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Safety, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality for young adults, even with the advances in conventional driver training. This is a case study blueprint for an integrated simulated framework to increase driver training safety in North America. The cover art highlights the essential aspects of this study, where conventional driver (classroom and physical on-road) training is supplemented with physics-based modeling and high-fidelity simulation through a full motion simulation coupled with a multi-measure assessment of simulated driver performance. Notable features leading to the overall improved driver safety mentioned here include positive feedback, diverse scoring, experiential learning and repeatability. View this paper
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Article
Conscientiousness in Pilots Correlates with Electrodermal Stability: Study on Simulated Flights under Social Stress
Safety 2021, 7(2), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020049 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
For pilots, the capacity to cope with anxiety is crucial during a flight since they may be confronted with stressful situations. According to the Big Five Inventory, this capacity can be modulated by two important personality traits: conscientiousness and neuroticism. The former would [...] Read more.
For pilots, the capacity to cope with anxiety is crucial during a flight since they may be confronted with stressful situations. According to the Big Five Inventory, this capacity can be modulated by two important personality traits: conscientiousness and neuroticism. The former would be related to concentration skills and the latter to the attention bias towards anxiety-provoking stimuli. Given the current development of monitoring systems for detecting the users’ state, which can be incorporated into cockpits, it is desirable to estimate their robustness to inter-individual personality differences. Indeed, several emotion recognition methods are based on physiological responses that can be modulated by specific personality profiles. The personality traits of twenty pilots were assessed. Afterwards, they performed two consecutive simulated flights without and with induced social stress while electrodermal activity was measured. Their subjective anxiety was assessed before the second flight, prior to the stress-induced condition. The results showed that higher scores in neuroticism correlated positively with cognitive and somatic anxiety. Moreover, under social stress, higher scores in conscientiousness correlated positively with electrodermal stability, i.e., a lower number of skin conductance responses. These results on both self-reported and physiological responses are in favor of the integration of personality differences into pilots’ state monitoring. Full article
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Communication
Stakeholders’ Consumption of Agricultural Injury Reports from News Media: A Six-Year Analysis of Website Usage and Visitor Analytics
Safety 2021, 7(2), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020048 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
AgInjuryNews.org is a news report-based, online sentinel surveillance dataset that has provided publicly available news and media reports of agricultural injuries since early 2015. In the 6 years since its inception, AgInjuryNews.org has hosted 12,897 unique visitors and has collected 997 user account [...] Read more.
AgInjuryNews.org is a news report-based, online sentinel surveillance dataset that has provided publicly available news and media reports of agricultural injuries since early 2015. In the 6 years since its inception, AgInjuryNews.org has hosted 12,897 unique visitors and has collected 997 user account registrations. New users from geographic areas home to NIOSH-funded agricultural research centres were most prominent, with these centres returning in larger numbers, comparatively. Users were acquired mostly through web searches, collaborations with other agencies, and paid Facebook.com advertisements. Paid advertisements recruited 3792 visitors; however, retention, registrations, and on-site engagement from this source was low. This analysis shows that data consumption on AgInjuryNews.org is steadily growing. Similar self-hosted programs that provide data or digital resources to agricultural safety and health stakeholders should consider the integration of auditing and analytics tracking, including user registrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Safety)
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Article
Integrated IEW-TOPSIS and Fire Dynamics Simulation for Agent-Based Evacuation Modeling in Industrial Safety
Safety 2021, 7(2), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020047 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Emergency events in the industrial sector have been increasingly reported during the past decade. However, studies that focus on emergency evacuation to improve industrial safety are still scarce. Existing evacuation-related studies also lack a perspective of fire assembly point’s analysis. In this research, [...] Read more.
Emergency events in the industrial sector have been increasingly reported during the past decade. However, studies that focus on emergency evacuation to improve industrial safety are still scarce. Existing evacuation-related studies also lack a perspective of fire assembly point’s analysis. In this research, location of assembly points is analyzed using the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique based on the integrated information entropy weight (IEW) and techniques for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to support the fire evacuation plan. Next, we propose a novel simulation model that integrates fire dynamics simulation coupled with agent-based evacuation simulation to evaluate the impact of smoke and visibility from fire on evacuee behavior. Factors related to agent and building characteristics are examined for fire perception of evacuees, evacuees with physical disabilities, escape door width, fire location, and occupancy density. Then, the proposed model is applied to a case study of a home appliance factory in Chachoengsao, Thailand. Finally, results for the total evacuation time and the number of remaining occupants are statistically examined to suggest proper evacuation planning. Full article
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Article
Retrofitting Agricultural Self-Propelled Machines with Roll-Over and Tip-Over Protective Structures
Safety 2021, 7(2), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020046 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
In the agricultural sector, the loss of stability related to the use of self-propelled agricultural machinery (SPAM) has caused and continues to cause accidents, often with fatal outcomes. The probability of occurrence of this risk can be reduced by acting on various aspects, [...] Read more.
