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Batteries, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Such data are highly relevant and important for thermal simulation studies of thermal management and thermal runaway in all types of batteries because they allow the determination of the released heat of the materials both under normal use and abuse conditions. View this paper.
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Article
Impact of Test Conditions While Screening Lithium-Ion Batteries for Capacity Degradation in Low Earth Orbit CubeSat Space Applications
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010020 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 993
Abstract
A wide variety of commercial cylindrical lithium-ion batteries are available for use in nanosatellites (CubeSats) that cycle in low Earth orbit (LEO). This space application differs greatly from the conditions used to create the manufacturer datasheets that CubeSat teams rely on to screen [...] Read more.
A wide variety of commercial cylindrical lithium-ion batteries are available for use in nanosatellites (CubeSats) that cycle in low Earth orbit (LEO). This space application differs greatly from the conditions used to create the manufacturer datasheets that CubeSat teams rely on to screen cell types and estimate performance lifetimes. To address this, we experimentally test three LIB cell types using a representative LEO CubeSat power profile in three progressively complex test representations of LEO. The first is “standardized” condition (101 kPa-abs, 20 °C), which uses only a power cycler; the second adds a thermal chamber for “low temperature” condition (101 kPa-abs, 10 °C); and the third adds a vacuum chamber for “LEO” condition (0.2 kPa-abs, 10 °C). Results indicate that general “standardized” and “low temperature” conditions do not yield representative results to what would occur in LEO. Coincidentally, the “LEO” condition gives similar capacity degradation results as manufacturer datasheets. This was an unexpected finding, but suggests that CubeSat teams use full experimental thermal-vacuum testing or default to the manufacturer datasheet performance estimates during the lithium-ion cell screening and selection process. The use of a partial representation of the LEO condition is not recommended. Full article
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Article
Inline Monitoring of Battery Electrode Lamination Processes Based on Acoustic Measurements
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010019 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Due to the energy transition and the growth of electromobility, the demand for lithium-ion batteries has increased in recent years. Great demands are being placed on the quality of battery cells and their electrochemical properties. Therefore, the understanding of interactions between products and [...] Read more.
Due to the energy transition and the growth of electromobility, the demand for lithium-ion batteries has increased in recent years. Great demands are being placed on the quality of battery cells and their electrochemical properties. Therefore, the understanding of interactions between products and processes and the implementation of quality management measures are essential factors that requires inline capable process monitoring. In battery cell lamination processes, a typical problem source of quality issues can be seen in missing or misaligned components (anodes, cathodes and separators). An automatic detection of missing or misaligned components, however, has not been established thus far. In this study, acoustic measurements to detect components in battery cell lamination were applied. Although the use of acoustic measurement methods for process monitoring has already proven its usefulness in various fields of application, it has not yet been applied to battery cell production. While laminating battery electrodes and separators, acoustic emissions were recorded. Signal analysis and machine learning techniques were used to acoustically distinguish the individual components that have been processed. This way, the detection of components with a balanced accuracy of up to 83% was possible, proving the feasibility of the concept as an inline capable monitoring system. Full article
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Review
A Performance and Cost Overview of Selected Solid-State Electrolytes: Race between Polymer Electrolytes and Inorganic Sulfide Electrolytes
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010018 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Electrolytes are key components in electrochemical storage systems, which provide an ion-transport mechanism between the cathode and anode of a cell. As battery technologies are in continuous development, there has been growing demand for more efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly materials. Solid-state lithium [...] Read more.
Electrolytes are key components in electrochemical storage systems, which provide an ion-transport mechanism between the cathode and anode of a cell. As battery technologies are in continuous development, there has been growing demand for more efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly materials. Solid-state lithium ion batteries (SSLIBs) are considered as next-generation energy storage systems and solid electrolytes (SEs) are the key components for these systems. Compared to liquid electrolytes, SEs are thermally stable (safer), less toxic and provide a more compact (lighter) battery design. However, the main issue is the ionic conductivity, especially at low temperatures. So far, there are two popular types of SEs: (1) inorganic solid electrolytes (InSEs) and (2) polymer electrolytes (PEs). Among InSEs, sulfide-based SEs are providing very high ionic conductivities (up to 10−2 S/cm) and they can easily compete with liquid electrolytes (LEs). On the other hand, they are much more expensive than LEs. PEs can be produced at less cost than InSEs but their conductivities are still not sufficient for higher performances. This paper reviews the most efficient SEs and compares them in terms of their performances and costs. The challenges associated with the current state-of-the-art electrolytes and their cost-reduction potentials are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Transportation Bases in All-Solid-State Batteries)
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Article
State-of-Charge Monitoring and Battery Diagnosis of Different Lithium Ion Chemistries Using Impedance Spectroscopy
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010017 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
For lithium iron phosphate batteries (LFP) in aerospace applications, impedance spectroscopy is applicable in the flat region of the voltage-charge curve. The frequency-dependent pseudocapacitance at 0.15 Hz is presented as useful state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) indicator. For the same battery type, the [...] Read more.
For lithium iron phosphate batteries (LFP) in aerospace applications, impedance spectroscopy is applicable in the flat region of the voltage-charge curve. The frequency-dependent pseudocapacitance at 0.15 Hz is presented as useful state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) indicator. For the same battery type, the prediction error of pseudocapacitance is better than 1% for a quadratic calibration curve, and less than 36% for a linear model. An approximately linear correlation between pseudocapacitance and Ah battery capacity is observed as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. We verify the impedance method in comparison to the classical constant-current discharge measurements. In the case of five examined lithium-ion chemistries, the linear trend of impedance and SOC is lost if the slope of the discharge voltage curve versus SOC changes. With nickel manganese cobalt (NMC), high impedance modulus correlates with high SOC above 70%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries: Latest Advances and Prospects II)
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Article
Thermophysical Characterization of a Layered P2 Type Structure Na0.53MnO2 Cathode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010016 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Over the last decade, the demand for safer batteries with excellent performance and lower costs has been intensively increasing. The abundantly available precursors and environmental friendliness are generating more and more interest in sodium ion batteries (SIBs), especially because of the lower material [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, the demand for safer batteries with excellent performance and lower costs has been intensively increasing. The abundantly available precursors and environmental friendliness are generating more and more interest in sodium ion batteries (SIBs), especially because of the lower material costs compared to Li-ion batteries. Therefore, significant efforts are being dedicated to investigating new cathode materials for SIBs. Since the thermal characterization of cathode materials is one of the key factors for designing safe batteries, the thermophysical properties of a commercial layered P2 type structure Na0.53MnO2 cathode material in powder form were measured in the temperature range between −20 and 1200 °C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), laser flash analysis (LFA), and thermogravimetry (TG). The thermogravimetry (TG) was combined with mass spectrometry (MS) to study the thermal decomposition of the cathode material with respect to the evolved gas analysis (EGA) and was performed from room temperature up to 1200 °C. The specific heat (Cp) and the thermal diffusivity (α) were measured up to 400 °C because beyond this temperature, the cathode material starts to decompose. The thermal conductivity (λ) as a function of temperature was calculated from the thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity, and the density. Such thermophysical data are highly relevant and important for thermal simulation studies, thermal management, and the mitigation of thermal runaway. Full article
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Article
Estimate e-Golf Battery State Using Diagnostic Data and a Digital Twin
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010015 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Li-ion battery packs are the heart of modern electric vehicles. Due to their perishable nature, it is crucial to supervise them closely. In addition to on-board supervision over safety and range, insights into the battery’s degradation are also becoming increasingly important, not only [...] Read more.
Li-ion battery packs are the heart of modern electric vehicles. Due to their perishable nature, it is crucial to supervise them closely. In addition to on-board supervision over safety and range, insights into the battery’s degradation are also becoming increasingly important, not only for the vehicle manufacturers but also for vehicle users. The concept of digital twins has already emerged on the field of automotive technology, and can also help to digitalize the vehicle’s battery. In this work, we set up a data pipeline and digital battery twin to track the battery state, including State of charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH). To achieve this goal, we reverse-engineer the diagnostics interface of a 2014 e-Golf to query for UDS messages containing both battery pack and cell-individual data. An OBD logger records the data with edge-processing capability. Pushing this data into the cloud twin system using IoT-technology, we can fit battery models to the data and infer for example, cell individual internal resistance from them. We find that the resistances of the cells differ by a magnitude of two. Furthermore, we propose an architecture for the battery twin in which the twin fleet shares resources like models by encapsulating them in Docker containers run on a cloud stack. By using web technology, we present the analyzed results on a web interface. Full article
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Article
A Flexible Model for Benchmarking the Energy Usage of Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010014 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1940
Abstract
The increasing use of electric vehicle batteries in the world has a significant impact on both society and the environment. Thus, there is a need for the availability of transparent information on resource allocation. Battery manufacturing process details in this regard are not [...] Read more.
The increasing use of electric vehicle batteries in the world has a significant impact on both society and the environment. Thus, there is a need for the availability of transparent information on resource allocation. Battery manufacturing process details in this regard are not available in academia or the public. The available energy data on manufacturing has a high variation. Furthermore, different process steps have different energy and material demands. A process model can benchmark the energy usage, provide detailed process data, and compare various cell productions which in turn can be used in life-cycle assessment studies to reduce the variation and provide directions for improvements. Therefore, a cell manufacturing model is developed for the calculation of energy and material demands for different battery types, plant capacities, and process steps. The model consists of the main process steps, machines, intermediate products and building service units. Furthermore, the results are validated using literature values. For a case study of a 2 GWh plant that produces prismatic NMC333 cells, the total energy requirement on a theoretical and optimal basis is suggested to be 44.6Whinproduction/Whcellcapacity. This energy consumption in producing batteries is dominated by electrode drying, and dry room. Energy usage for a variety of cell types for a similar plant capacity shows that the standard deviation in the results is low (47.23±13.03Wh/Wh). Full article
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Article
Grid Impacts of Uncoordinated Fast Charging of Electric Ferry
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010013 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
The battery energy storage system (BESS) is an indispensable part of an electric fleet (EF) which needs to be charged by electricity from local grid when the fleet is in the dockyard. The uncoordinated fast charging of BESS in Grid to Ferry (G2F) [...] Read more.
The battery energy storage system (BESS) is an indispensable part of an electric fleet (EF) which needs to be charged by electricity from local grid when the fleet is in the dockyard. The uncoordinated fast charging of BESS in Grid to Ferry (G2F) mode imposes sudden increments of load in the power grid, which is analyzed by a simulated model of grid connected marine load. The probable impact on system stability is examined by MATLAB Simulink and Power World Simulator based models. According to simulation results for IEEE 5 bus system, voltage unbalance factors are 0.01% and 200% for all buses at fundamental and third harmonics frequencies, respectively. The total harmonic distortion (THD) at fundamental frequency becomes 0.16%, 0.16%, and 0.18%, respectively, for three cases. The transient, voltage reactive power (V-Q), and voltage real power (V-P) sensitivity analysis are performed for 7 bus system with load increment contingencies. According to simulation results, the V-Q sensitivity for the assigned contingency is increased by the addition of a shunt generator to the load bus with lowest bus voltage. In case of V-P sensitivity for the selected contingency, the load buses share power among them, and the nose point is attained at maximum shift of power with high V-Q sensitivity. Full article
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Article
Application Dependent End-of-Life Threshold Definition Methodology for Batteries in Electric Vehicles
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010012 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The end-of-life event of the battery system of an electric vehicle is defined by a fixed end-of-life threshold value. However, this kind of end-of-life threshold does not capture the application and battery characteristics and, consequently, it has a low accuracy in describing the [...] Read more.
The end-of-life event of the battery system of an electric vehicle is defined by a fixed end-of-life threshold value. However, this kind of end-of-life threshold does not capture the application and battery characteristics and, consequently, it has a low accuracy in describing the real end-of-life event. This paper proposes a systematic methodology to determine the end-of-life threshold that describes accurately the end-of-life event. The proposed methodology can be divided into three phases. In the first phase, the health indicators that represent the aging behavior of the battery are defined. In the second phase, the application specifications and battery characteristics are evaluated to generate the end-of-life criteria. Finally, in the third phase, the simulation environment used to calculate the end-of-life threshold is designed. In this third phase, the electric-thermal behavior of the battery at different aging conditions is simulated using an electro-thermal equivalent circuit model. The proposed methodology is applied to a high-energy electric vehicle application and to a high-power electric vehicle application. The stated hypotheses and the calculated end-of-life threshold of the high-energy application are empirically validated. The study shows that commonly assumed 80 or 70% EOL thresholds could lead to mayor under or over lifespan estimations. Full article
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Article
Infiltrated and Isostatic Laminated NCM and LTO Electrodes with Plastic Crystal Electrolyte Based on Succinonitrile for Lithium-Ion Solid State Batteries
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010011 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
We report a new process technique for electrode manufacturing for all solid-state batteries. Porous electrodes are manufactured by a tape casting process and subsequently infiltrated by a plastic crystal polymer electrolyte (PCPE). With a following isostatic lamination process, the PCPE was further integrated [...] Read more.
We report a new process technique for electrode manufacturing for all solid-state batteries. Porous electrodes are manufactured by a tape casting process and subsequently infiltrated by a plastic crystal polymer electrolyte (PCPE). With a following isostatic lamination process, the PCPE was further integrated deeply into the porous electrode layer, forming a composite electrode. The PCPE comprises the plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), lithium conductive salt LiTFSI and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and exhibits suitable thermal, rheological (ƞ = 0.6 Pa s @ 80 °C 1 s−1) and electrochemical properties (σ > 10−4 S/cm @ 45 °C). We detected a lowered porosity of infiltrated and laminated electrodes through Hg porosimetry, showing a reduction from 25.6% to 2.6% (NCM infiltrated to laminated) and 32.9% to 4.0% (LTO infiltrated to laminated). Infiltration of PCPE into the electrodes was further verified by FESEM images and EDS mapping of sulfur content of the conductive salt. Cycling tests of full cells with NCM and LTO electrodes with PCPE separator at 45 °C showed up to 165 mAh/g at 0.03C over 20 cycles, which is about 97% of the total usable LTO capacity with a coulomb efficiency of between 98 and 99%. Cycling tests at 0.1C showed a capacity of ~128 mAh/g after 40 cycles. The C-rate of 0.2C showed a mean capacity of 127 mAh/g. In summary, we could manufacture full cells using a plastic crystal polymer electrolyte suitable for NCM and LTO active material, which is easily to be integrated into porous electrodes and which is being able to be used in future cell concepts like bipolar stacked cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Transportation Bases in All-Solid-State Batteries)
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Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in 2020
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010010 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Batteries maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Key Figure Based Incoming Inspection of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010009 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The cell characterization in the incoming inspection is an important but time and cost intensive process step. In order to obtain reliable parameters to evaluate and classify the cells, it is essential to design the test procedures in such a way that the [...] Read more.
The cell characterization in the incoming inspection is an important but time and cost intensive process step. In order to obtain reliable parameters to evaluate and classify the cells, it is essential to design the test procedures in such a way that the parameters derived from the data allow the required statements about the cells. Before the focus is placed on the evaluation of cell properties, it is therefore necessary to design the test procedures appropriately. In the scope of the investigations two differently designed incoming inspection routines were carried out on 230 commercial lithium-ion battery cells (LIBs) with the aim of deriving recommendations for optimal test procedures. The derived parameters of the test strategies were compared and statistically evaluated. Subsequently, key figures for the classification were identified. As a conclusion, the capacity was confirmed as an already known important parameter and the average cell voltage was identified as a possibility to replace the usually used internal resistance. With regard to capacity, the integration of CV steps in the discharging processes enables the determination independently from the C-rate. For the average voltage cycles with high C-rates are particularly meaningful because of the significant higher scattering due to the overvoltage parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries: Latest Advances and Prospects II)
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Editorial
Lithium-Ion Batteries: Latest Advances and Prospects
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010008 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
The anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), has resulted in a notable climate change and an increase in global average temperature since the mid-20th century [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries: Latest Advances and Prospects)
Article
The Effect of Input Parameter Variation on the Accuracy of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Simulation Model
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010007 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 989
Abstract
Accurately predicting battery behavior, while using low input data, is highly desirable in embedded simulation architectures like grid or integrated energy system analysis. Currently, the available vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) models achieve highly accurate predictions of electrochemical behavior or control algorithms, while [...] Read more.
