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Batteries, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 25 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Solid-state batteries, with high energy density, safety, and stability, are considered the next generation of energy storage technology. Sodium-based systems, in particular, benefit from sodium’s low cost, abundance, and sustainability. However, low ionic conductivity and high interfacial resistance prevent their adoption. This study explores polyvinyl-based polymers as wetting agents for NASICON-type NZSP solid electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on symmetric cells, demonstrating a significant reduction in interfacial resistance using poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)-based glue, achieving an impressive ionic conductivity of 1.31 mS cm−1 at room temperature, and reaching 7.36 mS cm−1 at 90 ºC. These findings highlight the potential of PVAc-based polymers in enabling high-performance sodium-ion solid-state batteries. View this paper
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51 pages, 24057 KiB  
Article
Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials for Advanced Metal-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors: A Step Towards More Sustainable Energy
by Syed Shaheen Shah
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050168 - 20 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Modern research has made the search for high-performance, sustainable, and efficient energy storage technologies a main focus, especially in light of the growing environmental and energy-demanding issues. This review paper focuses on the pivotal role of biomass-derived carbon (BDC) materials in the development [...] Read more.
Modern research has made the search for high-performance, sustainable, and efficient energy storage technologies a main focus, especially in light of the growing environmental and energy-demanding issues. This review paper focuses on the pivotal role of biomass-derived carbon (BDC) materials in the development of high-performance metal-ion hybrid supercapacitors (MIHSCs), specifically targeting sodium (Na)-, potassium (K)-, aluminium (Al)-, and zinc (Zn)-ion-based systems. Due to their widespread availability, renewable nature, and exceptional physicochemical properties, BDC materials are ideal for supercapacitor electrodes, which perfectly balance environmental sustainability and technological advancement. This paper delves into the synthesis, functionalization, and structural engineering of advanced biomass-based carbon materials, highlighting the strategies to enhance their electrochemical performance. It elaborates on the unique characteristics of these carbons, such as high specific surface area, tuneable porosity, and heteroatom doping, which are pivotal in achieving superior capacitance, energy density, and cycling stability in Na-, K-, Al-, and Zn-ion hybrid supercapacitors. Furthermore, the compatibility of BDCs with metal-ion electrolytes and their role in facilitating ion transport and charge storage mechanisms are critically analysed. Novelty arises from a comprehensive comparison of these carbon materials across metal-ion systems, unveiling the synergistic effects of BDCs’ structural attributes on the performance of each supercapacitor type. This review also casts light on the current challenges, such as scalability, cost-effectiveness, and performance consistency, offering insightful perspectives for future research. This review underscores the transformative potential of BDC materials in MIHSCs and paves the way for next-generation energy storage technologies that are both high-performing and ecologically friendly. It calls for continued innovation and interdisciplinary collaboration to explore these sustainable materials, thereby contributing to advancing green energy technologies. Full article
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27 pages, 1802 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Management of Rechargeable Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles
by Jay Meegoda, Ghadi Charbel and Daniel Watts
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050167 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantifies the environmental impacts during the life of a product from cradle to grave. It evaluates energy use, material flow, and emissions at each stage of life. This report addresses the challenges and potential solutions related to the [...] Read more.
A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantifies the environmental impacts during the life of a product from cradle to grave. It evaluates energy use, material flow, and emissions at each stage of life. This report addresses the challenges and potential solutions related to the surge in electric vehicle (EV) batteries in the United States amidst the EV market’s exponential growth. It focuses on the environmental and economic implications of disposal as well as the recycling of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). With millions of EVs sold in the past decade, this research highlights the necessity of efficient recycling methods to mitigate environmental damage from battery production and disposal. Utilizing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Assessment (LCCA), this research compares emissions and costs between new and recycled batteries by employing software tools such as SimaPro V7 and GREET V2. The findings indicate that recycling batteries produces a significantly lower environmental impact than manufacturing new units from new materials and is economically viable as well. This research also emphasizes the importance of preparing for the upcoming influx of used EV batteries and provides suggestions for future research to optimize the disposal and recycling of EV batteries. Full article
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19 pages, 9925 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation of Single Flow Zinc–Nickel Redox Battery Coupled with Multi-Physics Fields
by Chunning Song, Kaixuan Zhang and Nanjun Li
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050166 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Metallic zinc (Zn) presents a compelling alternative to conventional electrochemical energy storage systems due to its environmentally friendly nature, abundant availability, high water compatibility, low toxicity, low electrochemical potential (−0.762 V vs. SHE), and cost-effectiveness. While considerable efforts have been devoted to enhancing [...] Read more.
