2. Method and Materials
3.1. Fatality Hazards
3.1.1. Gulf of Mexico (GoM)-Related Fatality Studies
3.1.2. Non-GoM Fatality Studies
3.2. Non-Fatal Traumatic Injury Hazards
“Less is known of the variables related to occupational morbidity and non-fatal injuries in commercial fishing both in quantity and severity.”—Jeffery L. Levin, Karen Gilmore, Amanda Wickman, Sara Shepard, Eva Shipp, Mathew Nonnenmann, and Ann Carruth 
3.2.1. GoM Non-Fatal Injury Studies
3.2.2. Non-GoM Non-Fatal Injury Studies
3.3. Fatigue-Related Hazards
“Fatigue has been identified as a major root cause of human error in a number of extremely high-profile disasters.”—Angela Baker and Sally Ferguson, 2003 
- Sąlyga and Kusleilkaite conducted a study in 2007 of 532 seafarers, 301 (57%) of whom were fishers, and 76% of the total experienced fatigue at sea . Fishers’ work ranged from 11 to 12 h per day. Fatigue effects included lack of energy (87%), slight mistakes (9%), poor judgement (87%), and poor sleep quality overall.
- Allen et al. published the results of a study in 2010 on the effects of fatigue on 81 fishers . The longest continued duty was 14 h. Of the respondents, 44% (n = 36) reported that the fishers had worked to the point of exhaustion.
- Gander et al. conducted a detailed study of 20 fishers in 2005 based on sleep diaries, a questionnaire, sleep monitors; and a comparison of sleep between home and work . Split sleep was more likely at sea, and sleepiness was higher at sea than at home. Sleep at sea was <4 h per 24 h period.
- Ólafsdóttir produced a report in 2004 from Iceland that reviewed shift work among fishers  and found that early risers who go to sleep earlier perform less well than late risers who go to sleep later, and activity monitors showed that workers dozed off briefly while on duty.
- Baker and Ferguson stated in 2006 that Australian fishers routinely work 24 to 96 h or more with little or no sleep . A finding was that fatigue was responsible for 2% of human-related vessel collisions and 4% of groundings.
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Literature Reviewed
|Area and Topic||Problem||Source|
|Gulf of Mexico USA, n = 9|
|Fishing||Fatalities||Kennedy and Lincoln 1997 |
|Fishing||Fatigue, stress||Johnson et al. 1998 |
|Fishing||Fatalities||Lincoln and Lucas 2010 Nov. |
|Shrimping||Risk factors||Levin et al. 2010 |
|Fishing||Injuries, illnesses, fatalities||Janocha 2012 |
|Shrimping||Fatal and non-fatal injuries||Lucas et al. 2013 |
|Fishing||Fatality rates||Marvasta 2014 |
|Fishing||Fatal and non-fatal injuries||Syron et al. 2017 |
|Fishing||Fatality risk factors||Marvasta 2017 |
|Atlantic Coast, n = 6|
|Fishing (NC)||Non-fatal injuries||Marshall 2004 |
|Fishing (NJ)||Fatal and non-fatal injuries||Day et al. 2010 |
|Fishing||Weather||Rezaee 2015 |
|Lobster (MA, ME)||Non-fatal injuries||Fulmer et al. 2016 |
|Fishing||Non-fatal injuries||Syron, et al. 2016 |
|Fishing||Weather||Rezaee et al. 2016 |
|Alaska USA, n = 5|
|Fishing||Non-fatal injury||Husberg and Lincoln 2006 |
|Fishing||Falls overboard||Lucas and Lincoln 2007 |
|Fishing||Fatalities||Lincoln and Lucas 2010 Jul. |
|Fishing||Fatalities||Lincoln and Lucas 2010 Oct. |
|Shrimping||Winch injuries||Lucas et al. 2013 |
|Australia and New Zealand, n = 3|
|Fishing||Fatigue||Baker and Ferguson 2006 |
|Fishing||Fatigue||Gander et al. 2008 |
|Fishing||Mortality||Byarb 2013 |
|Europe, n = 21|
|Fishing||Fall and slip non-fatal injuries||Jensen 2000 |
|Fishing||Gap analysis||Matheson et al. 2001 |
|Mariculture||Injuries||Norwegian Labor Inspection Authority 2001 |
|Fishing||Fatigue||Ólafsdóttir et al. 2004 |
|Fishing||Injury, work process coding||Jensen 2005 |
|Fishing||Injury incidents||Wang et al. 2005 |
|Fishing||Work process exposure||Jensen et al. 2006 |
|Seafarers||Fatigue||Smith et al. 2006 |
|Seafarers||Fatigue||Allen et al. 2008 |
|Fishing||Fatigue||Allen et al. 2010 |
|Fishing||Footwear||Jensen and Laursen 2010 |
|Fishing||Fatigue||Sąlyga and Kušleikaitė 2011 |
|Fishing||Injuries||McGuinness et al. 2013 |
|Fishing||Fatal injury trends||Jensen et al. 2014 |
|Fishing||Fatigue||Høvdanum et al. 2014 |
|Fishing||Injuries, diseases||Kaustell et al. 2016 |
|Fishing||Fatalities and injuries||McGuinness 2016 |
|Seafarers||Fatigue||Jepsen et al. 2017 |
|Fishing||Non-fatal injury||Chauvin et al. 2017 |
|Mariculture||Injuries||Holen, et al. 2017 |
|Mariculture||Fatalities||Holen, et al. 2017 |
|Other, n = 3|
|Marine safety||Human error||Rothblum 2000 |
|Mariculture||Injuries, diseases||Myers and Durborow 2012 |
|Crab, US West||Traumatic injuries||Case et al.2015 |
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Unstable work platform.
