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Volume 1, June

Allergies, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This figure shows the possible mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy. Allergen immunotherapy induces T regs or Th1 cells and suppresses Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. It also induces allergen-specific IgG4 and suppresses allergen-specific IgE. The yellow text indicates potential biomarkers for allergen immunotherapy. DAO, diamine oxidase; ELIFAB, enzyme-linked immunosorbent facilitated antigen-binding; FAB, facilitated allergen binding. View this paper.
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Article
IgE-Binding Epitopes of Pis v 1, Pis v 2 and Pis v 3, the Pistachio (Pistacia vera) Seed Allergens
Allergies 2021, 1(1), 63-91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1010006 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Sequential IgE-binding epitopes were identified on the molecular surface of the Pis v 1 (2S albumin), Pis v 2 (11S globulin/legumin) and Pis v 3 (7S globulin/vicilin)—major allergens from pistachio (Pistacia vera) seeds—using the Spot technique. They essentially consist of hydrophilic [...] Read more.
Sequential IgE-binding epitopes were identified on the molecular surface of the Pis v 1 (2S albumin), Pis v 2 (11S globulin/legumin) and Pis v 3 (7S globulin/vicilin)—major allergens from pistachio (Pistacia vera) seeds—using the Spot technique. They essentially consist of hydrophilic and electropositively charged residues well exposed on the surface of the allergens. Most of the epitopic regions identified on Pis v 1 and Pis v 3 do not coincide with the putative N-glycosylation sites and thus are not considered as glycotopes. Surface analysis of these epitopic regions indicates a high degree of conformational similarity with the previously identified epitopic regions of the corresponding allergens Ana o 1 (vicilin), Ana o 2 (legumin) and Ana o 3 (2S albumin) from the cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut. These results offer a molecular basis for the IgE-binding cross-reactivity often observed between pistachio and cashew nut. They support the recommendation for prescribing pistachio avoidance in cashew allergic patients. Other conformational similarities were identified with the corresponding allergens Ses i 1 (2S albumin), Ses i 3 (vicilin) and Ses i 6 (legumin) from sesame (Sesamum indicum), and Jug r 1 (2S albumin), Jug r 2 (vicilin) and Jug r 4 (legumin) from walnut (Juglans regia). Conversely, conformation of most of the epitopic regions of the pistachio allergens often differs from that of epitopes occurring on the molecular surface of the corresponding Ara h 1 (vicilin), Ara h 2 (2S albumin) and Ara h 3 (legumin) allergens from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Full article
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Review
Surgical Treatment for the Refractory Allergic Rhinitis: State of the Art
Allergies 2021, 1(1), 48-62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1010005 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Nasal obstruction is a frequent disorder that interferes with the daily patient’s quality of life. The key element in the pathophysiology of the disorder is the inferior turbinate hypertrophy related to multiple conditions such as allergic rhinitis (AR). Many patients are managed using [...] Read more.
Nasal obstruction is a frequent disorder that interferes with the daily patient’s quality of life. The key element in the pathophysiology of the disorder is the inferior turbinate hypertrophy related to multiple conditions such as allergic rhinitis (AR). Many patients are managed using conventional drug therapies such as antihistamines, decongestants, and intranasal steroid sprays, anticholinergic agents, mast cell stabilizers, and desensitizing vaccines. When traditional therapy failed to relieve AR symptoms, surgical inferior turbinate reduction (ITR) is indicated. A vast variety of surgical techniques have been reported in the literature for AR such as resectioning, coagulating, and laser procedures. We aimed to revise all surgical options in AR management. We confirm that no ideal standard technique for turbinate reduction has been developed so far regarding the multitude of different surgical procedures. Furthermore, no prospective and comparable long-term studies are present in the literature; it is challenging to recommend evidence-based surgical techniques. Full article
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Editorial
Why a New Journal on Allergies?