Metallic zinc (Zn) presents a compelling alternative to conventional electrochemical energy storage systems due to its environmentally friendly nature, abundant availability, high water compatibility, low toxicity, low electrochemical potential (−0.762 V vs. SHE), and cost-effectiveness. While considerable efforts have been devoted to enhancing the physical and chemical properties of zinc-ion battery materials to improve battery efficiency and longevity, research on multi-physics coupled modeling for a deeper understanding of battery performance remains relatively scarce. In this study, we established a comprehensive two-dimensional model for single-flow zinc–nickel redox batteries to investigate electrode reactions, current-potential behaviors, and concentration distributions, leveraging theories such as Nernst–Planck and Butler–Volmer. Additionally, we explored the distribution of the velocity field using the Brinkman theory in porous media and the Navier–Stokes equations in free-flow channels. The validated model, informed by experimental data, not only provides insights into the performance of the battery, but also offers valuable recommendations for advancing single-flow zinc–nickel battery technology. Our findings offer promising avenues for enhancing the design and performance of not only zinc–nickel flow batteries, but also applicable for other flow battery designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage of Redox-Flow Batteries)
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13 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Battery Configuration on Dendritic Growth: A Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Study on Symmetric Lithium Cells
by Rok Peklar, Urša Mikac and Igor Serša
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050165 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The potential of metallic lithium to become the anode material for next-generation batteries is hampered by significant challenges, chief among which is dendrite growth during battery charging. These dendritic structures not only impair battery performance but also pose safety risks. Among the non-destructive [...] Read more.
The potential of metallic lithium to become the anode material for next-generation batteries is hampered by significant challenges, chief among which is dendrite growth during battery charging. These dendritic structures not only impair battery performance but also pose safety risks. Among the non-destructive analytical techniques in battery research, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) stands out as a promising tool. However, the direct imaging of lithium by 7Li MRI is limited by its low sensitivity and spatial resolution, making it a less effective way of imaging dendrite growth. Instead, a recently introduced indirect imaging approach which is based on 1H MRI of the electrolyte was used in this study. This method was used to sequentially 3D image and thus monitor the charging process of lithium metal symmetric cells in three different electrical circuits, namely those composed of a single cell, four cells in parallel, and four cells in series. The measured sequential images allowed for the measurement of dendrite growth in each cell using volumetric analysis. The growth results confirmed the theoretical prediction that the growth across cells is uneven in a parallel circuit, and even in a series circuit. The methods presented in this study can also be applied to analyze many other dendrite-related issues in batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Smarter Battery Management System)
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14 pages, 2190 KiB  
Article
Flexible Deep Learning-Based State of Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Features Extracted from Partial Charging Curves
by Rucong Lai, Xiaoyu Li and Jie Wang
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050164 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The state of health is a crucial state that suggests the capacity of lithium-ion batteries to store and restitute energy at a certain power level, which should be carefully monitored in the battery management system. However, the state of health of batteries is [...] Read more.
The state of health is a crucial state that suggests the capacity of lithium-ion batteries to store and restitute energy at a certain power level, which should be carefully monitored in the battery management system. However, the state of health of batteries is unmeasurable and, currently, it is usually estimated within a specific area of the whole charging data, which is very limited in practical application because of the incomplete and random charging behaviors of users. In this paper, we intend to estimate the state of health of batteries with flexible partial charging curves and normal multi-layer perceptron based on the degradation data of eight 0.74 Ah batteries. To make the estimation more adaptive and flexible, we extract several features from partial charging curves. Analysis of the relationship between extracted features and the state of health shows that the extracted features are useful in estimation. As the length of the partial charging curve increases, the extracted features still function well, and the root mean square error of the test set is lower than 1.5%. Further validation on the other two types of batteries reveals that the proposed method achieves high accuracy even with different sampling and working conditions. The proposed method offers an easy-to-implement way to achieve an accurate estimation of a battery’s state of health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Charging Safety and Intelligence of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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10 pages, 1901 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study on Electrochemical Performance of Single versus Dual Networks in Lithium Metal/Polysulfide-Polyoxide Co-Network/Lithium Titanium Oxide Cathode
by Hyunsang Lee, Jae-Won Choi and Thein Kyu
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050163 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
The present article introduces a strategy for controlling oxidation and reduction reactions within polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) networks as a means of enhancing storage capacity through the complexation of dissociated lithium cations with multifunctional groups of the polymer network. Specifically, co-polymer networks based [...] Read more.
The present article introduces a strategy for controlling oxidation and reduction reactions within polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) networks as a means of enhancing storage capacity through the complexation of dissociated lithium cations with multifunctional groups of the polymer network. Specifically, co-polymer networks based on polysulfide (PS) and polyoxide (PO) precursors, photo-cured in the presence of succinonitrile (SCN) and lithium bis(trifluoro methane sulfonyl imide) (LiTFSI) salt, exhibited ionic conductivity on the order of mid 10−4 S/cm at ambient temperature in the 30/35/35 (weight %) composition. Lithium titanate (LTO, Li4Ti5O12) electrode was chosen as an anode (i.e., a potential source of Li ions) against lithium iron phosphate (LFP, LiFePO4) cathode in conjunction with polysulfide-co-polyoxide dual polyelectrolyte networks to control viscosity for 3D printability on conformal surfaces of drone and aeronautic vehicles. It was found that the PS-co-PO dual network-based polymer electrolyte containing SCN plasticizer and LiTFSI salt exhibited extra storage capacity (i.e., specific capacity of 44 mAh/g) with the overall specific capacity of 170 mAh/g (i.e., for the combined LTO electrode and PEM) initially that stabilized at 153 mAh/g after 50th cycles with a reasonable capacity retention of over 90% and Coulombic efficiency of over 99%. Of particular interest is the observation of the improved electrochemical performance of the polysulfide-co-polyoxide electrolyte dual-network relative to that of the polyoxide electrolyte single-network. Full article
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23 pages, 2827 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Economics of Aged Traction Batteries: Market Value and Dynamics
by Merlin Frank, Sebastian Preussner, Natalia Soldan Cattani, Moritz Frieges, Heiner Hans Heimes and Achim Kampker
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050162 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
The growing demand and market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) have led to an expansion in the size of the market for used EVs, accompanied by a continuous increase in the return rate of aging battery systems. Consequently, a second-hand market for aged [...] Read more.
The growing demand and market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) have led to an expansion in the size of the market for used EVs, accompanied by a continuous increase in the return rate of aging battery systems. Consequently, a second-hand market for aged battery systems, known as second-life batteries, is slowly emerging. Understanding this market is crucial for enabling a functioning circular economy for batteries. This paper analyzes the market mechanisms influencing price formation for used goods, drawing parallels to the largest second-hand market, the used car market, and applies them to the second-life battery market. By examining these mechanisms, insights are provided into the dynamics of the second-life battery market, facilitating the development of strategies to optimize resource utilization and sustainability in the EV industry. Finally, the second-life battery price index is introduced, increasing the transparency of prices for lithium-ion batteries and the circular economy. Full article
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40 pages, 9443 KiB  
Review
Empowering Electric Vehicles Batteries: A Comprehensive Look at the Application and Challenges of Second-Life Batteries
by Seyedreza Azizighalehsari, Prasanth Venugopal, Deepak Pratap Singh, Thiago Batista Soeiro and Gert Rietveld
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050161 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 957
Abstract
The surge in electric vehicle adoption has resulted in a significant rise in end-of-life batteries, which are unsuitable for demanding EV applications. Repurposing these batteries for secondary applications presents a promising avenue to tackle environmental and economic challenges associated with their disposal. The [...] Read more.
The surge in electric vehicle adoption has resulted in a significant rise in end-of-life batteries, which are unsuitable for demanding EV applications. Repurposing these batteries for secondary applications presents a promising avenue to tackle environmental and economic challenges associated with their disposal. The second-life battery (SLB) approach emerges as a mechanism to manage this massive amount of retired EV batteries. However, this approach poses significant challenges in determining and monitoring battery degradation and performance. After evaluating different scenarios for reusing or recycling retired EV batteries, this paper examines the main challenges associated with SLBs, including techno-economic aspects, uncertainty from first life, safety, characterization and screening, battery-management systems, and secondary applications. A comprehensive review of current state-of-the-art SLB research and implementations is provided, particularly emphasizing battery characterization and the requisite evaluation processes for SLB eligibility. This paper explores diverse measurement techniques for assessing SLB performance, evaluating them based on accuracy, complexity, and time consumption, which are essential for achieving cost-effective SLB applications. The overarching objective is to thoroughly understand the principal challenges associated with repurposing EV batteries and delineate the research imperatives necessary for their successful implementation and prolonged lifespan. Full article
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17 pages, 10567 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Structural Patterns for 3D Electrodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Enhanced Fast-Charging Capability and Reduced Lithium Plating
by Yannic Sterzl and Wilhelm Pfleging
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050160 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The most common pattern types for anode structuring, in particular the line, grid, and hexagonal-arranged hole pattern were evaluated in a comparable setup in full-cells and symmetrical cells. The cells with structured electrodes were compared to reference cells with unstructured anodes of similar [...] Read more.
The most common pattern types for anode structuring, in particular the line, grid, and hexagonal-arranged hole pattern were evaluated in a comparable setup in full-cells and symmetrical cells. The cells with structured electrodes were compared to reference cells with unstructured anodes of similar areal capacity (4.3 mAh cm−2) and the onset of lithium plating during fast-charging was determined in situ by differential voltage analysis of the voltage relaxation and ex situ by post-mortem analysis. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements on symmetrical cells were used to determine the ionic resistance of structured and unstructured electrodes of similar areal capacity. All cells with structured electrodes showed lower ionic resistances and an onset of lithium plating shifted to higher C-rates compared to cells with unstructured electrodes. The structure patterns with capillary structures, i.e., lines and grids, showed significant reduced lithium plating during fast-charging and a higher rate capability compared to reference cells with unstructured electrodes and cells with hole structured electrodes. The continuous rewetting of the electrode with liquid electrolyte by capillary forces and the reduced ionic resistance of the 3D electrode are identified as key factors in improving overall battery performance. The data of the studied cells were used to calculate the resulting energy and power densities of prospective commercial pouch cells and potential pitfalls in the comparison to cells with unstructured electrodes were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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13 pages, 5010 KiB  
Article
Electrode Blending Simulations Using the Mechanistic Degradation Modes Modeling Approach
by David Beck and Matthieu Dubarry
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050159 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Blended electrodes are becoming increasingly more popular in lithium-ion batteries, yet most modeling approaches are still lacking the ability to separate the blend components. This is problematic because the different components are unlikely to degrade at the same pace. This work investigated a [...] Read more.
Blended electrodes are becoming increasingly more popular in lithium-ion batteries, yet most modeling approaches are still lacking the ability to separate the blend components. This is problematic because the different components are unlikely to degrade at the same pace. This work investigated a new approach towards the simulation of blended electrodes by replicating the complex current distributions within the electrodes using a paralleling model rather than the traditional constant-current method. In addition, a blending model was used to generate three publicly available datasets with more than 260,000 unique degradations for three exemplary blended cells. These datasets allowed us to showcase the necessity of considering all active components of the blend separately for diagnosis and prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage in Remote Areas)
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23 pages, 1547 KiB  
Article
CAN Interface Insights for Electric Vehicle Battery Recycling
by Tero Niemi, Tero Kaarlela, Emilia Niittyviita, Ulla Lassi and Juha Röning
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050158 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Road transportation is a significant worldwide contributor to greenhouse gases, and electrifying the driveline of road vehicles is essential in overcoming the evident challenge of climate change. A sustainable transition to electric vehicles requires efficient and safe methods for recycling and repurposing used [...] Read more.
Road transportation is a significant worldwide contributor to greenhouse gases, and electrifying the driveline of road vehicles is essential in overcoming the evident challenge of climate change. A sustainable transition to electric vehicles requires efficient and safe methods for recycling and repurposing used electric vehicle batteries. While various testing methods have been explored for assessing battery state of health and state of risk for recycling and reuse, a research gap exists concerning using data from integrated battery monitoring systems in the recycling process of electric vehicle batteries. This study addresses the research gap by presenting an approach to extract data from the monitoring system integrated into the battery using the automotive standard controller area network interface. In addition, methods to use this interface to ensure the optimal state of charge of the batteries for storage are presented. The benefits, challenges, and limitations set by the proprietary nature of the data to assess the state of risk and health of electric vehicle batteries for recycling and repurposing are presented, discussed, and evaluated. Finally, the influence of battery regulations and the battery passport proposal on electric vehicle battery recycling and repurposing are discussed to provide future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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13 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
Ionic Conductivity Analysis of NASICON Solid Electrolyte Coated with Polyvinyl-Based Polymers
by Tiago Afonso Salgueiro, Rita Carvalho Veloso, João Ventura, Federico Danzi and Joana Oliveira
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050157 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The global environmental crisis necessitates reliable, sustainable, and safe energy storage solutions. The current systems are nearing their capacity limits due to the reliance on conventional liquid electrolytes, which are fraught with stability and safety concerns, prompting the exploration of solid-state electrolytes, which [...] Read more.
The global environmental crisis necessitates reliable, sustainable, and safe energy storage solutions. The current systems are nearing their capacity limits due to the reliance on conventional liquid electrolytes, which are fraught with stability and safety concerns, prompting the exploration of solid-state electrolytes, which enable the integration of metal electrodes. Solid-state sodium-ion batteries emerge as an appealing option by leveraging the abundance, low cost, and sustainability of sodium. However, low ionic conductivity and high interfacial resistance currently prevent their widespread adoption. This study explores polyvinyl-based polymers as wetting agents for the NASICON-type NZSP (Na3Zr2Si2PO12) solid electrolyte, resulting in a combined system with enhanced ionic conductivity suitable for Na-ion solid-state full cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) performed on symmetric cells employing NZSP paired with different wetting agent compositions demonstrates a significant reduction in interfacial resistance with the use of poly(vinyl acetate)—(PVAc-) based polymers, achieving an impressive ionic conductivity of 1.31 mS cm−1 at room temperature, 63.8% higher than the pristine material, notably reaching 7.36 mS cm−1 at 90 °C. These results offer valuable insights into the potential of PVAc-based polymers for advancing high-performance solid-state sodium-ion batteries by reducing their total internal resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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19 pages, 1556 KiB  
Article
State of Health Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Sample Transfer Learning under Current Pulse Test
by Yuanyuan Li, Xinrong Huang, Jinhao Meng, Kaibo Shi, Remus Teodorescu and Daniel Ioan Stroe
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050156 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Considering the diversity of battery data under dynamic test conditions, the stability of battery working data is affected due to the diversity of charge and discharge rates, variability of operating temperature, and randomness of the current state of charge, and the data types [...] Read more.
Considering the diversity of battery data under dynamic test conditions, the stability of battery working data is affected due to the diversity of charge and discharge rates, variability of operating temperature, and randomness of the current state of charge, and the data types are multi-sourced, which increases the difficulty of estimating battery SOH based on data-driven methods. In this paper, a lithium-ion battery state of health estimation method with sample transfer learning under dynamic test conditions is proposed. Through the Tradaboost.R2 method, the weight of the source domain sample data is adjusted to complete the update of the sample data distribution. At the same time, considering the division methods of the six auxiliary and the source domain data set, aging features from different state of charge ranges are selected. It is verified that while the aging feature dimension and the demand for target domain label data are reduced, the estimation accuracy of the lithium-ion battery state of health is not affected by the initial value of the state of charge. By considering the mean absolute error, mean square error and root mean square error, the estimated error results do not exceed 1.2% on the experiment battery data, which highlights the advantages of the proposed methods. Full article
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16 pages, 5696 KiB  
Article
Functionalization of Cathode–Electrolyte Interface with Ionic Liquids for High-Performance Quasi-Solid-State Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: A Low-Sulfur Loading Study
by Milinda Kalutara Koralalage, Varun Shreyas, William R. Arnold, Sharmin Akter, Arjun Thapa, Badri Narayanan, Hui Wang, Gamini U. Sumanasekera and Jacek B. Jasinski
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050155 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
We introduce a quasi-solid-state electrolyte lithium-sulfur (Li–S) battery (QSSEB) based on a novel Li-argyrodite solid-state electrolyte (SSE), Super P–Sulfur cathode, and Li-anode. The cathode was prepared using a water-based carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solution and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as the binder while Li [...] Read more.
We introduce a quasi-solid-state electrolyte lithium-sulfur (Li–S) battery (QSSEB) based on a novel Li-argyrodite solid-state electrolyte (SSE), Super P–Sulfur cathode, and Li-anode. The cathode was prepared using a water-based carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solution and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as the binder while Li6PS5F0.5Cl0.5 SSE was synthesized using a solvent-based process, via the introduction of LiF into the argyrodite crystal structure, which enhances both the ionic conductivity and interface-stabilizing properties of the SSE. Ionic liquids (IL) were prepared using lithium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as the salt, with pre-mixed pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (PYR) as solvent and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) as diluent, and they were used to wet the SSE–electrode interfaces. The effect of IL dilution, the co-solvent amount, the LiTFSI concentration, the C rate at which the batteries are tested and the effect of the introduction of SSE in the cathode, were systematically studied and optimized to develop a QSSEB with higher capacity retention and cyclability. Interfacial reactions occurring at the cathode–SSE interface during cycling were also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supported by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This work offers a new insight into the intimate interfacial contacts between the SSE and carbon–sulfur cathodes, which are critical for improving the electrochemical performance of quasi-solid-state lithium–sulfur batteries. Full article
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22 pages, 18294 KiB  
Article
Estimation of SOC in Lithium-Iron-Phosphate Batteries Using an Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer with Simplified Hysteresis Model during Electric Vehicle Duty Cycles
by Yujia Chang, Ran Li, Hao Sun and Xiaoyu Zhang
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050154 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 889
Abstract
This paper develops a model for lithium-ion batteries under dynamic stress testing (DST) and federal urban driving schedule (FUDS) conditions that incorporates associated hysteresis characteristics of 18650-format lithium iron-phosphate batteries. Additionally, it introduces the adaptive sliding mode observer algorithm (ASMO) to achieve robust [...] Read more.
This paper develops a model for lithium-ion batteries under dynamic stress testing (DST) and federal urban driving schedule (FUDS) conditions that incorporates associated hysteresis characteristics of 18650-format lithium iron-phosphate batteries. Additionally, it introduces the adaptive sliding mode observer algorithm (ASMO) to achieve robust and swiftly accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-iron-phosphate batteries during electric vehicle duty cycles. The established simplified hysteresis model in this paper significantly enhances the fitting accuracy during charging and discharging processes, compensating for voltage deviations induced by hysteresis characteristics. The SOC estimation, even in the face of model parameter changes under complex working conditions during electric vehicle duty cycles, maintains high robustness by capitalizing on the easy convergence and parameter insensitivity of ASMO. Lastly, experiments conducted under different temperatures and FUDS and DST conditions validate that the SOC estimation of lithium-iron-phosphate batteries, based on the adaptive sliding-mode observer and the simplified hysteresis model, exhibits enhanced robustness and faster convergence under complex working conditions and temperature variations during electric vehicle duty cycles. Full article
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27 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Battery Passports for Second-Life Batteries: An Experimental Assessment of Suitability for Mobile Applications
by Marwan Hassini, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias and Pascal Venet
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050153 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
End-of-life electric vehicle (EV) batteries can be reused to reduce their environmental impact and economic costs. However, the growth of the second-life market is limited by the lack of information on the characteristics and performance of these batteries. As the volume of end-of-life [...] Read more.
