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Allergies, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Humans connect with the natural world through the immune interface of mucous membranes. Pollen, dust, pollutants, and other particulate matter can, therefore, cause severe types of asthma, especially in children. Although its prevalence has increased rapidly in the industrialized world, a cure for asthma remains elusive, even if new biologic-based drugs purport to decrease asthmatic exacerbations as well as treat comorbid obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rapid and precise evaluation of this nascent class of therapeutics will provide a roadmap to relief through customized therapy while emerging technologies, such as deep sequencing and -omics, promise a wealth of biomolecular information that may prove crucial in detailing both the pathogenesis of, and curative treatment for, asthma. View this paper.
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Review
Overview of Beta-Lactam Allergy and the Role of the Pharmacist in Management
Allergies 2021, 1(2), 128-136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1020011 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Unverified beta-lactam allergies are a substantial public health problem, as the majority of patients labeled as beta-lactam allergic do not have clinically significant allergies that may hinder the use beta-lactam therapy when indicated. Outdated or inaccurate beta-lactam or penicillin allergies can result in [...] Read more.
Unverified beta-lactam allergies are a substantial public health problem, as the majority of patients labeled as beta-lactam allergic do not have clinically significant allergies that may hinder the use beta-lactam therapy when indicated. Outdated or inaccurate beta-lactam or penicillin allergies can result in serious consequences, including suboptimal antibiotic therapy, increased risk of adverse effects, and use of broader spectrum antibiotics than indicated, which may contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of beta-lactam allergy and highlight the role of pharmacists in managing beta-lactam allergies. Studies have shown that pharmacists can play a vital role in allergy assessment, penicillin skin testing, beta-lactam desensitization, evaluation of beta-lactam cross-reactivity and recommending appropriate antibiotic therapy in patients with beta-lactam allergies. Full article
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Article
Occupational Methacrylate Allergy in Dental Personnel
Allergies 2021, 1(2), 123-127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1020010 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Purpose of the article: Acrylate and methacrylate (MA) use in the dental industry is widespread, being utilized in dental prostheses and composite resins, dentin bonding materials, and glass ionomers. However, occupational methacrylate allergy in dental personnel is a growing phenomenon. The aims of [...] Read more.
Purpose of the article: Acrylate and methacrylate (MA) use in the dental industry is widespread, being utilized in dental prostheses and composite resins, dentin bonding materials, and glass ionomers. However, occupational methacrylate allergy in dental personnel is a growing phenomenon. The aims of this retrospective observational study are to evaluate the risk of occupational contact dermatitis following exposure to methacrylates in dental personnel and to identify possible preventive measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 126 subjects exposed to acrylic and methacrylic resins in their professional context and who reported clinical manifestations were included from our outpatient department database. These were subdivided into two groups: 81 dental technicians and 45 dental hygienists. All the subjects had undergone patch testing with a “methacrylate series” (FIRMA) and readings were taken after 2 days (D2), 4 days (D4), and 7 days (D7). Results: A significantly higher incidence of methacrylate allergy was found in the dental technician group compared to the dental hygienists. Among the dental technicians, 40.7% of the subjects presented skin manifestations. The hands were the most frequently affected sites. Conclusion: Our results confirm the high sensitizing potential of MA in the workplace for dental personnel and in particular an increased professional risk in work where the hands are directly involved (dental technicians). Patch testing as an integrated part of a screening tray is needed for a complete evaluation of occupational skin allergy due to MA in dental personnel. The adoption of proper primary preventive measures, including gloves, protective eyewear, face shields, and disposable gowns, can be useful in preventing new cases of contact dermatitis, which may lead to a change of occupation in dental personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergies Specifically Dedicated to Allergic Contact Dermatitis)
Review
Allergic Food Sensitization and Disease Manifestation in the Fetus and Infant: A Perspective
Allergies 2021, 1(2), 115-122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1020009 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Even though allergic disease is identified in the first year of life, it is often in a less forward fashion, with elements of a wait and see approach. If the infant does not have an anaphylactic food reaction, other less dramatic allergic phenomenon [...] Read more.
Even though allergic disease is identified in the first year of life, it is often in a less forward fashion, with elements of a wait and see approach. If the infant does not have an anaphylactic food reaction, other less dramatic allergic phenomenon is often under-emphasized, waiting for additional concerns. We approached this with a conception to first conduct birthday surveys, attempting to link intrauterine and peri-birth circumstances to affect better allergy recognition in young infants. Full article
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Review
House Dust Mite Allergy and the Der p1 Conundrum: A Literature Review and Case Series
Allergies 2021, 1(2), 108-114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1020008 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The house dust mite (HDM) is globally ubiquitous in human habitats. Thirty-two allergens for Dermatophagoides farinae and 21 for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus have been detected so far. The present minireview summarizes information about the role of Der p 1 as a key coordinator of [...] Read more.
The house dust mite (HDM) is globally ubiquitous in human habitats. Thirty-two allergens for Dermatophagoides farinae and 21 for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus have been detected so far. The present minireview summarizes information about the role of Der p 1 as a key coordinator of the HDM-induced allergic response and reports on a series of Italian patients who are allergic to HDMs. We studied the specific IgE profiles in a population of patients with allergic asthma and rhinitis screened for specific immunotherapy (SIT) for HDM allergies, with the aim of obtaining insights into the pathogenic role of Der p1. Patients co-sensitized to other airborne allergens showed a higher prevalence of asthma (9/12 (75%) vs. 2/7 (29%); p < 0.05) than did HDM mono-sensitized patients. The latter group showed higher Der p1 concentrations than that of the co-sensitized group (p = 0.0360), and a direct correlation between Der p1 and Der p2 (r = 0.93; p = 0.0003) was observed. In conclusion, our study offers insights into the role of Der p1 in a population of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma who were candidates for SIT. Interestingly, Der p1 positivity was associated with bronchial asthma and co-sensitization. Full article
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Review
Biologic Treatments for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder
Allergies 2021, 1(2), 92-107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1020007 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The global COVID-19 pandemic has brought respiratory disease to the forefront of public health, but asthma prevalence has been rising globally for decades. Asthma is mediated by errant immune activation and airway remodeling, but the influences of environment, nutrition, and comorbidities (e.g., asthma-chronic [...] Read more.
The global COVID-19 pandemic has brought respiratory disease to the forefront of public health, but asthma prevalence has been rising globally for decades. Asthma is mediated by errant immune activation and airway remodeling, but the influences of environment, nutrition, and comorbidities (e.g., asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder-overlap [ACO]) are still poorly understood. Even as a new generation of biologic-based treatments offer better airway control and reductions in mortality, a lack of prophylactic treatments and mechanistic understanding complicates efforts to prevent pathogenesis. This review will explicate and synthesize current knowledge on the effect of ACO and biologics (omalizumab, mepolizumab, reslizumab, benralizumab, and dupilumab) on pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Asthma/Respiratory)
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