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Volume 7, June

Safety, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 15 articles

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Review
State of the Art and Challenges for Occupational Health and Safety Performance Evaluation Tools
Safety 2021, 7(3), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030064 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
In industrialized nations, occupational health and safety (OHS) has been a growing concern in many businesses for at least two decades. Legislation, regulation, and standards have been developed in order to provide organizations with a framework for practicing accident and illness prevention and [...] Read more.
In industrialized nations, occupational health and safety (OHS) has been a growing concern in many businesses for at least two decades. Legislation, regulation, and standards have been developed in order to provide organizations with a framework for practicing accident and illness prevention and placing worker well-being at the center of production system design. However, the occurrence of several accidents continues to show that OHS performance evaluation is subject to interpretation. In this review of the literature, we outline the scope of current research on OHS status and performance evaluation and comment on the suitability of the instruments being proposed for field use. This study is based on a keyword-based bibliographical search in the largest scientific databases and OHS-related websites, which allowed us to identify 15 OHS performance evaluation tools. Our principal conclusion is that researchers in the field have shown little interest in generalizing the instruments of OHS performance evaluation and that none of the 15 tools examined is properly applicable to any real organization outside of the sector of activity, economic scale, and jurisdiction for which it was designed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Article
Ride in Peace: How Cycling Infrastructure Types Affect Traffic Conflict Occurrence in Montréal, Canada
Safety 2021, 7(3), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030063 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Urban cycling is increasingly common in many North American cities and has the potential to address key challenges of urban mobility, congestion, air pollution and health. However, lack of safety is often cited by potential bike users as the most important deterrent to [...] Read more.
Urban cycling is increasingly common in many North American cities and has the potential to address key challenges of urban mobility, congestion, air pollution and health. However, lack of safety is often cited by potential bike users as the most important deterrent to cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cycling facility type on traffic conflict likelihood. Four participants recorded a total of 87 h (1199 km) of video, which was reviewed by trained observers to identify and characterize traffic conflicts, yielding 465 conflicts with vehicles and 209 conflicts with pedestrians. Bootstrapped generalized additive logit regressions (GAM) were built to predict traffic conflict likelihood. Results show that while cycling on an off-street bike path effectively reduces the likelihood of conflict with a vehicle, it increases the probability of conflict with a pedestrian. Bike lanes were associated with an increase in the likelihood of a conflict with a vehicle. Decision makers should favor physically segregated and clearly marked cyclist-only facilities to ensure safe and efficient conditions for commuter cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Article
Instructor’s Rating of Driver’s Performance during an Anti-Lock Braking Exercise on a Closed-Road Course
Safety 2021, 7(3), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030062 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Rear-end crashes are a common crash scenario, which contribute to many traffic related injuries and fatalities. A performance driving center offers adult car control classes focused on defensive driving skills, which include both classroom and behind-the-wheel instruction on a closed-road course. One focus [...] Read more.
Rear-end crashes are a common crash scenario, which contribute to many traffic related injuries and fatalities. A performance driving center offers adult car control classes focused on defensive driving skills, which include both classroom and behind-the-wheel instruction on a closed-road course. One focus of the class is activation of the anti-lock braking system (ABS), which was designed to help drivers during emergency braking situations. In the classroom, participants learn what ABS is as well as how and when it functions. On the closed-road course, participants learn how to activate ABS and how the system feels when it is activated. The goal of this study was to understand how knowledge of and experience with ABS prior to the class relates to a driver’s ability to activate ABS. The participants’ ability to activate ABS was evaluated by the driving instructor using a behaviorally anchored rating scale. Participants completed a survey before and after the class to gain knowledge of and experience with ABS. The results of the study showed that participants who previously knew what ABS felt like or had prior practice/training activating ABS performed significantly better activating ABS than those who simply knew what ABS means or had previously experienced ABS activation during their first of multiple attempts. Full article
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Article
Evaluation and Analysis of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure during Soil Tillage Operation
Safety 2021, 7(3), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030061 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
This study investigated whole-body vibration (WBV) response in real field harrowing operations at different tractor ride conditions i.e., average speed, front harrow pin angle (FHPA), and rear harrow pin distance (RHPD). Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array was used to formulate a systematic design [...] Read more.