Accurately predicting battery behavior, while using low input data, is highly desirable in embedded simulation architectures like grid or integrated energy system analysis. Currently, the available vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) models achieve highly accurate predictions of electrochemical behavior or control algorithms, while the optimization of the required input data scope is neglected. In this study, a parametrization tool for a DC grey box simulation model is developed using measurements with a 10 kW/100 kWh VRFB. An objective function is applied to optimize the required input data scope while analyzing simulation accuracy. The model is based on a differential-algebraic system, and an optimization process allows model parameter estimation and verification while reducing the input data scope. Current losses, theoretical storage capacity, open circuit voltage, and ohmic cell resistance are used as fitting parameters. Internal electrochemical phenomena are represented by a self-discharge current while material related losses are represented by a changing ohmic resistance. Upon reducing input data the deviation between the model and measurements shows an insignificant increase of 2% even for a 60% input data reduction. The developed grey box model is easily adaptable to other VRFB and is highly integrable into an existing energy architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Material Design and Development for Redox Flow Batteries II)
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Article
Effects of the Nail Geometry and Humidity on the Nail Penetration of High-Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010006 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Internal short-circuit tests were carried out in a battery safety investigation chamber to determine the behavior of batteries during the nail penetration test. So far, systematic investigations regarding the test setup and its influence are rarely found in the literature. Especially, to improve [...] Read more.
Internal short-circuit tests were carried out in a battery safety investigation chamber to determine the behavior of batteries during the nail penetration test. So far, systematic investigations regarding the test setup and its influence are rarely found in the literature. Especially, to improve the comparability of the multitude of available results, it is essential to understand the effects of the geometric, operating and ambient parameters. In this study commercial lithium ion batteries with a capacity of 5.3 and 3.3 Ah were used to study the influence of the varied parameters on the voltage drop, the development of surface temperatures and of infrared active gas species. We studied both the influence of the geometry of the penetrating nail and concentration of water in the inert atmosphere especially on the quantities of the reaction products under variation of cell capacity. It could be shown that the geometry of the nail, within certain limits, has no influence on the processes of the thermal runaway of high energy density lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, a change in capacity from 5.3 to 3.3 Ah shows that in particular the gaseous reaction products differ: The standardized gas concentrations show a higher measurable concentration of all gases except CO for the 3.3 Ah LIBs. This circumstance can be explained by the intensity of the reactions due to the different battery capacities: In the 5.3 Ah cells a larger amount of unreacted material is immediately discharged from the reaction center, and by the different available amounts of oxidizing reaction partners. An increase of the water content in the surrounding atmosphere during the thermal runaway leads to a reduction of the measurable gas concentrations of up to 36.01%. In general, all measured concentrations decrease. With increased water content more reaction products from the atmosphere can be directly bound or settle as condensate on surfaces. Full article
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Article
Titanium Activation in Prussian Blue Based Electrodes for Na-ion Batteries: A Synthesis and Electrochemical Study
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010005 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Sodium titanium hexacyanoferrate (TiHCF, Na0.86Ti0.73[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O) is synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method in this study. Its crystal structure, chemical composition, and geometric/electronic structural information are investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Sodium titanium hexacyanoferrate (TiHCF, Na0.86Ti0.73[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O) is synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method in this study. Its crystal structure, chemical composition, and geometric/electronic structural information are investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The electroactivity of TiHCF as a host for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries is studied in organic electrolytes. The results demonstrate that TiHCF is a good positive electrode material for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Surprisingly, however, the material shows better electrochemical performance as a Na-ion host, offering a capacity of 74 mAh g−1 at C/20 and a 94.5% retention after 50 cycles. This is due to the activation of Ti towards the redox reaction, making TiHCF a good candidate electrode material for Na-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Article
Design Considerations for Fast Charging Lithium Ion Cells for NMC/MCMB Electrode Pairs
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010004 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Lithium ion cells that can be quickly charged are of critical importance for the continued and accelerated penetration of electric vehicles (EV) into the consumer market. Considering this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a cell recharge time goal of 10–15 [...] Read more.
Lithium ion cells that can be quickly charged are of critical importance for the continued and accelerated penetration of electric vehicles (EV) into the consumer market. Considering this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a cell recharge time goal of 10–15 min. The following study provides an investigation into the effect of cell design, specifically negative to positive matching ratio (1.2:1 vs. 1.7:1) on fast charging performance. By using specific charging procedures based on negative electrode performance, as opposed to the industrial standard constant current constant voltage procedures, we show that the cells with a higher N:P ratio can be charged to ~16% higher capacity in the ten-minute time frame. Cells with a higher N:P ratio also show similar cycle life performance to those with a conventional N:P ratio, despite the fact that these cells experience a much higher irreversible capacity loss, leading to a lower reversible specific capacity. Full article
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Review
Review of Multivalent Metal Ion Transport in Inorganic and Solid Polymer Electrolytes
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010003 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1692
Abstract
The lithium ion battery, with its high energy density and low reduction potential, continues to enchant researchers and dominate the landscape of energy storage systems development. However, the demands of technology in modern society have begun to reveal limitations of the lithium energy [...] Read more.
The lithium ion battery, with its high energy density and low reduction potential, continues to enchant researchers and dominate the landscape of energy storage systems development. However, the demands of technology in modern society have begun to reveal limitations of the lithium energy revolution. A combination of safety concerns, strained natural resources and geopolitics have inspired the search for alternative energy storage and delivery platforms. Traditional liquid electrolytes prove precarious in large scale schemes due to the propensity for leakage, the potential for side reactions and their corrosive nature. Alternative electrolytic materials in the form of solid inorganic ion conductors and solid polymer matrices offer new possibilities for all solid state batteries. In addition to the engineering of novel electrolyte materials, there is the opportunity to employ post-lithium chemistries. Utility of multivalent cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Al3+) transport promises a reduction in cost and increase in safety. In this review, we examine the current research focused on developing solid electrolytes using multivalent metal cation charge carriers and the outlook for their application in all solid state batteries. Full article
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Article
Incremental Capacity Analysis as a State of Health Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Modules with Series-Connected Cells
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010002 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) has proven to be an effective tool for determining the state of health (SOH) of Li-ion cells under laboratory conditions. This paper deals with an outstanding challenge of applying ICA in practice: the evaluation of battery series connections. The [...] Read more.
Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) has proven to be an effective tool for determining the state of health (SOH) of Li-ion cells under laboratory conditions. This paper deals with an outstanding challenge of applying ICA in practice: the evaluation of battery series connections. The study uses experimental aging and characterization data of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells down to 53% SOH. The evaluability of battery series connections using ICA is confirmed by analytical and experimental considerations for cells of the same SOH. For cells of different SOH, a method for identifying non-uniform aging states on the modules’ IC curve is presented. The findings enable the classification of battery modules with series and parallel connections based on partial terminal data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries Aging Mechanisms)
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Article
Effect of Vinylene Carbonate Electrolyte Additive on the Surface Chemistry and Pseudocapacitive Sodium-Ion Storage of TiO2 Nanosheet Anodes
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries7010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Although titanium dioxide has gained much attention as a sodium-ion battery anode material, obtaining high specific capacity and cycling stability remains a challenge. Herein, we report significantly improved surface chemistry and pseudocapacitive Na-ion storage performance of TiO2 nanosheet anode in vinylene carbonate [...] Read more.
Although titanium dioxide has gained much attention as a sodium-ion battery anode material, obtaining high specific capacity and cycling stability remains a challenge. Herein, we report significantly improved surface chemistry and pseudocapacitive Na-ion storage performance of TiO2 nanosheet anode in vinylene carbonate (VC)-containing electrolyte solution. In addition to the excellent pseudocapacitance (~87%), the TiO2 anodes also exhibited increased high-specific capacity (219 mAh/g), rate performance (40 mAh/g @ 1 A/g), coulombic efficiency (~100%), and cycling stability (~90% after 750 cycles). Spectroscopic and microscopic studies confirmed polycarbonate based solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation in VC-containing electrolyte solution. The superior electrochemical performance of the TiO2 nanosheet anode in VC-containing electrolyte solution is credited to the improved pseudocapacitive Na-ion diffusion through the polycarbonate based SEI (coefficients of 1.65 × 10−14 for PC-VC vs. 6.42 × 10−16 for PC). This study emphasizes the crucial role of the electrolyte solution and electrode–electrolyte interfaces in the improved pseudocapacitive Na-ion storage performance of TiO2 anodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Systems and Energy Storage beyond 2020)
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