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Volume 2, March

J. Imaging, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2015) – 12 articles , Pages 1-248

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Article
Detection and Characterization of Defects in Isotropic and Anisotropic Structures Using Lockin Thermography
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 220-248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010220 - 21 Dec 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
Lockin thermography is a well-suited method for the characterization of structures made of both metal and fiber reinforced plastic. In most cases, only phase images are analyzed, although the amplitude images might contain useful information as well. Thus, systematic studies of lockin thermography [...] Read more.
Lockin thermography is a well-suited method for the characterization of structures made of both metal and fiber reinforced plastic. In most cases, only phase images are analyzed, although the amplitude images might contain useful information as well. Thus, systematic studies of lockin thermography are presented, assessing amplitude and phase images for the detection and quantification of defects in isotropic (steel) and anisotropic (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) materials. Characterized defects are flat bottom holes with different diameters and various remaining wall thicknesses as well as crossed notches at different depths. The excitation frequency was varied while keeping the number of analyzed excitation periods nearly constant for each material. The data analysis was focused on the detectability of the defects both in the amplitude and phase images, including the determination of the signal-to-noise ratio and of the spatial resolution. As a result, the limits of defect detectability and spatial resolution are given for each material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The World in Infrared Imaging)
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Article
FPGA-Based Portable Ultrasound Scanning System with Automatic Kidney Detection
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 193-219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010193 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4085
Abstract
Bedsides diagnosis using portable ultrasound scanning (PUS) offering comfortable diagnosis with various clinical advantages, in general, ultrasound scanners suffer from a poor signal-to-noise ratio, and physicians who operate the device at point-of-care may not be adequately trained to perform high level diagnosis. Such [...] Read more.
Bedsides diagnosis using portable ultrasound scanning (PUS) offering comfortable diagnosis with various clinical advantages, in general, ultrasound scanners suffer from a poor signal-to-noise ratio, and physicians who operate the device at point-of-care may not be adequately trained to perform high level diagnosis. Such scenarios can be eradicated by incorporating ambient intelligence in PUS. In this paper, we propose an architecture for a PUS system, whose abilities include automated kidney detection in real time. Automated kidney detection is performed by training the Viola–Jones algorithm with a good set of kidney data consisting of diversified shapes and sizes. It is observed that the kidney detection algorithm delivers very good performance in terms of detection accuracy. The proposed PUS with kidney detection algorithm is implemented on a single Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA, integrated with a Raspberry Pi ARM processor running at 900 MHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image and Video Processing in Medicine)
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Article
Towards a Guidance System to Aid in the Dosimetry Calculation of Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 180-192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010180 - 20 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
In Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy (IOERT), the lack of specific planning tools limits its applicability, the need for accurate dosimetry estimation and application during the therapy being the most critical. Recently, some works have been presented that try to overcome some of the [...] Read more.
In Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy (IOERT), the lack of specific planning tools limits its applicability, the need for accurate dosimetry estimation and application during the therapy being the most critical. Recently, some works have been presented that try to overcome some of the limitations for establishing planning tools, though still an accurate guidance system that tracks, in real-time, the applicator and the patient is needed. In these surgical environments, the acquisition of an accurate 3D shape of the patient’s tumor bed in real-time is of high interest, as current systems make use of a 3D model acquired before the treatment. In this paper, an optical-based system is presented that is able to register, in real-time, the different objects (rigid objects) taking part in such a treatment. The presented guidance system and the related methodology are highly interactive, where a usability design has also been provided for non-expert users. Additionally, four different approaches are explored and evaluated to acquire the 3D model of the patient (non-rigid object) in real-time, where accuracies in the range of 1 mm can be achieved without the need of using expensive devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image and Video Processing in Medicine)
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Article
Active Shapes for Automatic 3D Modeling of Buildings
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 156-179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010156 - 20 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3354
Abstract
Recent technological developments help us to acquire high quality 3D measurements of our urban environment. However, these measurements, which come as point clouds or Digital Surface Models (DSM), do not directly give 3D geometrical models of buildings. In addition to that, they are [...] Read more.