This study investigated whole-body vibration (WBV) response in real field harrowing operations at different tractor ride conditions i.e., average speed, front harrow pin angle (FHPA), and rear harrow pin distance (RHPD). Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array was used to formulate a systematic design of experiments. WBV exposure was measured along the three translational axes to compute overall daily vibration magnitude i.e., A(8). Tractor’s seat isolation capacity was assessed in terms of Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility i.e., SEAT%. Raw acceleration data was analysed to obtain dominant frequencies using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A(8) was found to range between 0.43 to 0.87 m/s2 in the experimental trials. Seat isolation capacity was found to be poor in 89% of the experiments i.e., SEAT% > 100%. Average speed and FHPA was found to have a significant impact (p ≤ 0.05) on A(8) and SEAT%. FFT response showed a range of primary and secondary dominant peaks within a frequency range of 0.2 to 11 Hz. In conclusion, the majority of experimental trials (67%) exceeded the Directive2002/44EU recommended exposure action value (EAV) limit i.e., 0.5 m/s2. The harrowing operation was found to exhibit vibration exposure at low frequencies in the vicinity of natural frequencies of the human body and may consequently affect ride comfort. Full article
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Article
Visual Perception and Understanding of Variable Message Signs: The Influence of the Drivers’ Age and Message Layout
Safety 2021, 7(3), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030060 - 28 Aug 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Variable message signs (VMS) are used to display messages providing up-to-date traffic-relevant information so that drivers can safely adapt their behavior in real time. The information reported in a VMS should be brief but comprehensive to minimize perception time. The latter can be [...] Read more.
Variable message signs (VMS) are used to display messages providing up-to-date traffic-relevant information so that drivers can safely adapt their behavior in real time. The information reported in a VMS should be brief but comprehensive to minimize perception time. The latter can be influenced by the way the message is displayed. This study investigates how the different ways of displaying the same message can influence reading time and the information perception process at different driving speeds. Specifically, the following message characteristics are investigated: (i) use of uppercase and lowercase letters; (ii) use of familiar pictograms; and (iii) use of less familiar pictograms. Furthermore, as perception time typically changes with ageing, drivers belonging to three different age classes are tested. The experimentation was performed by simulating a vehicle passing along a straight road upon which a VMS displaying different messages was placed. Experimentation results are analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Friedman rank-sum test and Welch one-way ANOVA, showing that: (i) the use of uppercase or lowercase does not seem to significantly affect reading times; (ii) the use of pictograms that are not very familiar to habitual road-users can be counterproductive for the perception process; (iii) elderly drivers always have greater difficulty in perceiving the message than young or middle-aged drivers. The findings of this study can be of help for traffic authorities to design the most suitable structure for a VMS so that its information can be unequivocally and immediately conveyed to drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour 2021)
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Article
How Just Culture and Personal Goals Moderate the Positive Relation between Commercial Pilots’ Safety Citizenship Behavior and Voluntary Incident Reporting
Safety 2021, 7(3), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030059 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Flight safety is consistently influenced by pilots’ self-inflicted incidents in routine flight operations. For airlines, pilots’ reports on these incidents are essential input to learn from incidents (LFI) and for various safety management processes. This paper aims to explain the voluntary reporting behavior [...] Read more.
Flight safety is consistently influenced by pilots’ self-inflicted incidents in routine flight operations. For airlines, pilots’ reports on these incidents are essential input to learn from incidents (LFI) and for various safety management processes. This paper aims to explain the voluntary reporting behavior of pilots’ self-inflicted incidents from an occupational safety perspective. We investigate how the relation between pilots’ safety citizenship behavior (SCB) and reporting behavior is moderated by pilots’ fear, shame, goals, and goal-striving when reporting, as well as the influence of a just culture on the decision to report incidents. In total, 202 German commercial pilots participated in an online survey. The results showed that reporting behavior can be considered a specific form of self-intentional SCB, but should be differentiated into subtypes depending on a pilot’s unsafe acts (errors or violations) that caused the incident. Reporting behavior-specific motivational factors influenced different subtypes of reporting behavior: Just culture moderated a positive relation between SCB and reported incidents caused by violations. Moreover, depending on the subtype of reporting behavior, the relation was moderated by different types of goals in relation to the pilots. No moderating effects of fear or shame could be demonstrated. Our findings highlight the value of a just culture for encouraging goal-oriented reporting behavior in the context of LFI and safety management. Full article
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Article
How Does Selective Reporting Distort Understanding of Workplace Injuries?