In the agricultural sector, the loss of stability related to the use of self-propelled agricultural machinery (SPAM) has caused and continues to cause accidents, often with fatal outcomes. The probability of occurrence of this risk can be reduced by acting on various aspects, but above all the presence of a protective structure is necessary. Depending on the machine, the protective structure can be a roll-over protective structure (ROPS), or a tip-over protective structure (TOPS). Hence, to reduce this gap, a reverse engineering approach and virtual engineering methods were applied starting from the analysis of harmonized standards actually in force, with the goal of providing both a reference procedure to be used in the risk assessment analysis of SPAM’s protective structures and technical information to manufacture and install protective structure on old agricultural machinery. Two representative case studies were used to validate the procedure by means of finite element method (FEM) analyses and computer aided design (CAD) prototyping. Results show that the proposed approach can represent a useful indication for the safety update of this type of machinery. Full article
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Article
Using Video Replay of Simulated Driving to Estimate Driving Safety and Cognitive Status
Safety 2021, 7(2), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020045 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Cognitive decline resulting from Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT) can lead to reduced ability to perform complex daily tasks required for independent living, including driving an automobile. This study explores the ability of untrained observers to classify driving safety using short video clips [...] Read more.
Cognitive decline resulting from Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT) can lead to reduced ability to perform complex daily tasks required for independent living, including driving an automobile. This study explores the ability of untrained observers to classify driving safety using short video clips of simulated driving through intersections; it also examined whether untrained observers could predict whether the driver was cognitively healthy or cognitively impaired. Participants (n = 54) were shown a series of 30 video clips arranged in an online survey and asked to answer questions following each clip regarding the safety of the maneuver and the cognitive status of the driver. Results showed that participants’ subjectively rated DAT drivers as significantly less safe in comparison to control drivers, F (1, 52) = 228.44, p < 0.001. Participant’s classification of DAT drivers and controls was also significantly higher than chance (i.e., >50% correct). Findings provide preliminary support for the development of a clinical decision-making aid using video replay of driving simulator performance in fitness-to-drive assessments for individuals with cognitive impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Evaluation of Self-Reported Agricultural Tasks, Safety Concerns, and Health and Safety Behaviors of Young Adults in U.S. Collegiate Agricultural Programs
Safety 2021, 7(2), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020044 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Young adults enrolled in collegiate agricultural programs are a critical audience for agricultural health and safety training. Understanding the farm tasks that young adults engage in is necessary for tailoring health and safety education. The project analyzed evaluation survey responses from the Gear [...] Read more.
Young adults enrolled in collegiate agricultural programs are a critical audience for agricultural health and safety training. Understanding the farm tasks that young adults engage in is necessary for tailoring health and safety education. The project analyzed evaluation survey responses from the Gear Up for Ag Health and Safety™ program, including reported agricultural tasks, safety concerns, frequency of discussing health and safety concerns with healthcare providers, safety behaviors, and future career plans. The most common tasks reported included operation of machinery and grain-handling. Most participants intended to work on a family-owned agricultural operation or for an agribusiness/cooperative following graduation. Reported safety behaviors (hearing protection, eye protection, and sunscreen use when performing outdoor tasks) differed by gender and education type. Male community college and university participants reported higher rates of “near-misses” and crashes when operating equipment on the roadway. One-third of participants reported discussing agricultural health and safety issues with their medical provider, while 72% were concerned about the health and safety of their family and co-workers in agriculture. These findings provide guidance for better development of agricultural health and safety programs addressing this population—future trainings should be uniquely tailored, accounting for gender and educational differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Safety)
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Article
Quantification and Analysis of Risk Exposure in the Maritime Industry: Averted Incident Costs Due to Inspections and the Effect of SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19)
Safety 2021, 7(2), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020043 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Shipping provides essential services even during global pandemics such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). The present approach estimates the monetary value at risk (MVR) at the global and regional level for the world fleet and quantifies the amount of averted incident costs due to inspections. [...] Read more.
Shipping provides essential services even during global pandemics such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). The present approach estimates the monetary value at risk (MVR) at the global and regional level for the world fleet and quantifies the amount of averted incident costs due to inspections. It also provides an indication of the effect of COVID-19 on both. This information can help maritime stakeholders to better understand their risk exposure and improve mitigation strategies. The analysis is based on the global fleet, using a comprehensive combination of data. The analysis confirms the importance to estimate all components at ship level, as safety qualities differ, and each vessel benefits differently from an inspection. Estimates of MVR were slightly higher than global insurance premiums with USD 13.7 to 17.8 billion. Over half of the MVR was due to other marine liabilities and hull and machinery, with cruise vessels leading to loss of life and injuries and oil tankers leading to pollution. The top 25 flags accounted for 87.9% of MVR with open registries in the lead. In terms of value of MVR per GRT, traditional flags, Non-IACS flags and owners located in low to upper middle-income countries, showed the highest values. Total MVR decreased by 4.18% due to the effects of the pandemic, but pollution risk exposure increased by 6% in 2020 as compared to 2019. Averted yearly incident costs were estimated to be 25% to 40% of global MVR, which highlights the importance of port state control inspection programs, but as inspection coverage decreased, this translated into a reduction of 6 to 11% of averted incident costs. Full article
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Review
Designing Impactful Construction Safety Training Interventions
Safety 2021, 7(2), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020042 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Construction workplaces still report an unacceptable number of safety incidents every year. To tackle these disproportionate incident rates, safety training interventions are adopted widely in construction workplaces. Despite their adoption, poor safety performance continues to be a universal and global problem in the [...] Read more.
Construction workplaces still report an unacceptable number of safety incidents every year. To tackle these disproportionate incident rates, safety training interventions are adopted widely in construction workplaces. Despite their adoption, poor safety performance continues to be a universal and global problem in the industry. In fact, recent research has called into question the effectiveness of training programs that are commonly adopted in the industry. There is also evidence that suggests that training interventions, in many cases, do not yield tangible benefits and may sometimes simply reduce to wasted resources. Therefore, it is important for industry stakeholders to possess a good understanding of the characteristics of training interventions that translate to superior safety performance. Towards achieving this goal, the present article concisely summarizes specific safety training intervention elements, which when integrated into training programs, can translate into superior safety performance and outcomes. The objectives of the research were achieved by performing a review of the construction safety training literature from diverse sources. The findings demonstrate that training interventions that integrate visual cues to guide hazard recognition, immersive experiences in virtual environments, andragogical training principles, personalization of training experiences, testing and feedback, and other elements can improve training effectiveness and outcomes. The article will serve as a resource for industry professionals that seek to address the weaknesses of existing training interventions. Researchers may also use this as a resource to inform the development of the next generation of safety training interventions. Together, the presented research can be leveraged to reduce the number of undesirable safety incidents experienced in construction workplaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Article
Impact of Construction Safety Culture and Construction Safety Climate on Safety Behavior and Safety Motivation
Safety 2021, 7(2), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020041 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
The construction industry is known for its disappointing safety performance. Therefore, rethinking current safety management frameworks is crucial. This study assesses a newly proposed construction safety culture and climate framework that aims to overcome the present ambiguity in the definitions and measurement of [...] Read more.
The construction industry is known for its disappointing safety performance. Therefore, rethinking current safety management frameworks is crucial. This study assesses a newly proposed construction safety culture and climate framework that aims to overcome the present ambiguity in the definitions and measurement of construction safety culture and construction safety climate. The goal is to provide a practical construction safety culture and safety climate framework that fits the construction industry’s needs. A survey was designed to validate the proposed framework and assess its influence on safety behavior and safety motivation. The survey was completed by 275 construction practitioners. The findings suggest that the construction safety culture initiates and maintains the construction safety climate. Similarly, the construction safety culture, which is represented by the actions of upper management and safety personnel, significantly contributes to higher levels of safety behavior and safety motivation, whereas the construction safety climate does not. Accordingly, this study highlights the importance of the construction safety culture’s influence on overall workplace culture. This study’s contribution to the body of knowledge is critical to improving construction workplaces’ overall safety performance. The findings can be strategically used by construction firms to address the construction industry’s higher rates of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Finally, the results obtained support the newly proposed framework of construction safety culture and climate, which, in turn, helps the industry better manage overall site safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Safety Culture)
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Article
Representativeness of Czech In-Depth Accident Data
Safety 2021, 7(2), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020040 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Road accident occurrence is often the result of driving system malfunctions, and road safety improvements need to focus on all basic driving components—the vehicle, road infrastructure, and road users. Only focusing on one type of improvement does not necessarily lead to increased road [...] Read more.
Road accident occurrence is often the result of driving system malfunctions, and road safety improvements need to focus on all basic driving components—the vehicle, road infrastructure, and road users. Only focusing on one type of improvement does not necessarily lead to increased road safety. Instead, improved road safety requires comprehensive measures that consider all factors using in-depth accident analysis. The proposed measures, based on the findings from in-depth data that have general applicability, are necessary to determine whether data gained from in-depth studies adequately represent national statistics. This article aims to verify the representativeness of the Czech In-Depth Accident Study at a national level. The main contribution of this article lies in the use of a weighting method (specifically, a raking procedure) to generalise research results and render them applicable to a whole population. The obtained results could be beneficial at the national level, in the Czech Republic, and also on the supranational level. The applicability of this method on accident data is verified; thus, the method can be applied also in other countries or can be used to verify the applicability of conclusions from the Czech in-depth study also on a European or worldwide level. Full article
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Article
Cooperation between Roads and Vehicles: Field Validation of a Novel Infrastructure-Based Solution for All Road Users’ Safety
Safety 2021, 7(2), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020039 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are expected to considerably influence road safety, traffic efficiency and comfort. Nevertheless, their market penetration is still limited, on the one hand due to the high costs of installation and maintenance of the infrastructures and, on the other [...] Read more.
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are expected to considerably influence road safety, traffic efficiency and comfort. Nevertheless, their market penetration is still limited, on the one hand due to the high costs of installation and maintenance of the infrastructures and, on the other hand, due to the price of support automated driving functions. A breakthrough C-ITS technological solution was studied, designed, built and tested that is based on the implementation of custom low-cost on-road platforms (named “strips”) that embed micro/nano sensors, communication technologies and energy harvesting to shift intelligence from the vehicle to the road infrastructure. The strips, through a V2X and LTE communication gateway, transmit real-time, reliable and accurate information at lane level about the environmental and road condition, the traffic and the other road users’ position and speed. The exchanged information supports a series of C-ITS functions and services extending equipped vehicles capabilities and providing similar functions to non-equipped ones (including powered two wheelers). The general framework and the technological solution proposed is presented and the results of the field trials, conducted in three pilot sites around Europe, quantify the promising system performance as well as the positive effects of the C-ITS applications developed and tested on driver/rider’s behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver Behavior Safety Research in Road Transportation)
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Article
A Combinatorial Safety Analysis of Cruise Ship Diesel–Electric Propulsion Plant Blackout
Safety 2021, 7(2), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020038 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) has been widely used for the propulsion of various ship types including cruise ships. Considering the potential consequences of blackouts, especially on cruise ships, it is essential to design and operate the ships’ power plants for avoiding and preventing such [...] Read more.
Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) has been widely used for the propulsion of various ship types including cruise ships. Considering the potential consequences of blackouts, especially on cruise ships, it is essential to design and operate the ships’ power plants for avoiding and preventing such events. This study aims at implementing a comprehensive safety analysis for a cruise ship Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) plant focusing on blackout events. The Combinatorial Approach to Safety Analysis (CASA) method is used to develop Fault Trees considering the blackout as the top event, and subsequently estimate the blackout frequency as well as implement importance analysis. The derived results demonstrate that the overall blackout frequency is close to corresponding values reported in the pertinent literature as well as estimations based on available accident investigations. This study deduces that the blackout frequency depends on the number of operating Diesel Generator (DG) sets, the DG set’s loading profile, the amount of electrical load that can be tripped during overload conditions and the plant operation phase. In addition, failures of the engine auxiliary systems and the fast-electrical load reduction functions, as well as the power generation control components, are identified as important. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CASA method to complex marine systems and reveals the parameters influencing the investigated system blackout frequency, thus providing better insights for these systems’ safety analysis and enhancement. Full article
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Article
Unintended Detrimental Effects of the Combination of Several Safety Measures—When More Is Not Always More Effective
Safety 2021, 7(2), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020037 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 1413
Abstract
To ensure safety-related behavior in risky operations, several safety measures, such as safety-related rules and safety management systems including audits, rewards, and communication, are implemented. Looking at each single measure, it is reasonable to assume that each one leads to rule compliance, but [...] Read more.
To ensure safety-related behavior in risky operations, several safety measures, such as safety-related rules and safety management systems including audits, rewards, and communication, are implemented. Looking at each single measure, it is reasonable to assume that each one leads to rule compliance, but how do they interact? In an experimental study, we varied (1) the salience of either safety, productivity, or both, (2) the reward for the compliance and punishment for a violation, (3) the communication of audit results (result- or process-based), and (4) the gain and loss framing of performance indicators. In a 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial between-group design, 497 engineering students in the role of Control Room Operator participated in a five hour simulation of a production year of a chemical plant. Looking at single effects, salient safety goals led to a low number of rule violations compared to the salience of production goals. Interestingly, the interaction of several measures showed that particular combinations of measures were highly detrimental to safety, although altogether, they were assumed to reduce risks. For practice, this means that the effects of safety measures depend on their particular combination and can lead to unwanted effects. Full article
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Article
Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers
Safety 2021, 7(2), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020036 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. [...] Read more.
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. Experiments in a driving simulator are a good choice to eliminate the risk for crashes and to present highly standardized stimulus combinations. In the present study, 72 subjects from four age groups completed a driving task that required occasional responses to the brake lights of a car in front. In addition, in certain experimental conditions, subjects had to respond to distracting visual or auditory stimuli. In addition to behavioral data, electrophysiological correlates of stimulus processing were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). In the two older groups, braking response times increased even in a simple task condition when visual distraction stimuli occurred. In more complex task conditions braking response times increased with acoustic and visual distractors in the middle-aged group as well. In these complex task conditions braking error rates, especially the missing of braking reaction in favor of the distracting task, increased under visual distraction with increasing age. Associated with this, a reduced P3b component in the event-related potential indicated an unfavorable allocation of mental resources. The study demonstrates the potential of driving simulators for studying effects of distraction, but also their limitations with respect to the interpretability of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Editorial
2020 Safety Young Investigator Award: Announcement and Interview with the Winner
Safety 2021, 7(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020035 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
After an extensive voting period, we are proud to present the winner of the Safety Young Investigator Award: [...] Full article
Review
STPA-Based Analysis of the Process Involved in Enforcing Road Safety in Austria
Safety 2021, 7(2), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020034 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 1557
Abstract
The European Commission pursues a strategic action plan using the “Safe System” approach. The function, layout and design of roads shall be coordinated in such a way that human error is compensated, and possible accidents no longer cause fatalities or serious injuries. Four [...] Read more.
The European Commission pursues a strategic action plan using the “Safe System” approach. The function, layout and design of roads shall be coordinated in such a way that human error is compensated, and possible accidents no longer cause fatalities or serious injuries. Four fields of action are defined: people, vehicles, roads and laws. This study aims to model the process involved in road safety management in Austria based on the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and to identify areas of improvement that also meet these goals. This is intended to create the basis for a method that can also be applied in practice to meet the “Safe System” approach. The traffic authorities or road owners are responsible for monitoring and enforcing road safety in Austria. Their main instrument is the Road Safety Inspection (RSI) that focuses primarily on road traffic planning aspects. This study proposes a method for including human-road-vehicle interactions in RSI. The STPA-based analysis showed how the road safety management and RSI can be improved to provide more comprehensive, accurate and relevant information about hazards at various levels of the safety management structure. The results can be used for improving the safety of all road users. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Driving Proficiency When Drivers Utilize Assistance Systems—The Case of Adaptive Cruise Control
Safety 2021, 7(2), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020033 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Driver assistance systems (ADAS), and especially those containing driving automation, change the role of drivers to supervisors who need to safeguard the system’s operation. Despite the aim to increase safety, the new tasks (supervision and intervention) may jeopardize safety. Consequently, safety officers address [...] Read more.