Recent technological developments help us to acquire high quality 3D measurements of our urban environment. However, these measurements, which come as point clouds or Digital Surface Models (DSM), do not directly give 3D geometrical models of buildings. In addition to that, they are not suitable for fast 3D rendering. Therefore, detection and 3D reconstruction of buildings is an important research topic. We introduce a new active shape fitting algorithm for generating building models. Two significant improvements of the introduced method compared to our previous active shape algorithm are: (1) here, active shapes are initialized as cubes; and (2) the new energy function is computed by measuring the distances of the vertical cube faces to the building facade points and also by measuring the mean distance between the rooftop points and the top face of the cube. The proposed method helps to obtain 3D building models automatically even when the facade borders are difficult to detect because of neighboring trees or other objects. For testing the proposed approach, we use Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data of an area in Delft, The Netherlands. We compare the proposed 3D active shape fitting method with a previously developed 2D method. The results show the possible usage of the algorithm when simple and easy-to-render 3D models of large cities are needed. Full article
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Article
A Kinect-Based System for Upper-Body Function Assessment in Breast Cancer Patients
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 134-155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010134 - 05 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
Common breast cancer treatment techniques, such as radiation therapy or the surgical removal of the axillary lymphatic nodes, result in several impairments in women’s upper-body function. These impairments include restricted shoulder mobility and arm swelling. As a consequence, several daily life activities are [...] Read more.
Common breast cancer treatment techniques, such as radiation therapy or the surgical removal of the axillary lymphatic nodes, result in several impairments in women’s upper-body function. These impairments include restricted shoulder mobility and arm swelling. As a consequence, several daily life activities are affected, which contribute to a decreased quality of life (QOL). Therefore, it is of extreme importance to assess the functional restrictions caused by cancer treatment, in order to evaluate the quality of procedures and to avoid further complications. Although the research in this field is still very limited and the methods currently available suffer from a lack of objectivity, this highlights the relevance of the pioneer work presented in this paper, which aims to develop an effective method for the evaluation of the upper-body function, suitable for breast cancer patients. For this purpose, the use of both depth and skeleton data, provided by the Microsoft Kinect, is investigated to extract features of the upper-limbs motion. Supervised classification algorithms are used to construct a predictive model of classification, and very promising results are obtained, with high classification accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image and Video Processing in Medicine)
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Article
Precise Navigation of Small Agricultural Robots in Sensitive Areas with a Smart Plant Camera
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 115-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging1010115 - 13 Oct 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3477
Abstract
Most of the relevant technology related to precision agriculture is currently controlled by Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and uploaded map data; however, in sensitive areas with young or expensive plants, small robots are becoming more widely used in exclusive work. These robots must [...] Read more.
Most of the relevant technology related to precision agriculture is currently controlled by Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and uploaded map data; however, in sensitive areas with young or expensive plants, small robots are becoming more widely used in exclusive work. These robots must follow the plant lines with centimeter precision to protect plant growth. For cases in which GPS fails, a camera-based solution is often used for navigation because of the system cost and simplicity. The low-cost plant camera presented here generates images in which plants are contrasted against the soil, thus enabling the use of simple cross-correlation functions to establish high-resolution navigation control in the centimeter range. Based on the foresight provided by images from in front of the vehicle, robust vehicle control can be established without any dead time; as a result, off-loading the main robot control and overshooting can be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Processing in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Article
Land Cover Change Image Analysis for Assateague Island National Seashore Following Hurricane Sandy
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 85-114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010085 - 05 Oct 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
The assessment of storm damages is critically important if resource managers are to understand the impacts of weather pattern changes and sea level rise on their lands and develop management strategies to mitigate its effects. This study was performed to detect land cover [...] Read more.
The assessment of storm damages is critically important if resource managers are to understand the impacts of weather pattern changes and sea level rise on their lands and develop management strategies to mitigate its effects. This study was performed to detect land cover change on Assateague Island as a result of Hurricane Sandy. Several single-date classifications were performed on the pre and post hurricane imagery utilized using both a pixel-based and object-based approach with the Random Forest classifier. Univariate image differencing and a post classification comparison were used to conduct the change detection. This study found that the addition of the coastal blue band to the Landsat 8 sensor did not improve classification accuracy and there was also no statistically significant improvement in classification accuracy using Landsat 8 compared to Landsat 5. Furthermore, there was no significant difference found between object-based and pixel-based classification. Change totals were estimated on Assateague Island following Hurricane Sandy and were found to be minimal, occurring predominately in the most active sections of the island in terms of land cover change, however, the post classification detected significantly more change, mainly due to classification errors in the single-date maps used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Processing in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Article
Parameter Optimization for Local Polynomial Approximation based Intersection Confidence Interval Filter Using Genetic Algorithm: An Application for Brain MRI Image De-Noising
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 60-84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010060 - 25 Sep 2015
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 4386
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extensively exploited for more accurate pathological changes as well as diagnosis. Conversely, MRI suffers from various shortcomings such as ambient noise from the environment, acquisition noise from the equipment, the presence of background tissue, breathing motion, body fat, [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extensively exploited for more accurate pathological changes as well as diagnosis. Conversely, MRI suffers from various shortcomings such as ambient noise from the environment, acquisition noise from the equipment, the presence of background tissue, breathing motion, body fat, etc. Consequently, noise reduction is critical as diverse types of the generated noise limit the efficiency of the medical image diagnosis. Local polynomial approximation based intersection confidence interval (LPA-ICI) filter is one of the effective de-noising filters. This filter requires an adjustment of the ICI parameters for efficient window size selection. From the wide range of ICI parametric values, finding out the best set of tunes values is itself an optimization problem. The present study proposed a novel technique for parameter optimization of LPA-ICI filter using genetic algorithm (GA) for brain MR images de-noising. The experimental results proved that the proposed method outperforms the LPA-ICI method for de-noising in terms of various performance metrics for different noise variance levels. Obtained results reports that the ICI parameter values depend on the noise variance and the concerned under test image. Full article
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Article
The Temporal PET Camera: A New Concept With High Spatial and Timing Resolution for PET Imaging
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 45-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010045 - 06 Aug 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3409
Abstract
This contribution proposes a new temporal PET camera concept yielding a precise spatio-temporal localization of a scintillation event within a monolithic scintillator. This concept is promising for PET imaging. The key idea behind this concept is the ability of the system to accurately [...] Read more.