End-of-life electric vehicle (EV) batteries can be reused to reduce their environmental impact and economic costs. However, the growth of the second-life market is limited by the lack of information on the characteristics and performance of these batteries. As the volume of end-of-life EVs may exceed the amount of batteries needed for stationary applications, investigating the possibility of repurposing them in mobile applications is also necessary. This article presents an experimental test that can be used to collect the data necessary to fill a battery passport. The proposed procedure can facilitate the decision-making process regarding the suitability of a battery for reuse at the end of its first life. Once the battery passport has been completed, the performance and characteristics of the battery are compared with the requirements of several mobile applications. Mobile charging stations and forklift trucks were identified as relevant applications for the reuse of high-capacity prismatic cells. Finally, a definition of the state of health (SoH) is proposed to track the suitability of the battery during use in the second-life application considering not only the energy but also the power and efficiency of the battery. This SoH shows that even taking into account accelerated ageing data, a repurposed battery can have an extended life of 11 years at 25 °C. It has also been shown that energy fade is the most limiting performance factor for the lifetime and that cell-to-cell variation should be tracked as it has been shown to have a significant impact on the battery life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Batteries)
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21 pages, 6589 KiB  
Article
Prediction of the Remaining Useful Life of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the 1D CNN-BLSTM Neural Network
by Jianhui Mou, Qingxin Yang, Yi Tang, Yuhui Liu, Junjie Li and Chengcheng Yu
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050152 - 30 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are currently widely employed in a variety of applications. Precise estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL) of lithium-ion batteries holds significant function in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). Therefore, in order to increase the fidelity and stabilization of predicting the [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are currently widely employed in a variety of applications. Precise estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL) of lithium-ion batteries holds significant function in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). Therefore, in order to increase the fidelity and stabilization of predicting the RUL of lithium-ion batteries, in this paper, an innovative strategy for RUL prediction is proposed by integrating a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D CNN) and a bilayer long short-term memory (BLSTM) neural network. Feature extraction is carried out through the input capacity data of the model using 1D CNN, and these deep features are used as the input of the BLSTM. The memory function of the BLSTM is applied to retain key information in the database and to better understand the coupling relationship among consecutive time series data along the time axis, thereby effectively predicting the RUL trends of lithium-ion batteries. Two different types of lithium-ion battery datasets from NASA and CALCE were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method achieves higher prediction accuracy, demonstrates stronger generalization capabilities, and effectively reduces prediction errors compared to other methods. Full article
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14 pages, 3665 KiB  
Article
Hydrometallurgical Method of Producing Lithium Perrhenate from Solutions Obtained during the Processing of Li-Ion Battery Scrap
by Katarzyna Leszczyńska-Sejda, Michał Ochmański, Arkadiusz Palmowski, Grzegorz Benke, Alicja Grzybek, Szymon Orda, Karolina Goc, Joanna Malarz and Dorota Kopyto
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050151 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 934
Abstract
The work presents the research results regarding the development of an innovative technology for the production of lithium perrhenate. The new technology is based entirely on hydrometallurgical processes. The source of lithium was solutions created during the processing of Li-ion battery masses, and [...] Read more.
The work presents the research results regarding the development of an innovative technology for the production of lithium perrhenate. The new technology is based entirely on hydrometallurgical processes. The source of lithium was solutions created during the processing of Li-ion battery masses, and the source of rhenium was perrhenic acid, produced from the scraps of Ni-based superalloys. The research showed that with the use of lithium carbonate, obtained from post-leaching solutions of Li-ion battery waste and properly purified (by washing with water, alcohol, and cyclic purification with CO2), and perrhenic acid, lithium perrhenate can be obtained. The following conditions: room temperature, time 1 h, 30% excess of lithium carbonate, and rhenium concentration in the acid from 20 g/dm3 to 300 g/dm3, allowed to produce a compound containing a total of 1000 ppm of metal impurities. The developed technology is characterized by the management of all aqueous waste solutions and solid waste and the lack of loss of valuable metals such as rhenium and lithium after the initial precipitation step of lithium carbonate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Processes and Technologies)
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26 pages, 2299 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Review of Models for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries
by Erkin Yildiz, Mattia Serpelloni, Alberto Salvadori and Luigi Cabras
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050150 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
In recent times, there has been significant enthusiasm for the development of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. This interest stems from a dual focus on safety—addressing concerns related to toxic and flammable organic liquid electrolytes—and the pursuit of high energy density. While liquid electrolyte batteries [...] Read more.