Driver assistance systems (ADAS), and especially those containing driving automation, change the role of drivers to supervisors who need to safeguard the system’s operation. Despite the aim to increase safety, the new tasks (supervision and intervention) may jeopardize safety. Consequently, safety officers address the need for specific training on ADAS. However, these tasks are not assessed in driver licensing today. Therefore, we developed a framework to assess in-practice driving proficiency when drivers utilize ADAS. This study evaluated whether the proposed framework is able to identify meaningful differences in driving proficiency between driving with and without assistance. We applied the framework to perform a qualitative assessment of driving proficiency with 12 novice drivers in a field experiment, comparable to a license test. The assistance system concerned Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). The test showed that driving with ACC has a negative influence on self-initiated manoeuvres (especially lane changes) and sometimes led to improved adaptations to manoeuvres initiated by other road users (like merging in traffic). These results are in line with previous research and demonstrate the framework’s successfulness to assess novice drivers’ proficiency to utilize ADAS in road-traffic. Therewith, the proposed framework provides important means for driving instructors and examiners to address the safe operation of ADAS. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Severe Injuries in Crashes Involving Large Trucks Using K-Prototypes Clustering-Based GBDT Model
Safety 2021, 7(2), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020032 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
The unobserved heterogeneity in traffic crash data hides certain relationships between the contributory factors and injury severity. The literature has been limited in exploring different types of clustering methods for the analysis of the injury severity in crashes involving large trucks. Additionally, the [...] Read more.
The unobserved heterogeneity in traffic crash data hides certain relationships between the contributory factors and injury severity. The literature has been limited in exploring different types of clustering methods for the analysis of the injury severity in crashes involving large trucks. Additionally, the variability of data type in traffic crash data has rarely been addressed. This study explored the application of the k-prototypes clustering method to countermeasure the unobserved heterogeneity in large truck-involved crashes that had occurred in the United States between the period of 2016 to 2019. The study segmented the entire dataset (EDS) into three homogeneous clusters. Four gradient boosted decision trees (GBDT) models were developed on the EDS and individual clusters to predict the injury severity in crashes involving large trucks. The list of input features included crash characteristics, truck characteristics, roadway attributes, time and location of the crash, and environmental factors. Each cluster-based GBDT model was compared with the EDS-based model. Two of the three cluster-based models showed significant improvement in their predicting performances. Additionally, feature analysis using the SHAP (Shapley additive explanations) method identified few new important features in each cluster and showed that some features have a different degree of effects on severe injuries in the individual clusters. The current study concluded that the k-prototypes clustering-based GBDT model is a promising approach to reveal hidden insights, which can be used to improve safety measures, roadway conditions and policies for the prevention of severe injuries in crashes involving large trucks. Full article
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Article
A Study on the Performance Evaluation Criteria and Methods of Abdominal Ultrasound Devices Based on International Standards
Safety 2021, 7(2), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020031 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The medical diagnostic ultrasound market has grown steadily in recent years, thanks to the increasing popularity of minimally invasive surgery among patients and active investments in the medical ultrasound market. In addition, the diagnostic ultrasound market is expected to continue to grow in [...] Read more.
The medical diagnostic ultrasound market has grown steadily in recent years, thanks to the increasing popularity of minimally invasive surgery among patients and active investments in the medical ultrasound market. In addition, the diagnostic ultrasound market is expected to continue to grow in the global market, given the importance of ultrasound and ongoing technological developments. In the case of the gallbladder, cases of gallstones and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, all of which can be diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound, the number of domestic patients continues to increase every year. The safety of abdominal ultrasound has also been improved due to the national health insurance expanding its coverage to include gallstones and diseases such as those of the liver and gallbladder. However, no standards by which the performance of abdominal ultrasound can be evaluated have been explicitly established. Therefore, we aimed to assess the performance of abdominal ultrasound using criteria such as sound output level, operating frequency accuracy, resolution, maximum display depth, distance accuracy, time accuracy, and blood flow velocity accuracy. These criteria were derived by investigating the principles of ultrasound and the characteristics and structure of transducers, as well as by analyzing the specifications of abdominal ultrasound set by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60601-2-37. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ergonomics and Sustainability)
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Article
Incorporation of Modeling, Simulation, and Game-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics Education towards Improving Vehicle Design and Driver Safety
Safety 2021, 7(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020030 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1657
Abstract
As educational tools continue to evolve technologically, game-based learning (GBL) has emerged for its ability to improve specific learning outcomes such as motivation, engagement, and knowledge acquisition and retention. Despite recent advances with educators incorporating games and gaming strategies into higher-learning curricula, there [...] Read more.