Safety 2021, 7(3), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030058 - 08 Aug 2021
Viewed by 810
Abstract
This study introduces and applies a new method for studying under-reporting of injuries. This method, “one-to-one injury matching”, involves locating and comparing individual incidents within company and insurer recording systems. Using this method gives a detailed measure of the difference in injuries recognised [...] Read more.
This study introduces and applies a new method for studying under-reporting of injuries. This method, “one-to-one injury matching”, involves locating and comparing individual incidents within company and insurer recording systems. Using this method gives a detailed measure of the difference in injuries recognised as “work-related” by the insurer, and injuries classified as “recordable” by the company. This includes differences in the volume of injuries, as well as in the nature of the injuries. Applying this method to an energy company shows that only 19% of injuries recognised by the insurer were recognised by the company as recordable incidents. The method also demonstrates where claiming behaviour and claims management have created systematic biases in the disposition of incidents. Such biases result in an inaccurate picture of the severity and nature of incidents, over-estimating strike injuries such as to the hand, and underestimating chronic and exertion injuries such as to the back. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Instruments for Evaluating and Measuring Safety)
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Article
“Just One Short Voice Message”—Comparing the Effects of Text- vs. Voice-Based Answering to Text Messages via Smartphone on Young Drivers’ Driving Performances
Safety 2021, 7(3), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030057 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Despite the well-known distracting effects, many drivers still engage in phone use, especially texting and especially among young drivers, with new emerging messaging modes. The present study aims to examine the effects of different answering modes on driving performance. Twenty-four students (12 females), [...] Read more.
Despite the well-known distracting effects, many drivers still engage in phone use, especially texting and especially among young drivers, with new emerging messaging modes. The present study aims to examine the effects of different answering modes on driving performance. Twenty-four students (12 females), aged between 19 and 25 years (M = 20.83, SD = 1.53), volunteered for the study. They accomplished the Lane Change Task (LCT) with baseline and dual-task runs in a driving simulator. In dual-task runs, participants answered text messages on a smartphone by voice or text message with varying task complexity. Driving performance was measured by lane deviation (LCT) and subjective measures (NASA-TLX). Across all trials, driving performance deteriorated during dual-task runs compared with the baseline runs, and subjective demand increased. Analysis of dual-task runs showed a benefit for voice-based answering to received text messages that leveled off in the complex task. All in all, the benefits of using voice-based answering in comparison with text-based answering were found regarding driving performance and subjective measures. Nevertheless, this benefit was mostly lost in the complex task, and both the driving performance and the demand measured in the baseline conditions could not be reached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver Behavior Safety Research in Road Transportation)
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Article
Analysis of the Safety Resilience Implementation in the Maritime Industry at Public and Private Companies (A Case Study in Indonesia)
Safety 2021, 7(3), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030056 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
(1) Background: The resilience concept shows performance improvement in four potential aspects consisting of the ability to respond, provide anticipatory action, control things that occur internally and externally, as well as the learning process of what is going right and what is going [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The resilience concept shows performance improvement in four potential aspects consisting of the ability to respond, provide anticipatory action, control things that occur internally and externally, as well as the learning process of what is going right and what is going wrong. This study aims to analyze the safety resilience implementation in the Indonesian maritime sector. (2) Method: This is a descriptive study using semi-quantitative methods, using interview guides based on the Resilience Assessment Grid (RAG). The sampling technique is purposive sampling. (3) Results: The level of implementation of safety resilience at the public company was 75.1%, while the private company was 70.2%. The score for each safety resilience element in the public and private companies are as follows: the ability to respond (80%), learning ability (74.62%), monitoring ability (70.77%), and the ability to anticipate (66.92%). (4) Conclusion: The safety resilience implementation in Indonesian sea transportation shipping has not been optimal in implementing the safety resilience concept. The focus of implementing safety is still on preventing and controlling accidents. The other orientation of ability improvement in the safety resilience concept has not been implemented. Full article
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Article
Masculine Gender Norms and Adverse Workplace Safety Outcomes: The Role of Sexual Orientation and Risky Safety Behaviors
Safety 2021, 7(3), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030055 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 802
Abstract
The current study tested the proposition that higher conformity to masculine gender norms (CMGN) is associated with increased safety risk-taking behaviors, which in turn are related to more accidents, injuries, and higher levels of accident underreporting. Additionally, we proposed that sexual minority status [...] Read more.
The current study tested the proposition that higher conformity to masculine gender norms (CMGN) is associated with increased safety risk-taking behaviors, which in turn are related to more accidents, injuries, and higher levels of accident underreporting. Additionally, we proposed that sexual minority status would exacerbate the relationship between conformity to masculine gender norms and safety risk-taking behaviors. Using two-wave lagged survey data obtained from N = 403 working adults, findings supported the proposed moderated-mediation model. High conformity to masculine gender norms was associated with increased safety risk-taking behaviors, accidents, injuries, and accident underreporting. Moreover, the relationship between CMGN and safety-risk-taking behaviors was stronger among homosexual men compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Additionally, safety risk-taking behaviors mediated the relationship between CMGN and safety outcomes. Finally, this indirect effect was stronger among homosexual men. Combined, these findings suggest that CMGN adversely impacts employee safety outcomes via safety-related risk-taking. We discuss these implications as well as the need for interventions designed to decrease risk taking behaviors in light of CMGN, particularly among sexual minorities. Full article
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Article
Investigating the Dietary Habits of Male Irish Farmers to Prevent Mortality and Morbidity
Safety 2021, 7(3), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030054 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Excess mortality and morbidity among Irish farmers from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been linked to a range of occupational risk factors. Obesity is a key risk factor underpinning this excess burden and unhealthy eating habits are linked to overweight/obesity and to disease occurrence. [...] Read more.
Excess mortality and morbidity among Irish farmers from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been linked to a range of occupational risk factors. Obesity is a key risk factor underpinning this excess burden and unhealthy eating habits are linked to overweight/obesity and to disease occurrence. This study investigated the dietary habits of a sub-group of Irish male farmers and explored how these might potentially impact on health outcomes. Cross-sectional survey research was undertaken using self-reported quantitative data, based on convenience sampling and a 24-h food re-call survey. Data were analysed using frequency and chi-square analysis. Where possible, findings were compared to national survey data for Irish males. Findings revealed that a high proportion of farmers were overweight or obese and that dietary habits consisted of low intake of fruit, vegetables, and dairy and a high intake of meat, fried and processed foods, salt, and sugary and/or salty snacks. Younger farmers reported a significantly higher intake of processed meats; however, no associations were found between age, lifestyle behaviours, and dietary habits. The findings provide a greater understanding of how dietary habits potentially contribute to poorer health outcomes among farmers and underline the need for health promotion interventions, including healthy eating campaigns, aimed at farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Safety)
Article
The Relationship between the Elapsed Time from the Onset of Red Signal until Its Violation and Traffic Accident Occurrence in Abu Dhabi, UAE
Safety 2021, 7(3), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030053 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Few studies have been carried out in UAE relating red light violations to a number of factors, such as speed limit violations, geometric design of the intersection, and the elapsed time from the onset of red signal until the time of the violation [...] Read more.
Few studies have been carried out in UAE relating red light violations to a number of factors, such as speed limit violations, geometric design of the intersection, and the elapsed time from the onset of red signal until the time of the violation to the occurrence of the accident. This study bridges this gap by attempting to investigate the relationship between the elapsed time from the onset of red signal and the occurrence of the accident. To achieve this objective, Poisson’s regression, between occurrence of accident and elapsed time from the onset of red signal and the occurrence of the accident at various geometric designs of intersections (3-leg and 4-leg), was carried out. The research found that at 4-leg intersections, almost all red light violation related accidents occur between 1 to 2 s from onset of red light until its violation time. The research also showed that at 3-leg intersections, most of red light violation related accidents occur in less than 1 s from the onset of red light until violation time. It was also found that at lead lag signalized intersections, regardless of the type of the intersection, most accidents tend to occur between 2 to 3 s from the onset of red light. Full article
Article
Safety Climate and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Investigation on Safety Perceptions among Farmers in Italy
Safety 2021, 7(3), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030052 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
The diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated numerous interventions aimed at reducing the contagion by means of specific prevention measures, also characterized by stricter occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures at the workplace. To better understand how this novel working context has [...] Read more.
The diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated numerous interventions aimed at reducing the contagion by means of specific prevention measures, also characterized by stricter occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures at the workplace. To better understand how this novel working context has impacted on farmers’ safety behavior and attitude, a safety climate assessment was carried out by means of the Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50), which was augmented to include specific items related to the modifications of working conditions due to COVID-19. This allowed us to analyze changes in safety climate perceptions, pointing out worker-manager discrepancies in safety behavior and attitude. Additionally, the COVID-19 questionnaire contributed to analyzing the effects of the specific OHS measures due to the pandemic from the workers’ standpoint. Results showed that concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic have augmented the attention paid to OHS, demonstrating a correlation between the safety climate dimensions and the OHS measures due to COVID-19. Besides, farmers’ risk-taking behavior and attitude appeared still critical, highlighting the need for more specific and contextual interventions in terms of safety information and training. Overall, this study aims to expand knowledge on shared safety awareness and perceptions in the COVID-19 period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Safety Culture)
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Article
Farm Suicides in Wisconsin, 2017–2018: Preliminary Findings and a Call for Future Research
Safety 2021, 7(3), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030051 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Studies across the last few decades have consistently found farmers and farmworkers at an elevated risk of death by suicide compared to other occupational groups in the United States. Still, there is currently no comprehensive national surveillance system for agricultural-related injuries or suicides. [...] Read more.
Studies across the last few decades have consistently found farmers and farmworkers at an elevated risk of death by suicide compared to other occupational groups in the United States. Still, there is currently no comprehensive national surveillance system for agricultural-related injuries or suicides. For this study, we analyzed Wisconsin death certificate data from 2017 and 2018 to identify the burden of suicide among farmers and farmworkers. In 2017 and 2018, 44 farm-related suicides were identified, or 14.3 per 100,000 farmers and farmworkers. The median age of victims was 51.5 ± 20, and six (13.6%) were female. As these suicide cases were cross-checked, we found that none were identifiable solely from previously published news media or obituaries, indicating: (1) a clear need for a multi-sourced suicide data approach and inter-agency collaborations for future research, and (2) the need for a deeper investigation into the reporting of farm-related suicides. These data are necessary for informing state and local level policy, resource prioritization, and the evaluation of intervention efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Safety)
Article
Uncertainty Modelling in Metamodels for Fire Risk Analysis
Safety 2021, 7(3), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7030050 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
In risk-related research of fire safety engineering, metamodels are often applied to approximate the results of complex fire and evacuation simulations. This approximation may cause epistemic uncertainties, and the inherent uncertainties of evacuation simulations may lead to aleatory uncertainties. However, neither the epistemic [...] Read more.
In risk-related research of fire safety engineering, metamodels are often applied to approximate the results of complex fire and evacuation simulations. This approximation may cause epistemic uncertainties, and the inherent uncertainties of evacuation simulations may lead to aleatory uncertainties. However, neither the epistemic ‘metamodel uncertainty’ nor the aleatory ‘inherent uncertainty’ have been included in the results of the metamodels for fire safety engineering. For this reason, this paper presents a metamodel that includes metamodel uncertainty and inherent uncertainty in the results of a risk analysis. This metamodel is based on moving least squares; the metamodel uncertainty is derived from the prediction interval. The inherent uncertainty is modelled with an original approach, directly using all replications of evacuation scenarios without the assumption of a specific probability distribution. This generic metamodel was applied on a case study risk analysis of a road tunnel and showed high accuracy. It was found that metamodel uncertainty and inherent uncertainty have clear effects on the results of the risk analysis, which makes their consideration important. Full article
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