In recent times, there has been significant enthusiasm for the development of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. This interest stems from a dual focus on safety—addressing concerns related to toxic and flammable organic liquid electrolytes—and the pursuit of high energy density. While liquid electrolyte batteries currently constitute the vast majority of commercial cells, solid electrolyte batteries show great promise. In parallel with experimental research, computational models clarify several fundamental physics that take place throughout battery operations. Giving up on reviewing a broad screening of the existing literature, we set out to select here a few highly relevant models, emphasizing some fundamental conceptual advancements and offering an in-depth and critical insight into the current state of the art. The papers we selected aim at providing the reader with a tangible and quantitative understanding of how all-solid-state Li-ion batteries operate, including the different mechanisms at play and the mathematical tools required to model the pertinent physics and mechanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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16 pages, 6834 KiB  
Article
Pompon Mum-like SiO2/C Nanospheres with High Performance as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Xiaohui Sun, Yuan Luo, Xuenuan Li, Yujie Wang, Shilong Lin, Weile Ding, Kailong Guo, Kaiyou Zhang and Aimiao Qin
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050149 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 889
Abstract
SiO2 has a much higher theoretical specific capacity (1965 mAh g−1) than graphite, making it a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but its low conductivity and volume expansion problems need to be improved urgently. In this work, pompon mum-like [...] Read more.
SiO2 has a much higher theoretical specific capacity (1965 mAh g−1) than graphite, making it a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but its low conductivity and volume expansion problems need to be improved urgently. In this work, pompon mum-like SiO2/C nanospheres with the sandwich and porous nanostructure were obtained by using dendritic fibrous nano silica (DFNS) and glucose as matrix and carbon source, respectively, through hydrothermal, carbonization and etching operations. The influence of SiO2 content and porous structure on its electrochemical performance was discussed in detail. The final results showed that the C/DFNS-6 with a SiO2 content of 6 wt% exhibits the best electrochemical performance as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its optimal specific surface area, porosity, and appropriate SiO2 content. C/DFNS-6 displays a high specific reversible capacity of 986 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1 after 200 cycles, and 529 mAh g−1 at a high current density (1.0 A g−1) after 300 cycles. It also has excellent rate capability, with a reversible capacity that rises from 599 mAh g−1 to 1066 mAh g−1 when the current density drops from 4.0 A g−1 to 0.2 A g−1. These SiO2/C specific pompon mum-like nanospheres with excellent electrochemical performance have great research significance in the field of lithium-ion batteries. Full article
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18 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Heat Effects during the Operation of Lead-Acid Batteries
by Petr Bača, Petr Vanýsek, Martin Langer, Jana Zimáková and Ladislav Chladil
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050148 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Thermal events in lead-acid batteries during their operation play an important role; they affect not only the reaction rate of ongoing electrochemical reactions, but also the rate of discharge and self-discharge, length of service life and, in critical cases, can even cause a [...] Read more.
Thermal events in lead-acid batteries during their operation play an important role; they affect not only the reaction rate of ongoing electrochemical reactions, but also the rate of discharge and self-discharge, length of service life and, in critical cases, can even cause a fatal failure of the battery, known as “thermal runaway.” This contribution discusses the parameters affecting the thermal state of the lead-acid battery. It was found by calculations and measurements that there is a cooling component in the lead-acid battery system which is caused by the endothermic discharge reactions and electrolysis of water during charging, related to entropy change contribution. Thus, under certain circumstances, it is possible to lower the temperature of the lead-acid battery during its discharging. The Joule heat generated on the internal resistance of the cell due to current flow, the exothermic charging reaction, and above all, the gradual increase in polarization as the cell voltage increases during charging all contribute to the heating of the cell, overtaking the cooling effect. Of these three sources of thermal energy, Joule heating in polarization resistance contributes the most to the temperature rise in the lead-acid battery. Thus, the maximum voltage reached determines the slope of the temperature rise in the lead-acid battery cell, and by a suitably chosen limiting voltage, it is possible to limit the danger of the “thermal runaway” effect. The overall thermal conditions of the experimental cell are significantly affected by the ambient temperature of the external environment and the rate of heat transfer through the walls of the calorimeter. A series of experiments with direct temperature measurement of individual locations within a lead-acid battery uses a calorimeter made of expanded polystyrene to minimize external influences. A hitherto unpublished phenomenon is discussed whereby the temperature of the positive electrode was lower than that of the negative electrode throughout the discharge, while during charging, the order was reversed and the temperature of the positive electrode was higher than that of the negative electrode throughout the charge. The authors relate this phenomenon to the higher reaction entropy change of the active mass of the positive electrode than that of the negative electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemistry of Lead-Acid Batteries)
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15 pages, 13650 KiB  
Article
Electric Vehicle Battery Disassembly Using Interfacing Toolbox for Robotic Arms
by Alireza Rastegarpanah, Carmelo Mineo, Cesar Alan Contreras, Ali Aflakian, Giovanni Paragliola and Rustam Stolkin
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050147 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
This paper showcases the integration of the Interfacing Toolbox for Robotic Arms (ITRA) with our newly developed hybrid Visual Servoing (VS) methods to automate the disassembly of electric vehicle batteries, thereby advancing sustainability and fostering a circular economy. ITRA enhances collaboration between industrial [...] Read more.
This paper showcases the integration of the Interfacing Toolbox for Robotic Arms (ITRA) with our newly developed hybrid Visual Servoing (VS) methods to automate the disassembly of electric vehicle batteries, thereby advancing sustainability and fostering a circular economy. ITRA enhances collaboration between industrial robotic arms, server computers, sensors, and actuators, meeting the intricate demands of robotic disassembly, including the essential real-time tracking of components and robotic arms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our hybrid VS approach, combined with ITRA, in the context of Electric Vehicle (EV) battery disassembly across two robotic testbeds. The first employs a KUKA KR10 robot for precision tasks, while the second utilizes a KUKA KR500 for operations needing higher payload capacity. Conducted in T1 (Manual Reduced Velocity) mode, our experiments underscore a swift communication protocol that links low-level and high-level control systems, thus enabling rapid object detection and tracking. This allows for the efficient completion of disassembly tasks, such as removing the EV battery’s top case in 27 s and disassembling a stack of modules in 32 s. The demonstrated success of our framework highlights its extensive applicability in robotic manufacturing sectors that demand precision and adaptability, including medical robotics, extreme environments, aerospace, and construction. Full article
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23 pages, 4727 KiB  
Review
Welding Challenges and Quality Assurance in Electric Vehicle Battery Pack Manufacturing
by Panagiotis Stavropoulos, Kyriakos Sabatakakis and Harry Bikas
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050146 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Electric vehicles’ batteries, referred to as Battery Packs (BPs), are composed of interconnected battery cells and modules. The utilisation of different materials, configurations, and welding processes forms a plethora of different applications. This level of diversity along with the low maturity of welding [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles’ batteries, referred to as Battery Packs (BPs), are composed of interconnected battery cells and modules. The utilisation of different materials, configurations, and welding processes forms a plethora of different applications. This level of diversity along with the low maturity of welding designs and the lack of standardisation result in great variations in the mechanical and electrical quality of the joints. Moreover, the high-volume production requirements, meaning the high number of joints per module/BP, increase the absolute number of defects. The first part of this study focuses on associating the challenges of welding application in battery assembly with the key performance indicators of the joints. The second part reviews the existing methods for quality assurance which concerns the joining of battery cells and busbars. Additionally, the second part of this paper identifies the general trends and the research gaps for the most widely adopted welding methods in this domain, while it renders the future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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15 pages, 4375 KiB  
Article
Continuous Anode Slurry Production in Twin-Screw Extruders: Effects of the Process Setup on the Dispersion
by Juan Fernando Meza Gonzalez, Hermann Nirschl and Frank Rhein
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050145 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Screw design in the extrusion process has an important effect on the distribution of material through the extruder, resulting in partially filled sections in the processing zone. Accordingly, the local accumulation of material in the extruder leads to variations in material strain conditions [...] Read more.
Screw design in the extrusion process has an important effect on the distribution of material through the extruder, resulting in partially filled sections in the processing zone. Accordingly, the local accumulation of material in the extruder leads to variations in material strain conditions and also influences the local residence time of the material in a given screw section. This work evaluates particle dispersion in anode slurry considering three different screw arrangements. The particle size distribution is considered as a quality parameter representing the microstructure of the battery slurry components and their distribution. Numerical simulation of the material flow behavior through a laboratory extruder was performed to investigate the filling ratios and resulting shear rates for different screw designs and process conditions. The importance of process parameters and a suitable screw configuration to achieve specific particle sizes in battery slurry is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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19 pages, 5564 KiB  
Review
Biochar-Derived Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Review
by Ntalane Sello Seroka, Hongze Luo and Lindiwe Khotseng
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries10050144 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Highly portable nanoelectronics and large-scale electronics rely on lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as the most reliable energy storage technology. This method is thought to be both environmentally friendly and cost-effective. We provide a study of a low-cost, abundant, and renewable supply of carbon-based biomass [...] Read more.
Highly portable nanoelectronics and large-scale electronics rely on lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as the most reliable energy storage technology. This method is thought to be both environmentally friendly and cost-effective. We provide a study of a low-cost, abundant, and renewable supply of carbon-based biomass with potential uses in LIBs. Renewable feedstocks have received significant attention in recent decades as promising tools for efficient and alternative anode materials for LIBs. Researchers can synthesise carbon-rich biochar through the pyrolytic process of biomass. Depending on the synthetic process, precise surface chemistry, and textural qualities such as specific surface area and porosity, this material can be customised to favour application-specific properties with a preferred application. In this research, we look at the performance of biochar in LIBs, its properties, and the biomass supply, and we discuss the prospects for these biomass-derived materials in energy storage devices. Full article
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