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Allergies, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 4 articles

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Review
Contact Dermatitis in Nail Cosmetics
Allergies 2021, 1(4), 225-232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1040021 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Many ingredients found within nail cosmetic products are capable of sensitizing patients’ immune systems and causing contact dermatitis (CD). These include but are not limited to tosylamide, (meth)acrylates, and formaldehyde. A clear temporal relationship between nail cosmetic procedures and an eczematous outbreak on [...] Read more.
Many ingredients found within nail cosmetic products are capable of sensitizing patients’ immune systems and causing contact dermatitis (CD). These include but are not limited to tosylamide, (meth)acrylates, and formaldehyde. A clear temporal relationship between nail cosmetic procedures and an eczematous outbreak on the hands, face, or other ectopic body regions can be a key indicator of CD secondary to nail cosmetic exposure. Once an inciting allergen is identified through patch testing, elimination and avoidance becomes a mainstay of treatment alongside the use of emollients and topical anti-inflammatory therapies. Patients should be counselled to approach future nail cosmetic products and procedures with caution and careful attention to ingredients, regardless of whether or not it has a “hypoallergenic” label. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergies Specifically Dedicated to Allergic Contact Dermatitis)
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Article
Nasal Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Exacerbates Allergic Rhinitis through Th2 Cytokine Production from Mast Cells
Allergies 2021, 1(4), 216-224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1040020 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Background: Microbial infection or exposure to endotoxin later in life exacerbates established asthma. Mast cells are involved in the exacerbation of asthma. This exacerbation involves a toll-like receptor (TLR)–mediated response of mast cells. In the clinical practice of otolaryngology, otolaryngologists experience an exacerbation [...] Read more.
Background: Microbial infection or exposure to endotoxin later in life exacerbates established asthma. Mast cells are involved in the exacerbation of asthma. This exacerbation involves a toll-like receptor (TLR)–mediated response of mast cells. In the clinical practice of otolaryngology, otolaryngologists experience an exacerbation of nasal congestion when infectious rhinitis develops in patients with allergic rhinitis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on allergic rhinitis using a mouse allergic rhinitis model. Methods: Female BALB/c mice, TLR4 gene mutant C3H/HeJ mice or mast cell–deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum, and were intranasal challenged with OVA and/or LPS. Nasal symptoms and histologic changes were examined. Cytokines in nasal tissue were examined by Western blot. The effects of LPS on degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) were investigated. Results: Nasal administration of LPS together with the antigen exacerbated nasal symptoms, eosinophil infiltration of the nasal mucosa, and increased IL-5 production in the nasal mucosa. It was not observed in C3H/HeJ mice and WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. The addition of LPS increased the production of IL-5 from BMMCs in a dose-dependent manner, but no effect on degranulation was observed. Conclusions: Intranasal administration of LPS exacerbates allergic rhinitis through Th2 cytokine production from mast cells. This observation provides clues to the mechanism of exacerbation of allergic rhinitis caused by an infection in daily clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Allergic Rhinitis)
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Review
Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva
Allergies 2021, 1(4), 206-215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1040019 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
The vulvar area is a common site of both irritative and allergic contact dermatitis due to the thin skin, easily traversable by irritant and allergic substances. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the most frequent allergens causing contact [...] Read more.
The vulvar area is a common site of both irritative and allergic contact dermatitis due to the thin skin, easily traversable by irritant and allergic substances. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the most frequent allergens causing contact dermatitis in this particular site. A literature search was conducted via PubMed through May 2021. Relevant English language studies are included in this review. Fragrances, preservatives, botanical products, and topical medicaments were found to be the most commonly involved allergens. Contact dermatitis is a very common occurrence that should also be considered in patients with chronic vulvar or anogenital dermatitis who do not respond to appropriate treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergies Specifically Dedicated to Allergic Contact Dermatitis)
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Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy of IALUSET VITAL® Cream in Helping the Improvement of the Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms in Adults: A Randomized, Double Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Clinical Trial
Allergies 2021, 1(4), 195-205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/allergies1040018 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease, associated with impaired skin barrier function and characterized by poorly defined pruritic, erythematous lesions. In this study, the efficacy of a new topical cream (IALUSET VITAL®), containing hyaluronic acid and the extract [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease, associated with impaired skin barrier function and characterized by poorly defined pruritic, erythematous lesions. In this study, the efficacy of a new topical cream (IALUSET VITAL®), containing hyaluronic acid and the extract of Salvia haenkei, in reducing symptoms of moderate AD in adults was investigated. This study was a randomized, double blind, vehicle-controlled clinical study. Treatment efficacy was evaluated considering both objective parameters (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis, SCORAD) and subjective pa-rameters (Patient Oriented Eczema Measure, POEM, and an itching sensation) and through non-invasive bioengineering techniques to measure skin moisturization and Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL). Under the experimental conditions of the study, IALUSET VITAL® significantly reduced AD severity, as shown by the SCORAD index, and was revealed to be effective in alleviating the most common signs and symptoms of moderate AD, suppressing itch and improving skin moisturization, and to have a good safety profile, being well-tolerated by patients. However, statistically significant differences between active and vehicle group were not found in the other parameters analyzed, likely because the basic formulation of IALUSET VITAL® guarantees good emollient properties and the addition of hyaluronic acid and extract of Salvia haenkei as active ingredients results in a great increase in effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergies Specifically Dedicated to Allergic Contact Dermatitis)
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