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Allergies, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Nuts contain several proteins that are responsible for allergic reactions in sensitized subjects. Nut allergenic proteins are characterized by their resistance to denaturation and proteolysis. Food processing is proposed as a tool to modify the allergenicity of nuts through abolishing existing epitopes or generating neoallergens. As some processing treatments are shown to decrease the allergenicity of certain foods, food processing may play an important role in developing hypoallergenic foods for use in food tolerance induction. This work provides an updated overview on how conventional and novel processing methods influence the immunoreactive potency of allergenic proteins in the most frequently consumed nuts: hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, almonds and walnuts. View this paper.
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Article
Concordance of Skin Prick Test, Intradermal Testing, Serum IgE Levels and Symptoms in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 181-194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1030017 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Background: Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is achieved by a combination of patient history and different screening tools, followed by specific provocation testing. Screening tools usually involve a skin prick test (SPT), specific serum IgE or a combination of both. Objective: The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background: Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is achieved by a combination of patient history and different screening tools, followed by specific provocation testing. Screening tools usually involve a skin prick test (SPT), specific serum IgE or a combination of both. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of SPT, intradermal testing and specific serum IgE testing in certain allergens and to evaluate sensitization rates, symptom patterns and time of symptoms in a cohort of patients with suspected allergic rhinitis. Methods: Data on 4653 patients with suspected allergic rhinitis were included and divided into five groups: spring bloomers (birch, hazel, etc.), summer bloomers (grasses and rye), autumn bloomers (ribwort and mugwort), mites and mold. Correlation of SPT, intradermal testing and specific IgE test results using Cohen’s kappa and logistic regression were carried out to evaluate the probability of symptoms. Results: Comparison of SPT and specific serum IgE led to kappa coefficients between 0.33 and 0.47, corresponding to a minor to moderate concordance. Comparing the symptoms reported by patients with sensitization diagnosed by SPT, a correlation was only found for spring and summer bloomers with an odds ratio of 1.5 and 2.1, respectively. The most prevalent symptom in the study cohort was rhinitis, followed by others such as asthma, sense of smell and atopic dermatitis. Conclusions: SPT seems to be more sensitive than specific IgE for detection of sensitization. Patients’ symptoms as well as the timing of symptoms, especially for perennial allergies, are not always very pronounced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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Case Report
Chronic Cough as the Presenting Symptom of Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 176-180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1030016 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
A 14-year-old male initially presented to the Emergency Department (ED) for a chronic, persistent cough and chest pain with concurrent history of asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). He had been trialed on several medications before this visit for cough, without resolution of [...] Read more.
A 14-year-old male initially presented to the Emergency Department (ED) for a chronic, persistent cough and chest pain with concurrent history of asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). He had been trialed on several medications before this visit for cough, without resolution of symptoms. Despite seeing several specialists after this ED visit and being evaluated for infectious causes and other pulmonary issues, he was eventually found to have eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). It is not often that EoE is suspected based on cough alone, but with other GERD-like symptoms EoE should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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Article
Effects of Syo-seiryu-to and Its Constituent Crude Drugs on Phorbol Ester-Induced Up-Regulation of IL-33 and Histamine H1 Receptor mRNAs in Swiss 3T3 and HeLa Cells
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 163-175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1030015 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Syo-seiryu-to (SST) is a traditional herbal medicine that has been used clinically to treat allergic rhinitis (AR) in Japan. SST improves acute symptoms, such as sneezing and rhinorrhea, as well as chronic symptoms, such as nasal obstruction, in patients with AR. However, its [...] Read more.
Syo-seiryu-to (SST) is a traditional herbal medicine that has been used clinically to treat allergic rhinitis (AR) in Japan. SST improves acute symptoms, such as sneezing and rhinorrhea, as well as chronic symptoms, such as nasal obstruction, in patients with AR. However, its therapeutic mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the effects of SST and eight constituent crude drugs on phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced gene up-regulation of IL-33 and histamine H1 receptor (H1R), which are responsible for the pathogenesis of AR. We found that SST and its crude drugs, except for Pinellia tuber, significantly and dose-dependently suppressed PMA-induced both IL-33 and H1R mRNA up-regulation in vitro. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of the seven crude drugs to inhibit PMA-induced IL-33 mRNA up-regulation were correlated with those related to H1R mRNA up-regulation, suggesting that they act on a common signal molecule. These results suggest that SST improves nasal congestion that is induced by IL-33-related eosinophil infiltration and inhibits sneezing and rhinorrhea that are induced by H1R-mediated histamine signaling in the nasal mucosa of AR patients through its inhibition of a common molecule in the gene expression pathways of IL-33 and H1R. The results could explain the advantages of traditional herbal medicine, in which mixing various crude drugs not only acts on a common target to enhance its pharmacological action, similar to the effect of a high concentration of a single crude extract but also has the benefit of reducing the side effects of each crude drug. Full article
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Review
Nut Allergenicity: Effect of Food Processing
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 150-162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1030014 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Nuts are considered healthy foods due to their high content of nutritional compounds with functional properties. However, the list of the most allergenic foods includes tree nuts, and their presence must be indicated on food labels. Most nut allergens are seed storage proteins, [...] Read more.
Nuts are considered healthy foods due to their high content of nutritional compounds with functional properties. However, the list of the most allergenic foods includes tree nuts, and their presence must be indicated on food labels. Most nut allergens are seed storage proteins, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, profilins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Nut allergenic proteins are characterized by their resistance to denaturation and proteolysis. Food processing has been proposed as the method of choice to alter the allergenicity of foods to ensure their safety and improve their organoleptic properties. The effect of processing on allergenicity is variable by abolishing existing epitopes or generating neoallergens. The alterations depend on the intrinsic characteristics of the protein and the type and duration of treatment. Many studies have evaluated the molecular changes induced by processes such as thermal, pressure or enzymatic treatments. As some processing treatments have been shown to decrease the allergenicity of certain foods, food processing may play an important role in developing hypoallergenic foods and using them for food tolerance induction. This work provides an updated overview of the applications and influence of several processing techniques (thermal, pressure and enzymatic digestion) on nut allergenicity for nuts, namely, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, almonds and walnuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Processing for Food Allergies)
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Article
Serum Concentrations of Antigen-Specific IgG4 in Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 140-149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1030013 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Purpose: To elucidate the usefulness of Japanese cedar pollen (JCP)-specific antigen-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) 4 as a biomarker for predicting the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for cedar pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Methods: We divided a total of 105 cases with Japanese cedar pollinosis into three [...] Read more.
Purpose: To elucidate the usefulness of Japanese cedar pollen (JCP)-specific antigen-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) 4 as a biomarker for predicting the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for cedar pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Methods: We divided a total of 105 cases with Japanese cedar pollinosis into three groups: “SLIT Successful,” SLIT Unsatisfactory,” and “SCIT” groups. The SLIT group patients were treated with JCP Droplet (Torii Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for one year from 2015 and were divided into two groups, the SLIT Successful group or the SLIT Unsatisfactory group. The SLIT Successful group (n = 16) were subjects treated by SLIT only, who were able to experience control of their naso-ocular symptoms without the need for antiallergic rescue agents during the peak season of atmospheric pollen. The SLIT Unsatisfactory group (n = 76) comprised subjects treated with SLIT only, who did not respond successfully, and were administered with rescue agents to control their naso-ocular symptoms. The SCIT group had been treated with standardized JCP extract (Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for three years from 2012, and were also able to experience control of their symptoms during the peak pollen season without the need for antiallergic rescue agents. We determined the serum level of JCP-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG, and IgG4 used in the 3gAllergy-specific IgE assay (3gAllergy). The serum levels of periostin and SCCA2 were measured using established ELISA procedures (clones SS18A and SS17B; Shino-Test, Japan) following the manufacturer’s instructions. We then made ROC curves for each group and assessed which index was best able to predict the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy. Results: Serum JCP-specific IgE was significantly lower in the SCIT group than in the SLIT Successful group and the SLIT Unsatisfactory group (p < 0.05). Serum JCP-specific IgG was significantly higher in the SCIT group and the SLIT Successful group than in the SLIT Unsatisfactory group (p < 0.05). Serum JCP-specific IgG4 was also significantly higher in the SCIT group and the SLIT Successful group than in the SLIT Unsatisfactory group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference among serum levels of periostin in the SCIT group, the SLIT Successful group, or the SLIT Unsatisfactory group. There was also no significant difference in SCCA2 among the three groups. In terms of ROC curves, a serum JCP-specific IgG4 value greater than 989.5 UA/mL showed the best sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (94.7%) (p < 0.05) among other parameters. Conclusions: The serum JCP-specific IgG4 level is significantly correlated with the clinical efficacy of SLIT. Serum JCP-specific IgG4 cutoff levels greater than 989.5 UA/mL were correlated with an effective clinical response to SLIT, with a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 94.7%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Allergic Rhinitis)
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Case Report
A Peculiar Case of Allergic Granulomatous Reaction to Red Pigment: A Tattoo Touch-Up Treated Surgically
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 137-139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1030012 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
This case report describes a 50-year-old woman who developed an allergic granulomatous reaction after a tattoo touch-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergies Specifically Dedicated to Allergic Contact Dermatitis)
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