As educational tools continue to evolve technologically, game-based learning (GBL) has emerged for its ability to improve specific learning outcomes such as motivation, engagement, and knowledge acquisition and retention. Despite recent advances with educators incorporating games and gaming strategies into higher-learning curricula, there is a current void in the literature that clarifies the critical relationship between GBL implementations and learning outcomes. In this effort, we build upon previous research by detailing the specification, design, and deployment of a series of GBL experiential learning interventions intended to improve conceptual understanding of vehicle dynamics. This implementation should result in positive downstream impacts on safety, both for the vehicle (i.e., design/interface)—and its driver. In our intervention, we deploy three separate pilot studies in a graduate engineering vehicle dynamics course, all of which leverage advanced GBL environments deployed on a high-fidelity motion-based driving simulator. The primary goals of the pilot studies are to interactively achieve an enhanced understanding of: (i) oversteer/understeer vehicles at ever-increasing speed; (ii) an optimal cornering strategy subject to the tire conditions of the vehicle; and (iii) lateral handling and yaw stabilization of a vehicle within an extreme evasive maneuver at varying entry speeds. The outcomes of the current effort serve to promote a future Theory of Change for planned best practices to improve human factors and human–vehicle machine interfaces through authentication of GBL in engineering education on a broader scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Review
Hazard Perception–Response: A Theoretical Framework to Explain Drivers’ Interactions with Roadway Hazards
Safety 2021, 7(2), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020029 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Research suggests that novice drivers are most susceptible to errors when detecting and responding to hazards. If this were true, then hazard training should be effective in improving novice drivers’ performance. However, there is limited evidence to support this effectiveness. Much of this [...] Read more.
Research suggests that novice drivers are most susceptible to errors when detecting and responding to hazards. If this were true, then hazard training should be effective in improving novice drivers’ performance. However, there is limited evidence to support this effectiveness. Much of this research has overlooked a fundamental aspect of psychological research: theory. Although four theoretical frameworks were developed to explain this process, none have been validated. We proposed a theoretical framework to more accurately explain drivers’ behavior when interacting with hazardous situations. This framework is novel in that it leverages support from visual attention and driving behavior research. Hazard-related constructs are defined and suitable metrics to evaluate the stages in hazard processing are suggested. Additionally, individual differences which affect hazard-related skills are also discussed. This new theoretical framework may explain why the conflicts in current hazard-related research fail to provide evidence that training such behaviors reduces crash risk. Future research is necessary to empirically test this framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Instruments for Evaluating and Measuring Safety)
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Article
Occupational Conditions in Brazilian Modern Rural Slave Labour
Safety 2021, 7(2), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020028 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Work in rural properties in conditions similar to slavery remains a reality in many countries, including Brazil. The Brazilian State characterises contemporary slave labour as a condition of freedom restriction for paying off debt, served by intensive working hours or inadequate working conditions [...] Read more.
Work in rural properties in conditions similar to slavery remains a reality in many countries, including Brazil. The Brazilian State characterises contemporary slave labour as a condition of freedom restriction for paying off debt, served by intensive working hours or inadequate working conditions related to Occupational Safety and Health. This study highlights the working conditions in rural slavery in Brazil, based on the Occupational Safety and Health perspective. The study was carried out based on a sample of Inspection Reports of the Governmental Authority to Combat Modern Slavery. A random sample of 42 reports was collected and analysed, describing the working conditions of 392 rural workers characterised as labour analogous to slavery. The analysis strategy was carried out from an Occupational Safety and Health standpoint. Data sets were identified and selected, grouped into five categories: Work routine; General health conditions; Manual machines and tools; Environmental conditions. Widespread exposure of Neo-enslaved workers to stressful working hours was found, in addition to severe Occupational Safety and Health problems. The occurrence of all these characteristics simultaneously was the most observed phenomenon among the sample, which demonstrates that it is possible to identify cases of modern slavery from an Occupational Safety and Health perspective. Full article
Article
Selecting the Safest CNC Machining Workshop Using AHP and TOPSIS Approaches
Safety 2021, 7(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020027 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Machining operations on computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools are essential for the machining industry. Most of these operations take place in machining workshops. Safety issues in machining workshops shops can affect not only the health of the operators, which is extremely important, [...] Read more.
Machining operations on computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools are essential for the machining industry. Most of these operations take place in machining workshops. Safety issues in machining workshops shops can affect not only the health of the operators, which is extremely important, but also the productivity of the process and the accuracy of the parts. The research presented in this article addresses the issue of evaluating the safety of a CNC machining workshop, using a combined approach based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods. A set of four evaluation criteria was proposed and the methods of processing the information for each criterion were used to extract the significant data needed for the evaluation. The proposed method was used to select the safest CNC machining workshop out of a total of three considered for assessment. Full article
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Article
Older Drivers’ Motion and Simulator Sickness before and after Automated Vehicle Exposure
Safety 2021, 7(2), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020026 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Older drivers desire independence in mobility, and automated vehicles hold plausible opportunities to realize this goal. Motion sickness (automated shuttle exposure) or simulator sickness (automated driving simulator exposure) may affect acceptance of these technologies. This study investigated the onset of motion and simulator [...] Read more.
Older drivers desire independence in mobility, and automated vehicles hold plausible opportunities to realize this goal. Motion sickness (automated shuttle exposure) or simulator sickness (automated driving simulator exposure) may affect acceptance of these technologies. This study investigated the onset of motion and simulator sickness in older drivers (mean age = 74.29, SD = 5.96; female = 54%) after exposure to an automated shuttle and automated driving simulator and assessed age and sex as determinants of motion and/or simulator sickness. Using a repeated measures design, 104 older drivers were randomly allocated to the shuttle and simulator. Baseline, as well as post exposures, were measured using the Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire (domains: sweatiness, queasiness, dizziness, nauseousness). Older drivers who were exposed to the simulator show a statistically significant increase in simulator sickness symptoms across the four domains compared to the same group being tested in the shuttle. No age and sex differences were detected within the groups and no participants dropped out of the study due to motion or simulator sickness. The automated shuttle and simulator hold plausible opportunities for continued exposure of older drivers to these technologies, as long as motion or driving simulator sickness protocols are used properly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Developing an Unreal Engine 4-Based Vehicle Driving Simulator Applicable in Driver Behavior Analysis—A Technical Perspective
Safety 2021, 7(2), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020025 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Vehicle safety remains a topic of major interest, and diverse assistance systems are implemented that focus primarily on analyzing the immediate vicinity of the car and the driver’s control inputs. In this paper, by contrast, we emphasize understanding the driver’s control performance via [...] Read more.
Vehicle safety remains a topic of major interest, and diverse assistance systems are implemented that focus primarily on analyzing the immediate vicinity of the car and the driver’s control inputs. In this paper, by contrast, we emphasize understanding the driver’s control performance via obtaining valuable data and relevant characteristics. To acquire the data, we employed an in-house-designed, laboratory-built vehicle driving simulator. This simulator exploits the Unreal Engine 4 framework to deliver a high level of realism. The fact that the actual designing and associated processes were materialized through our own efforts has brought advantages such as simplified data acquisition, possibility of creating custom scenarios, and modification of the virtual elements according to our specific needs. We also developed an application to analyze the measured data from the perspective of control theory, establishing a set of parameters that provided the basis for an early version of a driver performance index indicator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Blueprint for a Simulation Framework to Increase Driver Training Safety in North America: Case Study
Safety 2021, 7(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020024 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Despite numerous recent advances in the classroom and in-vehicle driver training and education over the last quarter-century, traffic accidents remain a leading cause of mortality for young adults—particularly, those between the ages of 16 and 19. Obviously, despite recent advances in conventional driver [...] Read more.
Despite numerous recent advances in the classroom and in-vehicle driver training and education over the last quarter-century, traffic accidents remain a leading cause of mortality for young adults—particularly, those between the ages of 16 and 19. Obviously, despite recent advances in conventional driver training (e.g., classroom, in-vehicle, Graduated Driver Licensing programs), this remains a critical public safety and public health concern. As advanced vehicle technologies continue to evolve, so too does the unintended potential for mechanical, visual, and/or cognitive driver distraction and adverse safety events on national highways. For these reasons, a physics-based modeling and high-fidelity simulation have great potential to serve as a critical supplementary component of a near-future teen-driver training framework. Here, a case study is presented that examines the specification, development, and deployment of a “blueprint” for a simulation framework intended to increase driver training safety in North America. A multi-measure assessment of simulated driver performance was developed and instituted, including quantitative (e.g., simulator-measured), qualitative (e.g., evaluator-observed), and self-report metrics. Preliminary findings are presented, along with a summary of novel contributions through the deployment of the training framework, as well as planned improvements and suggestions for future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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