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Fishes, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Stingray movement ecology in high-energy surf areas remains largely unknown due to the notorious difficulties in conducting research in these environments. Using a blimp as an aerial platform for video surveillance, we overcame some of the limitations of other tracking methods. The tracking data suggest that stingrays may use a depth gradient for orientating their movements and transiting between locations within their home range. Our research also indicates that stingray behavior was influenced by diel periods and tidal states. Considering the increasing threat of anthropogenic development to nearshore coastal environments, the identification of these patterns can better inform management plans. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Vertebrae Morphometric Measurement and Ca/P Levels of Different Age European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040037 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The European seabass is one of the most important species of the Mediterranean, specifically Greece. Individuals with different numbers of vertebrae have been reported. This number ranges from 24 to 26 vertebrae. In this study a sample of 73 individual seabass were collected [...] Read more.
The European seabass is one of the most important species of the Mediterranean, specifically Greece. Individuals with different numbers of vertebrae have been reported. This number ranges from 24 to 26 vertebrae. In this study a sample of 73 individual seabass were collected from fish farms and divided into three age groups. The first group included fingerling individuals, the second group, juvenile individuals and the third group, adult individuals. The number and the length of their vertebrae were measured by radiographs. The individuals were divided into subgroups according to their vertebrae number, and from each one the tenth vertebra was taken. Ca and P levels (%) of each tenth vertebra were measured by X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and the Ca/P ratio was determined. Vertebrae length, Ca and P levels and Ca/P ratio were compared among age groups and among individuals with different numbers of vertebrae. It was shown that the European seabass’s vertebral column can be divided to three sections—cervical, abdominal and caudal—following the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Case Studies Demonstrate That Common Carp Can Be Sustainably Reduced by Exploiting Source-Sink Dynamics in Midwestern Lakes
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040036 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
The common carp has been highly problematic in North American ecosystems since its introduction over a century ago. In many watersheds, its abundance appears to be driven by source-sink dynamics in which carp reproduce successfully in peripheral ponds that lack egg/larva micro-predators which [...] Read more.
The common carp has been highly problematic in North American ecosystems since its introduction over a century ago. In many watersheds, its abundance appears to be driven by source-sink dynamics in which carp reproduce successfully in peripheral ponds that lack egg/larva micro-predators which then serve as sources of recruits for deeper lakes. This manuscript describes how carp were sustainably reduced in two chains of lakes by disrupting source-sink dynamics in three steps. First, we ascertained whether lakes had problematic densities of carp that could be explained by source-sink dynamics. Second, ways to control recruitment were developed and implemented including: (i) aerating source ponds to reduce hypoxia and increase micro-predator abundance, (ii) blocking carp migration, and (iii) locating and removing adults from sinks using targeted netting guided by Judas fish. Third, we monitored and adapted. Using this strategy, the density of carp in 3 lakes in one chain was reduced from 177 kg/ha to ~100 kg/ha in 3 years and held constant for a decade. Similarly, adult density was reduced from 300 kg carp/ha in 2 lakes in the other chain to 25 kg/ha. Once carp densities were low, aluminum sulfate treatments became reasonable and once conducted, water quality improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Control of Invasive Fishes)
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Open AccessArticle
Multispecies Fresh Water Algae Production for Fish Farming Using Rabbit Manure
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040035 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
The current study aims at determining the optimal usage conditions of rabbit manure in a multispecies fresh water algae production for fish farming. This purpose, the experimental design is made of six treatments in triplicate including one control T0, T1 [...] Read more.
The current study aims at determining the optimal usage conditions of rabbit manure in a multispecies fresh water algae production for fish farming. This purpose, the experimental design is made of six treatments in triplicate including one control T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 corresponding respectively to 0, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 g/m3 of dry rabbit manure put into buckets containing 40 L of demineralized water and then fertilized. The initial average seeding density is made of 4 × 103 ± 2.5 × 102 cells/L of Chlorophyceae, 1.5 × 103 ± 1 × 102 cells/L of Coscinodiscophyceae, 3 × 103 ± 1.2 × 102 cells/L of Conjugatophyceae, 2.8 × 103 ± 1.5 × 102 cells/L of Bascillariophyceae, and 2.5 × 103 ± 1.4 × 102 cells/L of Euglenophyceae. During the experiments, the effects of these treatments on abiotic and biotic parameters (chlorophyll-a concentration, phytoplankton density and algal density) of different production media were monitored. Results show that average density of different phytoplankton classes is higher in treatment T5 (7.91 × 108 ± 6.78 × 107 cells/L) followed by T4 (5.56 × 108 ± 4.27 × 107 cells/L), T2 (3.87 × 108 ± 3.10 × 108 cells/L), T3 (3.79 × 108 ± 3.18 × 108 cells/L, with high significant difference (F (4,84) = 5, 35, p < 0.00). Chl-a concentration varied from 0.07 ± 0.05 mg/L (T0) to 14.47 ± 12.50 mg/L (T5) with high significant differences observed among treatments (F (5,83) = 3,09, p = 0,01). In addition, fourteen (14) species belonging to eight (8) families, five (5) classes and three (3) phyla were identified in our different production media. During the culture, Chlorophyceae class was the most represented in all treatments with 5 species (36% of the specific diversity) while Euglenophyceae class (7%) was the least represented with only one (01) species. According to these results, treatments T2 (600 g/m3), T3 (900 g/m3) and T4 (1200 g/m3) of dry rabbit manure are those worthy to be recommended as an alternative for a low cost massive production of multispecies freshwater algae that can be easily used by freshwater zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. Indeed, despite the best performances that it shows, treatment T5, presents important eutrophication’s risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impacts of Land-Based Aquaculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphology, Transcriptomics and In Vitro Model of Skin from Polar Cod (Boreogadus Saida) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua)
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040034 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
Fish skin is a multifunctional barrier tissue with high regeneration capacity that interacts with the surrounding environment and provides protection. Functional importance, high complexity and activity make skin an attractive tissue for studying the effects of environmental challenges and chemical stressors in fish. [...] Read more.
Fish skin is a multifunctional barrier tissue with high regeneration capacity that interacts with the surrounding environment and provides protection. Functional importance, high complexity and activity make skin an attractive tissue for studying the effects of environmental challenges and chemical stressors in fish. The aim of this work was to characterize skin from polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and to test cod skin as an in vitro model in exposure studies. Both species have similar skin structures including epidermis, mucous cells, club cells and scales. However, microarchitectural differences were detected; Atlantic cod has a smooth epidermal surface and overlapping scales, whereas polar cod has a folded outer surface and discontinuous scales. Genome-wide microarray found 6.5k genes with expression differences, which suggested more active turnover of proteins, proliferation and motility of cells in skin of polar cod. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to examine skin responses. Transcriptome response was stronger in the skin of polar cod, with 155 differentially expressed genes. The skin from Atlantic cod was further used to develop a cell culture. H2O2 decreased the cell migration rate in a dose-dependent manner, which could indicate reduced skin healing capacity. The results revealed novel skin structures and confirmed that the skin from cod is a promising tissue for evaluation of stressors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Competition between Invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and Native Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) in Experimental Mesocosms
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040033 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) were introduced to North America from Europe in the mid-1980s and based on similar diets and habit use may compete with yellow perch (Perca flavescens). To examine competitive interactions between invasive ruffe and native yellow perch, [...] Read more.
Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) were introduced to North America from Europe in the mid-1980s and based on similar diets and habit use may compete with yellow perch (Perca flavescens). To examine competitive interactions between invasive ruffe and native yellow perch, individually marked perch and ruffe were placed in mesocosms in a small lake. Mesocosms allowed fish to interact and feed on the natural prey populations enclosed. In the first experiment, four treatments were assessed: 28 perch, 14 perch + 14 ruffe, 14 perch, and 7 perch + 7 ruffe. Yellow perch growth was significantly lower in the presence of ruffe (ANOVA, p = 0.005) than in treatments containing only perch. In a second experiment, an increasing density of one species was superimposed upon a constant density of the other in parallel treatment series. Growth rates of both ruffe and perch declined when ruffe density was increased (t test, p = 0.006). However, neither ruffe nor perch growth was affected by increasing perch density. Total stomach content mass of perch was significantly decreased by ruffe in both years (p < 0.02), but no effects of ruffe on the composition of perch diets were observed. Ruffe growth and food consumption was greater than that of perch for both experiments. Ruffe can outcompete yellow perch when both species depend on a limited benthic food resource. Thus there is reason for concern for the ecological effects of ruffe if they expand their range into Lake Erie or North American inland lakes that contain yellow perch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Control of Invasive Fishes)
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Open AccessArticle
Digestibility of Local Feed Ingredients in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Juveniles, Determined on Faeces Collected by Siphoning or Stripping
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040032 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Eight locally available protein source ingredients in Tanzania were selected for assessment of apparent digestibility (AD) in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using faeces samples collected by siphoning or stripping. The selected protein source ingredients were Lake Victoria sardines (FM), brewers spent yeast (BSY), [...] Read more.
Eight locally available protein source ingredients in Tanzania were selected for assessment of apparent digestibility (AD) in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using faeces samples collected by siphoning or stripping. The selected protein source ingredients were Lake Victoria sardines (FM), brewers spent yeast (BSY), moringa leaves (ML), freshwater shrimp (FSH), marine shrimp (MSH), cattle blood (CB), duckweed (DW) and fish frames (FF). The AD (%) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) was unaffected (p > 0.782–0.901) by the faeces collection method (i.e., siphoning or stripping), with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.98, 0.99 and 0.93 between AD values for DM, OM and CP, respectively, following siphoning and stripping. The AD (%) of DM, OM, CP and gross energy (GE) in the test ingredients differed (p < 0.0001). The AD (%) of DM and OM was lowest in BSY and DW, followed in increasing order by ML, MSH, FF, FSH and CB. In general, the AD (%) of CP was high (>76%), but with a low value (46%) for DW. The AD (%) of GE was closely correlated (r = 0.96) with the AD of OM. In conclusion, FSH, MSH, CB, FF, BSY and ML have acceptable protein digestibility to be used in tilapia diet formulation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determining Stingray Movement Patterns in a Wave-Swept Coastal Zone Using a Blimp for Continuous Aerial Video Surveillance
Fishes 2020, 5(4), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes5040031 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
Stingrays play a key role in the regulation of nearshore ecosystems. However, their movement ecology in high-energy surf areas remains largely unknown due to the notorious difficulties in conducting research in these environments. Using a blimp as an aerial platform for video surveillance, [...] Read more.
Stingrays play a key role in the regulation of nearshore ecosystems. However, their movement ecology in high-energy surf areas remains largely unknown due to the notorious difficulties in conducting research in these environments. Using a blimp as an aerial platform for video surveillance, we overcame some of the limitations of other tracking methods, such as the use of tags and drones. This novel technology offered near-continuous coverage to characterise the fine-scale movements of stingrays in a surf area in Kiama, Australia, without any invasive procedures. A total of 98 stingray tracks were recorded, providing 6 h 27 min of movement paths. The tracking data suggest that stingrays may use a depth gradient located in the sandflat area of the bay for orientating their movements and transiting between locations within their home range. Our research also indicates that stingray behaviour was influenced by diel periods and tidal states. We observed a higher stingray occurrence during the afternoon, potentially related to foraging and anti-predatory strategies. We also saw a reduced route fidelity during low tide, when the bathymetric reference was less accessible due to stranding risk. Considering the increasing threat of anthropogenic development to nearshore coastal environments, the identification of these patterns can better inform the management and mitigation of threats. Full article
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