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Flash-Based Security Primitives: Evolution, Challenges and Future Directions

1
Electrical and Computer Engineering, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053, USA
2
Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
3
Computer Engineering, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cybersecurity, Cryptography, and Machine Learning)
Over the last two decades, hardware security has gained increasing attention in academia and industry. Flash memory has been given a spotlight in recent years, with the question of whether or not it can prove useful in a security role. Because of inherent process variation in the characteristics of flash memory modules, they can provide a unique fingerprint for a device and have thus been proposed as locations for hardware security primitives. These primitives include physical unclonable functions (PUFs), true random number generators (TRNGs), and integrated circuit (IC) counterfeit detection. In this paper, we evaluate the efficacy of flash memory-based security primitives and categorize them based on the process variations they exploit, as well as other features. We also compare and evaluate flash-based security primitives in order to identify drawbacks and essential design considerations. Finally, we describe new directions, challenges of research, and possible security vulnerabilities for flash-based security primitives that we believe would benefit from further exploration. View Full-Text
Keywords: flash memory; flash-based physical unclonable function; physical unclonable function (PUF); true random number generator (TRNG); integrated circuit counterfeit detection; hardware security primitives; survey flash memory; flash-based physical unclonable function; physical unclonable function (PUF); true random number generator (TRNG); integrated circuit counterfeit detection; hardware security primitives; survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gordon, H.; Edmonds, J.; Ghandali, S.; Yan, W.; Karimian, N.; Tehranipoor, F. Flash-Based Security Primitives: Evolution, Challenges and Future Directions. Cryptography 2021, 5, 7. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryptography5010007

AMA Style

Gordon H, Edmonds J, Ghandali S, Yan W, Karimian N, Tehranipoor F. Flash-Based Security Primitives: Evolution, Challenges and Future Directions. Cryptography. 2021; 5(1):7. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryptography5010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gordon, Holden, Jack Edmonds, Soroor Ghandali, Wei Yan, Nima Karimian, and Fatemeh Tehranipoor. 2021. "Flash-Based Security Primitives: Evolution, Challenges and Future Directions" Cryptography 5, no. 1: 7. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryptography5010007

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