughness of the film decreases with the increase in Mn content. When the Mn content was 16.7 at.%, the piezoresistive coefficient reached the largest recorded value of 23.81 × 10−4 GPa−1, and the film exhibited excellent repeatability in multiple piezoresistive tests. After the CuMn film with 16.7 at.% Mn was annealed at 400 °C for 2 h, the film grains grew slightly and the film residual stress decreased. The optimization of the film structure can reduce the scattering of electrons during transportation. The piezoresistive coefficient of the film was further improved to 35.78 × 10−4 GPa−1. Full article
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