2. Research Methodology
2.1. Training Environment Design
2.1.1. Stage 1: Input—Driver Controls
2.1.2. Stage 2: Simulation Analysis
2.1.3. Stage 3: Outputs—Visual, Haptic and Audio
2.2. Training Modules
2.2.1. Closed Course Driving
2.2.2. Residential Driving
2.2.3. Challenging Scenarios
- A construction zone with roadway cones, narrow lanes, and large vehicles
- An aggressive driver (tailgater) segment in a narrowed section of roadway
- Speed modulation segments, including a section with speed bumps (see Figure 9)
- A complex highway merge with large vehicles and inclement weather
- An animal crossing within a quiet cul-de-sac (see Figure 10)
2.3. Instructional Sessions and Performance Measures
2.3.1. Quantitative Measures
2.3.2. Qualitative Measures
2.3.3. Self-Report Measures
2.4. Experimental Cohort
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Quantitative Measures
3.2. Qualitative Measures
3.3. Self-Report Measures
4. Broader Impacts of Our Methodology and Implementation
5. Conclusions and Future Work
- Cohort score report total scores exhibited a general upward trend across the entire program, and these trends were moderately enhanced with the presence of motion cues (quantitative).
- Both negative and positive feedback evaluator comments increased as the training modules proceeded. The overarching hypothesis is that the increase in positive feedback was counteracted by the driving session evaluator’s tendency for increased “bias” in the form of growing expectations as the program proceeded (qualitative).
- Post-SBQ scores were higher than pre-SBQ scores (due to module-specific knowledge gained due to simulator exposure), as expected. Motion sickness (by way of MSAQ) was found to be insignificant, which can be credited to the experimental design (see Table 2) and to the young demographics of this specific cohort (self-report).
- Teens rated their experience on the simulator favorably but suggested that more of the overall session time should have been spent on the simulator itself rather than on related activities associated with the training program. They recognized the simulator as an effective way to learn but disliked some of the visual elements and control aspects of the simulator (self-report).
- Almost all parents agreed that the simulator program should be a first step toward future driver training. Furthermore, per their own observations of subsequent teen driving performance, favorable feedback was issued for specific driving skillsets gained, including improved recognition to road signs and road hazards (self-report).
5.1. Improved Metrics for Quantifying Simulator Performance
5.2. Improvements to Experimental Training Environment
5.3. Impairment Training Modules
5.4. Driving Exercises that Promote Reverse Egress
5.5. Driving Exercises for Driver Training on Rural Roads
5.6. Longitudinal Data to Measure Efficacy of SBT
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Session||Training Module(s)||Residential Drive Description/Features|
|Residential||Practice drives for participant acclimation (e.g., the steering wheel, the paddle shifter signal indicators, and the gas and brake pedals) and the simulator visual/motion/sound cues. Note that this drive is encountered at the beginning of each of the five training sessions.|
|Course has no traffic and contains three left turns, three right turns (including one designated as “no right on red”), five traffic lights, and four stop signs. Course length: 3.2 miles.|
|Session 2||Residential, closed-course, challenge||Course has no traffic and contains four left turns, two right turns (including one designated as “no right on red”), six traffic lights, a roundabout intersection, and three stop signs. Challenges (2): construction zone and speed modulation. Course length: 3.4 miles.|
|Session 3||Residential, closed-course, challenge||Course introduces traffic and contains four left turns, two right turns (including one designated as “no right on red”), eight traffic lights, and one stop sign. Challenges (2): construction zone and speed modulation. Course length: 3.2 miles.|
|Session 4||Residential, closed-course, challenge||Course introduces traffic and contains one left turn, five right turns (including one designated as “no right on red”), six traffic lights, and five stop signs. Challenges (3): construction zone, speed modulation, and animal crossings. Course length: 4.0 miles.|
|Session 5||Residential, closed-course, challenge||Course introduces traffic and contains three left turns, four right turns (including one designated as “no right on red”), six traffic lights, and three stop signs. Challenges (2): tailgater scenario and speed modulation. Course length: 3.8 miles.|
|Residential, challenge||Course introduces traffic and contains two left turns, six right turns (including one designated as “no right on red”), seven traffic lights, and five stop signs. Challenges (4): construction zone, speed modulation, animal crossings, and highway merge. Course length: 4.7 miles.|
|Informed consent/assent (first visit only)||10–15 min|
|Pre-surveys and questionnaires||10–15 min|
|Training module video briefing||10 min|
|Acclimation drive||5–10 min|
|Simulator training modules (as driver) 1||30 min|
|Simulator training modules (as passenger) 1||30 min|
|Post-surveys and questionnaires||10 min|
|Discussion/summary/session de-briefing||5–10 min|
|Total Module Time:||120 min (approx.)|
|Simulator Type||Average Speed over Speed Limit (mph)||Speed |
|Stop Sign |
|Street Light |
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