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Industrial Symbiosis through the Use of Biosolids as Fertilizer in Romanian Agriculture

1
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Faculty of Engineering, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, 550024 Sibiu, Romania
2
Academy of Romanian Scientists, 010071 Bucharest, Romania
3
Institute for Research in Circular Economy and Environment “Ernest Lupan” (IRCEM), 400609 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elena Rada, Elena Magaril and Giovanni De Feo
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 7 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Waste to Energy—Challenges and Opportunities)
Biosolids’ use in agriculture is an example of industrial symbiosis. The application of biosolids (BS) in agriculture is considered one of the most sustainable sewage sludge (SS) management options, but the quality of biosolids has to meet certain requirements regarding the characteristics of the sludge, those of the land and of the type of crop. Web of Science database has been used to search for the relevant literature. The review of studies undertaken in order to determine the economic effects of the use of biosolids in agriculture shows, in the majority, an increase in crop yield and the reduction in costs, due to the reduction in the requirements for the application of chemical or synthetic fertilizers. If the entire sewage sludge production in Romania for 2019 had been used as fertilizer, the estimated cost reduction for farmers would have been almost 3 million Euros—considering the 230.59 thousand tons of dry matter produced in 2019. The estimated savings for 2019 of the sewage and water utilities, if the sewage sludge had been used in agriculture instead of depositing it at the landfill, would have been about 3.9 million Euros. However, the limits of the symbiosis are due to the size of the farms, the type of plants cultivated, pH, slope inclination, heavy metal content and social acceptance. It is impossible to use all the sewage sludge in agriculture, but these figures are a good estimation of the economic effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertilizer; biosolids (BS); industrial symbiosis (IS); Romania; sewage sludge (SS); crop yield fertilizer; biosolids (BS); industrial symbiosis (IS); Romania; sewage sludge (SS); crop yield
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cioca, L.-I.; Ciomoş, A.-O.; Șeitoar, D.; Druță, R.M.; David, G.M. Industrial Symbiosis through the Use of Biosolids as Fertilizer in Romanian Agriculture. Recycling 2021, 6, 59. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6030059

AMA Style

Cioca L-I, Ciomoş A-O, Șeitoar D, Druță RM, David GM. Industrial Symbiosis through the Use of Biosolids as Fertilizer in Romanian Agriculture. Recycling. 2021; 6(3):59. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6030059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cioca, Lucian-Ionel, Alina-Oana Ciomoş, Daiana Șeitoar, Roxana M. Druță, and Geanina M. David 2021. "Industrial Symbiosis through the Use of Biosolids as Fertilizer in Romanian Agriculture" Recycling 6, no. 3: 59. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6030059

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