Next Article in Journal
How COVID-19 Could Change the Economics of the Plastic Recycling Sector
Next Article in Special Issue
Best Available Technology for P-Recycling from Sewage Sludge—An Overview of Sewage Sludge Composting in Austria
Previous Article in Journal
A Multiplatform BIM-Integrated Construction Waste Quantification Model during Design Phase. The Case of the Structural System in a Spanish Building
Previous Article in Special Issue
Integrating Pyrolysis or Combustion with Scrubbing to Maximize the Nutrient and Energy Recovery from Municipal Sewage Sludge
Article

Multistage Constructed Wetland in the Treatment of Greywater under Tropical Conditions: Performance, Operation, and Maintenance

1
Agrosantech—Agrotechnology-Oriented Sustainable Sanitation Research Group, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Dom Bosco Catholic University, Campo Grande 79117-900, Brazil
2
Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism and Geography, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande 79070-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ismael Leonardo Vera Puerto and Carlos A. Arias
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 16 August 2021 / Published: 26 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reuse of Wastewater: Recovery of Water, Nutrients, and Energy)
Greywater (GW) can be separated in different fractions where the kitchen component might be included. Constructed wetland (CW) systems are commonly used for the onsite treatment of GW, and the fraction treated might impact the performance, operation, and maintenance. These aspects are still poorly explored in the literature and are of importance for a proper design and system sustainability. In this study, a multi-stage household-scale CW system composed of a horizontal flow (HF), followed by a vertical flow (VF) unit, was monitored over 1330 days, focusing on different GW fractions and hydraulic and organic loading rates. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was ~50% lower without the kitchen sink component (GWL) in the system inlet, while no drop was observed in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Treatment with the GWL component caused a sudden drop in the hydraulic loading rate applied at the HF-CW (~114 to 35 mm per day) and the VF-CW (~230 to 70 mm per day). Even when the HF-CW received ~90 gCOD m−2 per day (GW), the multistage system reached a COD removal of 90%. The lower BOD load when treating GWL avoids clogging and decreases the frequency of maintenance. These variables can be used for the optimal design and operation of a CW, contributing with empirical data to CW guidelines in Brazil, and could additionally be expanded for application in other countries with similar climates. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature-based solutions; hybrid system; treatment wetland; hydraulic loading rate nature-based solutions; hybrid system; treatment wetland; hydraulic loading rate
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Magalhães Filho, F.J.C.; de Souza Filho, J.C.M.; Paulo, P.L. Multistage Constructed Wetland in the Treatment of Greywater under Tropical Conditions: Performance, Operation, and Maintenance. Recycling 2021, 6, 63. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6040063

AMA Style

Magalhães Filho FJC, de Souza Filho JCM, Paulo PL. Multistage Constructed Wetland in the Treatment of Greywater under Tropical Conditions: Performance, Operation, and Maintenance. Recycling. 2021; 6(4):63. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6040063

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magalhães Filho, Fernando J.C., José C.M. de Souza Filho, and Paula L. Paulo. 2021. "Multistage Constructed Wetland in the Treatment of Greywater under Tropical Conditions: Performance, Operation, and Maintenance" Recycling 6, no. 4: 63. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6040063

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop