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Volume 5, June

J. Imaging, Volume 5, Issue 7 (July 2019) – 4 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This seven-band color photometric stereo estimates the shape from a single-shot image. The target object is illuminated with seven light sources with wavelengths of 750nm, 632nm, 610nm, 550nm, 520nm, 470nm, and 430nm. The illuminated object is captured by a seven-band multispectral camera. Conventional three-band color photometric stereo suffers from the problem that the target object should be white, though this method overcomes the problem and estimates the surface normal of multicolored objects. The first column of this image shows the target object, the second column is the pseudocolor representation of the estimatedsurface normal, and the third column is the shape integrated from thesurface normal. View this paper
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Article
Impact of Relative Humidity on Wood Sample: A Climate Chamber Experimental Simulation Monitored by Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
J. Imaging 2019, 5(7), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging5070065 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2894
Abstract
Relative humidity (RH) changes are a natural environmental effect that forces organic materials to a constant cycle of achieving equilibrium. The present work is part of an ongoing research based on the hypothesis that the inevitable deleterious effects of the RH natural cycle [...] Read more.
Relative humidity (RH) changes are a natural environmental effect that forces organic materials to a constant cycle of achieving equilibrium. The present work is part of an ongoing research based on the hypothesis that the inevitable deleterious effects of the RH natural cycle may be prevented or minimized if a deformation threshold is assigned to each monitored endangered object prior to exposure to structural damage. In this paper the characterization of the behavior of a softwood sample (1.0 cm thick) submitted to RH abrupt cycles has been performed, in terms of mass and rate of displacement of the surface. The exemplary study is based on the concept of recording the RH impact directly from the material surface, allowing us to identify diversity in reaction with time, which in turn could determine the onset of structural changes prior to irreversible damage. The RH impact is measured as surface deformation from interference fringes, using a custom-made real time holography system with interferometric precision termed digital holographic speckle-pattern interferometry (DHSPI). The main observations presented here are a hysteresis in the dynamic sorption isotherm and a greater rate of displacement during the drying. A long-term experiment was performed to identify signs of ageing of the sample. The evolution of the mass and the rate of displacement stayed similar, an offset with an interesting behavior was observed and highlights ageing of wood. In order to produce a future preventive model for distinct art objects it is necessary to determine a deformation threshold for each material. In this context the study was planned to continue with organic samples bearing variable density and thickness under longer-term RH cycles and monitoring until the samples show visible signs of irreversible damage. Full article
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Article
Color Photometric Stereo Using Multi-Band Camera Constrained by Median Filter and Occluding Boundary
J. Imaging 2019, 5(7), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging5070064 - 16 Jul 2019
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Abstract
One of the main problems faced by the photometric stereo method is that several measurements are required, as this method needs illumination from light sources from different directions. A solution to this problem is the color photometric stereo method, which conducts one-shot measurements [...] Read more.
One of the main problems faced by the photometric stereo method is that several measurements are required, as this method needs illumination from light sources from different directions. A solution to this problem is the color photometric stereo method, which conducts one-shot measurements by simultaneously illuminating lights of different wavelengths. However, the classic color photometric stereo method only allows measurements of white objects, while a surface-normal estimation of a multicolored object using this method is theoretically impossible. Therefore, it is necessary to add some constraints to estimate the surface normal of a multicolored object using the framework of the color photometric stereo method. In this study, a median filter is employed as the constraint condition of albedo, and the surface normal of the occluding boundary is employed as the constraint condition of the surface normal. By employing a median filter as the constraint condition, the smooth distribution of the albedo and normal is calculated while the sharp features at the boundary of different albedos and normals are preserved. The surface normal at the occluding boundary is propagated into the inner part of the object region, and forms the abstract shape of the object. Such a surface normal gives a great clue to be used as an initial guess to the surface normal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this study, a measurement device that can realize the multispectral photometric stereo method with seven colors is employed instead of the classic color photometric stereo method with three colors. Full article
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Article
Imaging Membrane Curvature inside a FcεRI-Centric Synapse in RBL-2H3 Cells Using TIRF Microscopy with Polarized Excitation
J. Imaging 2019, 5(7), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging5070063 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3421
Abstract
Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with polarized excitation (P-TIRF) can be used to image nanoscale curvature phenomena in live cells. We used P-TIRF to visualize rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3 cells) primed with fluorescent anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE) coming into contact with [...] Read more.
Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with polarized excitation (P-TIRF) can be used to image nanoscale curvature phenomena in live cells. We used P-TIRF to visualize rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3 cells) primed with fluorescent anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE) coming into contact with a supported lipid bilayer containing mobile, monovalent DNP, modeling an immunological synapse. The spatial relationship of the IgE-bound high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) to the ratio image of P-polarized excitation and S-polarized excitation was analyzed. These studies help correlate the dynamics of cell surface molecules with the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane during synapse formation. Full article
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Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue on Image-Based Information Retrieval from the Web
J. Imaging 2019, 5(7), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging5070062 - 30 Jun 2019
Viewed by 2782
Abstract
In recent years, following the tremendous growth of the Web, extremely large amounts of digital multimedia content are being produced every day and are shared online mainly through several newly emerged channels, such as social networks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Based Information Retrieval from the Web)
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