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Article

Older Drivers’ Motion and Simulator Sickness before and after Automated Vehicle Exposure

1
Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Martin Lavallière and Garrett Mattos
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 20 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
Older drivers desire independence in mobility, and automated vehicles hold plausible opportunities to realize this goal. Motion sickness (automated shuttle exposure) or simulator sickness (automated driving simulator exposure) may affect acceptance of these technologies. This study investigated the onset of motion and simulator sickness in older drivers (mean age = 74.29, SD = 5.96; female = 54%) after exposure to an automated shuttle and automated driving simulator and assessed age and sex as determinants of motion and/or simulator sickness. Using a repeated measures design, 104 older drivers were randomly allocated to the shuttle and simulator. Baseline, as well as post exposures, were measured using the Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire (domains: sweatiness, queasiness, dizziness, nauseousness). Older drivers who were exposed to the simulator show a statistically significant increase in simulator sickness symptoms across the four domains compared to the same group being tested in the shuttle. No age and sex differences were detected within the groups and no participants dropped out of the study due to motion or simulator sickness. The automated shuttle and simulator hold plausible opportunities for continued exposure of older drivers to these technologies, as long as motion or driving simulator sickness protocols are used properly. View Full-Text
Keywords: older drivers; automated shuttle; motion sickness; automated driving simulator sickness older drivers; automated shuttle; motion sickness; automated driving simulator sickness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Classen, S.; Hwangbo, S.W.; Mason, J.; Wersal, J.; Rogers, J.; Sisiopiku, V.P. Older Drivers’ Motion and Simulator Sickness before and after Automated Vehicle Exposure. Safety 2021, 7, 26. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020026

AMA Style

Classen S, Hwangbo SW, Mason J, Wersal J, Rogers J, Sisiopiku VP. Older Drivers’ Motion and Simulator Sickness before and after Automated Vehicle Exposure. Safety. 2021; 7(2):26. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Classen, Sherrilene, Seung W. Hwangbo, Justin Mason, James Wersal, Jason Rogers, and Virginia P. Sisiopiku 2021. "Older Drivers’ Motion and Simulator Sickness before and after Automated Vehicle Exposure" Safety 7, no. 2: 26. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020026

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