Allergies 2021, 1(1), 46-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1010004 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The new journal’s title Allergies (ISSN 2313-5786) answers the titular question because among all the existing journals devoted to allergies, few pretend to be exhaustive and cover all possible aspects of allergology [...] Full article
Review
Role of Allergen Immunotherapy in Asthma Treatment and Asthma Development
Allergies 2021, 1(1), 33-45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1010003 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Allergen immunotherapy may modify the natural course of allergic diseases and induce remission. It includes subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). For asthma, allergen immunotherapy using house dust mite (HDM) improves clinical symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness and decreases drug requirements. Furthermore, it [...] Read more.
Allergen immunotherapy may modify the natural course of allergic diseases and induce remission. It includes subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). For asthma, allergen immunotherapy using house dust mite (HDM) improves clinical symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness and decreases drug requirements. Furthermore, it has been suggested that allergen immunotherapy also has the following effects: (1) the effect can be maintained for more than a year even if the treatment is terminated, (2) the remission rate of childhood asthma can be increased, (3) new allergen sensitization can be suppressed, and (4) asthma development can be prevented if allergen immunotherapy was performed in the case of pollinosis. Allergen immunotherapy differs from conventional drug therapy, in particular the effect of modifying the natural course of allergic diseases and the effect of controlling complicated allergic diseases such as rhinoconjunctivitis. The general indication for HDM-SCIT in asthma is HDM-sensitized atopic asthma with mild-to-moderate disease and normal respiratory function. HDM allergens should be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and a duration of illness of less than 10 years is desirable. HDM-SLIT is available for allergic rhinitis but not for asthma in Japan. However, as the efficacy of SLIT for asthma has been fully proven internationally, SLIT is also applied in asthmatics with complicated allergic rhinitis in Japan. Full article
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Article
Distinct Animal Food Allergens Form IgE-Binding Amyloids
Allergies 2021, 1(1), 22-32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1010002 - 06 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Several animal food allergens assemble into amyloids under gastric-like environments. These aggregated structures provide Gad m 1 with an enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) interaction due to the fibrillation of the epitope regions. However, whether these properties are unique to Gad m 1 or [...] Read more.
Several animal food allergens assemble into amyloids under gastric-like environments. These aggregated structures provide Gad m 1 with an enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) interaction due to the fibrillation of the epitope regions. However, whether these properties are unique to Gad m 1 or shared by other food allergens has not yet been addressed. Using Bos d 5, Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 as allergen models and Gad m 1 as the control, aggregation reactions and the sera of milk, egg and fish allergic patients have been analyzed, assessing the IgE interactions of their amyloids. We found that amyloids formed by Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 full-length and truncated chains are recognized by the IgEs of milk and egg allergic patient sera. As with Gad m 1, in most cases amyloid recognition is higher than that of the native structure. Bos d 5 was not recognized under any fold by the IgE of the sera studied. These results suggest that the formation of IgE-binding amyloids could be a common feature to animal food allergens. Full article
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Review
The Global Rise and the Complexity of Sesame Allergy: Prime Time to Regulate Sesame in the United States of America?
Allergies 2021, 1(1), 1-21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1010001 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Sesame allergy is a life-threatening disease that has been growing globally with poorly understood mechanisms. To protect sensitive consumers, sesame is regulated in many countries. There were four research goals for this work on sesame allergy: (i) to map the timeline, and the [...] Read more.
Sesame allergy is a life-threatening disease that has been growing globally with poorly understood mechanisms. To protect sensitive consumers, sesame is regulated in many countries. There were four research goals for this work on sesame allergy: (i) to map the timeline, and the extent of its global rise; (ii) to dissect the complexity of the disease, and its mechanisms; (iii) to analyze the global regulation of sesame; and (iv) to map the directions for future research and regulation. We performed a literature search on PubMed and Google Scholar, using combinations of key words and analyzed the output. Regulatory information was obtained from the government agencies. Information relevant to the above goals was used to make interpretations. We found that: (i) the reports appeared first in 1950s, and then rapidly rose globally from 1990s; (ii) sesame contains protein and lipid allergens, a unique feature not found in other allergenic foods; (iii) it is linked to five types of diseases with understudied mechanisms; and (iv) it is a regulated allergen in 32 advanced countries excluding the USA. We also provide directions for filling gaps in the research and identify implications of possible regulation of sesame in the USA. Full article
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