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Safety, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2015) – 9 articles , Pages 1-102

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Article
Safety Effects of Protected Left-Turn Phasing at Signalized Intersections: An Empirical Analysis
Safety 2015, 1(1), 94-102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010094 - 12 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Left-turn crashes occur frequently at signalized intersections and often lead to severe injuries. This problem can be addressed through the implementation of protected left-turn signals. This gives left-turning vehicles the right to enter the intersection free from conflict with opposing drivers and pedestrians. [...] Read more.
Left-turn crashes occur frequently at signalized intersections and often lead to severe injuries. This problem can be addressed through the implementation of protected left-turn signals. This gives left-turning vehicles the right to enter the intersection free from conflict with opposing drivers and pedestrians. The present study analyses the effect of this measure on crash occurrence. The study included 103 signalized intersections with left-turn signals in highways in Flanders, Belgium, of which 33 received only changes in the signal control and 70 also received additional changes. The effect on traffic safety is analyzed through an Empirical Bayesian before-and-after study on crashes, in which general trend effects and regression-to-the-mean are controlled. On the 33 intersections that received only changes in the signal control, the number of injury crashes decreased significantly (−46%, 95% CI (−36%; −55%)) during the after-period. This was mainly attributable to a decrease in left-turn crashes: −60%, 95% CI (−39%; −74%). The number of rear-end injury crashes did not change significantly after the implementation of a protected left-turn signal. A larger effect was identified for more severe crashes (involving serious injuries and fatalities) as compared with crashes resulting in lighter injuries: −66%, 95% CI (43%; −80%). Furthermore, the effect of left-turn phasing on the number of injured car occupants, cyclists, moped riders and motor cyclists was examined, and favorable effects were found for each of these groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Road Safety Evaluation)
Article
A Case Study: The Development of Safety Tip Sheets for ATV Use in Ranching
Safety 2015, 1(1), 84-93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010084 - 20 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has become standard practice on the modern ranch. The unique operating conditions present on a ranch, subject the occupational ATV user to hazards requiring awareness and specialized training. The purpose of this study was to apply social marketing [...] Read more.
Use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has become standard practice on the modern ranch. The unique operating conditions present on a ranch, subject the occupational ATV user to hazards requiring awareness and specialized training. The purpose of this study was to apply social marketing methods to address a specific environmental health and safety issue present in the agricultural industry. A series of four ATV tip sheets were created in topic areas specific to the challenges that ATV operators encounter on a ranch. In order to evaluate the intended audiences’ perception of the tip sheets, a questionnaire was administered to all agriculture operators and producers throughout McCone County, Montana, USA. Questionnaire responses indicated that the tip sheets contained quality information and were relevant to the occupational hazards present when using ATVs for agricultural purposes. Future work should focus on the dissemination of this information and continued emphasis on industry specific training for ATV operators. Full article
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Article
Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers
Safety 2015, 1(1), 71-83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010071 - 19 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV [...] Read more.
Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The prediction model for A8rms exposure (explaining 57% of the variance) included farmer age, estimated quad bike driving hours on day of testing and the type of quad bike rear suspension (rigid-axle rear suspension with two shock absorbers). The best model for VDV exposure (explaining 33% of the variance) included farmer age, estimated quad bike driving hours on day of testing and the type of quad bike rear suspension (rigid-axle rear suspension with two shock absorbers). In large epidemiological studies of spinal MSDs, these models would provide an acceptable indication of WBV without the costs of direct measurement. Full article
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Article
ATV-Related Workers’ Compensation Claims in Montana, 2007–2012
Safety 2015, 1(1), 59-70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010059 - 13 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3019
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze workers’ compensation injury and fatality data associated with the occupational use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in Montana. Data were provided by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry Workers’ Compensation Injury and Occupational Disease Database. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze workers’ compensation injury and fatality data associated with the occupational use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in Montana. Data were provided by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry Workers’ Compensation Injury and Occupational Disease Database. Claims were identified based on a search of injury codes related to vehicular claims and then narrowed by a keyword search for events related to ATVs. Two hundred and fifteen ATV-related claims were identified between 2007 and 2012. The majority of claimants were identified as male (85%), with 23% of total claims between the ages 20–29 at the time of injury. The agriculture industry accounted for 59% of all claims. The results of this investigation indicated that the cost of occupational ATV injuries and deaths during the study period totaled nearly $2,600,000. The agriculture industry is disproportionally represented in ATV workers’ compensation claims in Montana. Characterizing and understanding the risk factors associated with occupational-related ATV injuries is critical for developing strategies and programs aimed at injury prevention. Evaluating the gaps in data acquisition and reporting could aid in ensuring comprehensive and complete future investigations of ATV incidents. Full article
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Article
Influence of Cognitive Biases in Distorting Decision Making and Leading to Critical Unfavorable Incidents
Safety 2015, 1(1), 44-58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010044 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6700
Abstract
On the basis of the analyses of past cases, we demonstrate how cognitive biases are ubiquitous in the process of incidents, crashes, collisions or disasters, as well as how they distort decision making and lead to undesirable outcomes. Five case studies were considered: [...] Read more.
On the basis of the analyses of past cases, we demonstrate how cognitive biases are ubiquitous in the process of incidents, crashes, collisions or disasters, as well as how they distort decision making and lead to undesirable outcomes. Five case studies were considered: a fire outbreak during cooking using an induction heating (IH) cooker, the KLM Flight 4805 crash, the Challenger space shuttle disaster, the collision between the Japanese Aegis-equipped destroyer “Atago” and a fishing boat and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant meltdown. We demonstrate that heuristic-based biases, such as confirmation bias, groupthink and social loafing, overconfidence-based biases, such as the illusion of plan and control, and optimistic bias; framing biases majorly contributed to distorted decision making and eventually became the main cause of the incident, crash, collision or disaster. Therefore, we concluded that, in addition to human factors or ergonomics approaches, recognition and elimination of cognitive biases is indispensable for preventing incidents, crashes, collisions or disasters from occurring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Review
Getting a Hold of Skitching
Safety 2015, 1(1), 28-43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010028 - 10 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Skitching is the act of hitching a ride on a vehicle while riding/using a non-motorized wheeled device (e.g., skateboard or bicycle). To date there has been little discussion of skitching beyond media reports on the serious and often fatal ramification of this activity. [...] Read more.
Skitching is the act of hitching a ride on a vehicle while riding/using a non-motorized wheeled device (e.g., skateboard or bicycle). To date there has been little discussion of skitching beyond media reports on the serious and often fatal ramification of this activity. To rectify this and improve our understanding of skitching including: who participates; circumstances and motivation; and possible injury prevention strategies, informed by the Haddon’s Matrix, an integrative review was undertaken. To gain a comprehensive overview, the review encapsulated information from a variety of sources including peer reviewed literature, grey and popular internet sources including news and social media. There was an absence of literature from which strong conclusions could be made; however, some preliminary insights were obtained. A key participant group is young males, likely a function of their use of non-motorized wheeled devices, adolescent risk taking and the influence of peers, such that the behavior amongst this group is largely thought to be opportunistic. A number of prevention strategies are proposed including targeting young males and young drivers, provision of/retrofitting skate parks, educating young drivers and improving helmet use. There is also a need to incorporate coding into injury data collections to capture skitching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Article
An Exploration into Younger and Older Pedestrians’ Risky Behaviours at Train Level Crossings
Safety 2015, 1(1), 16-27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010016 - 18 Aug 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Background: Younger and older pedestrians are both overrepresented in train-pedestrian injury and fatality collision databases. However, scant research has attempted to determine the factors that influence level crossing behaviours for these high risk groups. Method: Five focus groups were undertaken with a total [...] Read more.
Background: Younger and older pedestrians are both overrepresented in train-pedestrian injury and fatality collision databases. However, scant research has attempted to determine the factors that influence level crossing behaviours for these high risk groups. Method: Five focus groups were undertaken with a total of 27 younger and 17 older pedestrian level crossing users (N = 44). Due to the lack of research in the area, a focus group methodology was implemented to gain a deeper exploratory understanding into the sample’s decision making processes through a pilot study. The three main areas of enquiry were identifying the: (a) primary reasons for unsafe behaviour; (b) factors that deter this behaviour and (c) proposed interventions to improve pedestrian safety at level crossings in the future. Results: Common themes to emerge from both groups regarding the origins of unsafe behaviours were: running late and a fatalistic perspective that some accidents are inevitable. However, younger pedestrians were more likely to report motivators to be: (a) non-perception of danger; (b) impulsive risk taking; and (c) inattention. In contrast, older pedestrians reported their decisions to cross are influenced by mobility issues and sensory salience. Conclusion: The findings indicate that a range of factors influence pedestrian crossing behaviours. This paper will further outline the major findings of the research in regards to intervention development and future research direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Review
Applying a Human-Centred Process to Re-Design Equipment and Work Environments
Safety 2015, 1(1), 7-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010007 - 15 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Safe design is an increasingly influential approach due to a growing recognition of the contribution of design to workplace safety. It aims to eliminate workplace hazards by systematically involving end-users in the design or redesign process. In this review paper, the explicit and [...] Read more.
Safe design is an increasingly influential approach due to a growing recognition of the contribution of design to workplace safety. It aims to eliminate workplace hazards by systematically involving end-users in the design or redesign process. In this review paper, the explicit and novel focus is upon redesign, rather than original design. The literature in the field is appraised and a human-centred safe redesign method is presented. The safe redesign method is a task-based, risk management approach that centres on end-users. In describing the method, indicative results from two domains are outlined: mining equipment and highway environments. Focusing on end-users and their tasks by means of a structured human-centred process can be highly beneficial. Further work to expand the human-centred safe redesign method is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Editorial
Welcome to Safety—A New Open Access Journal Helping Shape a Safer World
Safety 2015, 1(1), 1-6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety1010001 - 15 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Safety can be defined as the condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury, or loss. It also includes assessing safety risks, including hazard prevention, control and management, a common requirement of occupational health and safety regulators and safety stakeholders around [...] Read more.
Safety can be defined as the condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury, or loss. It also includes assessing safety risks, including hazard prevention, control and management, a common requirement of occupational health and safety regulators and safety stakeholders around the world. Safety risk confronts us every day in almost every aspect of our lives; when we are at home, travelling to work, or school, or at the day care center or doing a bit of shopping, or going on vacation. Whether we work with others in an office or develop plans to build various forms of infrastructure or processing and manufacturing plants; whether we are the planners, designers and construction supervisors or one of the workers, we are all required to consider and implement the governing occupational health and safety (OH&S) requirements. There is also an implicit ‘duty of care’ expected from professionals who may be responsible, be it through planning, design or management, for the safety of others, whether directly or indirectly. Depending on the law of the land, the OH&S regulations set the legal safety criteria and benchmark of what is expected. [...] Full article
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