Complex machinery and operations.
Limited fishing seasons.
Vessels far apart.
|Captain and crew fatigue, stress.|
|Event||Listing or capsizing vessel.|
Emergency circumstance misunderstood.
Fall overboard (FOB).
Poor radio communication.
|Captain and crew reaction to emergency.|
Personal flotation devices unavailable or not working.
Poor crew response to FOB.
Lost at sea.
Poor use of emergency equipment.
|Gulf of Mexico Studies (n = 7)|
|Fall overboard (FOB)||Trip or slip, knocked by object, gear entanglement||Washed overboard||Lost balance, jumped, not wearing personal flotation devices (PFDs)|
|Disasters||Flooding, collision, instability, engine failure, fire or explosion, entangled propeller, plastic or wood hulls||Large wave, severe weather||Small crew size, fatigue|
|On-board||Winch entanglement *|
|Non-Gulf of Mexico Studies (n = 6)|
|FOB||Pulled or knocked overboard by gear, slips,||Washed overboard by wave, heavy weather, wind speed, poor visibility (rain)||Loss of balance, not wearing PFDs, alcohol consumption, falls into water, poor swimming ability|
|Disasters||Flooding, propeller entanglement, vessel size||Strikes by large waves, wind speed, poor visibility, sea surface temperature, darkness, cyclone activity||Fatigue; lack of time to don survival equipment, launch rafts, and send maydays|
|On-board||Working with gear, gear entanglement, crushed between objects||Exposure|
|Diving **||Repair vessel hulls and piers||Shellfish harvesting|
|Active: * dynamic capture|
|Trawl: Pull nets across the bottom of shrimp beds in order to scoop the catch into the nets (typically at night when shrimp are active).|
|Seines: Encircle and bag fish for capture with a drag line and net.|
|Dredge: Drag chain mesh that is open on one end and scrape across a bottom-dwelling shellfish bed to scoop up a catch.|
|Passive: * stationary capture or culture|
|Gillnets: Roll out a length of stationary vertical net and wait to entangle the gills of finfish for harvest.|
|Pots: Set pots (cages) with bait to trap crustaceans (e.g., crabs) for retrieval.|
|Lines: Traditional hook, bait, and line.|
|Tongs: Grasp and lift shellfish (e.g., oysters) with wide tongs onto the boat deck.|
|Polyester mesh grow-out bags: Mariculture involves pea-sized juveniles (clams raised onshore) staked in shallow estuarine or coastal waters where they remain for about a year while they reach harvestable size and are lifted onto boats.|
|Gulf of Mexico Studies (n = 2)|
|GoM winch entanglements||Double rig trawlers, unguarded winch drums.||Shrimp fishery, nighttime work.||Loose clothing.|
|Non-fatal and fatal injuries (TX)||Machinery, unstable and slippery work surfaces.||Extreme temperatures, weather.||Fatigue, inexperience, failure to use safety practices and equipment.|
|Non- Gulf of Mexico Studies (n = 11)|
|Injuries (NC)||Working with catch, loading and boarding vessel, hooks and knife blades, loading boat, small boats, working with nets, pots, and lines.||On the water, dock work, crab, finfish, shrimp, clam, and oyster fisheries.||Fall on hard surface, poor swimming ability.|
|Injuries (NJ, AK, and US West coast)||Falls on surface, stuck by or between object, caught in lines, handling gear, traffic onboard. Working with catch.||Collision with fixed object.||Falls into water, Injured when abandoning vessel.|
|Injuries (Europe)||Knives, fish spikes, entanglement, stuck by or against, ladders, vessel loss, boarding and demarking boat, lack of vessel maintenance, working with winches, lines, nets, and machinery.||Onshore work (repairs, fish handling), slippery surfaces.||Slips and falls, non-slip soles on boots.|
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