This contribution proposes a new temporal PET camera concept yielding a precise spatio-temporal localization of a scintillation event within a monolithic scintillator. This concept is promising for PET imaging. The key idea behind this concept is the ability of the system to accurately localize the region of detected un-scattered photons on the Si-PMT detector plane. Then, by ray tracing, an accurate estimate of the depth and timing of the scintillation event is provided. An estimation of the potential performance of such a system, based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations, is also presented. Full article
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Article
Fast Fourier-Based Phase Unwrapping on the Graphics Processing Unit in Real-Time Imaging Applications
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 31-44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010031 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3906
Abstract
Numerous imaging techniques measure data that are mathematically wrapped to the finite interval [−π, π], corresponding to the principle value domain of the arctangent function. A wide range of reconstruction algorithms has been developed to obtain the true, unwrapped phase by adding an [...] Read more.
Numerous imaging techniques measure data that are mathematically wrapped to the finite interval [−π, π], corresponding to the principle value domain of the arctangent function. A wide range of reconstruction algorithms has been developed to obtain the true, unwrapped phase by adding an integral multiple of 2π to each point of the wrapped grid. However, the phase unwrapping procedure is hampered by the presence of noise, phase vortices or insufficiently sampled digital data. Unfortunately, reliable phase unwrapping algorithms are generally computationally intensive and their design often requires multiple iterations to reach convergence, leading to high execution times. In this paper, we present a high-speed phase unwrapping algorithm that is robust against noise and phase residues. By executing the parallel implementation of a single-step Fourier-based phase unwrapping algorithm on the graphics processing unit of a standard graphics card, we were able to reduce the total processing time of the phase unwrapping algorithm to < 5 ms when executed on a 640 × 480-pixel input map containing an arbitrarily high density of phase jumps. In addition, we expand upon this technique by inserting the obtained solution as a preconditioner in the conjugate gradient technique. This way, phase maps that contain regions of low-quality or invalid data can be unwrapped iteratively through weighting of local phase quality. Full article
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Article
A Survey of Image Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 4-30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010004 - 03 Jun 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4061
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks are increasingly gaining attention. In recent years, a great deal of monitoring, control and tracking applications have been designed for different scenarios. For such networks, camera-enabled sensors can retrieve visual data from a monitored field, providing valuable information for many [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks are increasingly gaining attention. In recent years, a great deal of monitoring, control and tracking applications have been designed for different scenarios. For such networks, camera-enabled sensors can retrieve visual data from a monitored field, providing valuable information for many applications. In general, those networks have resource constraints of processing, memory, energy and transmission bandwidth, imposing many design challenges. Nevertheless, a group of applications may also have security requirements, which bring additional complexity to be handled. Most traditional security mechanisms for popular networks, like the Internet, are not suitable for wireless sensor networks, demanding proper investigation in this area. In this paper, we survey recent developments in encryption and privacy in wireless sensor networks deployed for transmissions of image snapshots, reviewing innovative approaches to provide different levels of security. Promising research directions are also discussed. Full article
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Editorial
Journal of Imaging: Multidisciplinary Open Access in Image Acquisition, Processing and Understanding
J. Imaging 2015, 1(1), 1-3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging1010001 - 05 Mar 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4645
Abstract
The term “imaging”, specifically in relation to the journal, is considered in its broadest sense. Image processing, image understanding and computer vision are all terms related to imaging acquisition, its processing and the extraction of relevant information from the scene to obtain the [...] Read more.
The term “imaging”, specifically in relation to the journal, is considered in its broadest sense. Image processing, image understanding and computer vision are all terms related to imaging acquisition, its processing and the extraction of relevant information from the scene to obtain the underlying knowledge. All tasks related to the above items are oriented toward specific applications in a broad range of areas and topics.[...] Full article
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