Next Article in Journal
Unintended Detrimental Effects of the Combination of Several Safety Measures—When More Is Not Always More Effective
Next Article in Special Issue
Using Video Replay of Simulated Driving to Estimate Driving Safety and Cognitive Status
Previous Article in Journal
2020 Safety Young Investigator Award: Announcement and Interview with the Winner
Previous Article in Special Issue
Incorporation of Modeling, Simulation, and Game-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics Education towards Improving Vehicle Design and Driver Safety
Article

Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers

Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the TU Dortmund, D-44139 Dortmund, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raphael Grzebieta
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 11 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. Experiments in a driving simulator are a good choice to eliminate the risk for crashes and to present highly standardized stimulus combinations. In the present study, 72 subjects from four age groups completed a driving task that required occasional responses to the brake lights of a car in front. In addition, in certain experimental conditions, subjects had to respond to distracting visual or auditory stimuli. In addition to behavioral data, electrophysiological correlates of stimulus processing were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). In the two older groups, braking response times increased even in a simple task condition when visual distraction stimuli occurred. In more complex task conditions braking response times increased with acoustic and visual distractors in the middle-aged group as well. In these complex task conditions braking error rates, especially the missing of braking reaction in favor of the distracting task, increased under visual distraction with increasing age. Associated with this, a reduced P3b component in the event-related potential indicated an unfavorable allocation of mental resources. The study demonstrates the potential of driving simulators for studying effects of distraction, but also their limitations with respect to the interpretability of the results. View Full-Text
Keywords: driving; distraction; older drivers; driving simulator; EEG driving; distraction; older drivers; driving simulator; EEG
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Karthaus, M.; Wascher, E.; Getzmann, S. Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers. Safety 2021, 7, 36. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020036

AMA Style

Karthaus M, Wascher E, Getzmann S. Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers. Safety. 2021; 7(2):36. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karthaus, Melanie, Edmund Wascher, and Stephan Getzmann. 2021. "Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers" Safety 7, no. 2: 36. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020036

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop