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Survival, Growth, and Development in the Early Stages of the Tropical Gar Atractosteus tropicus: Developmental Critical Windows and the Influence of Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Availability

1
Laboratorio de Acuicultura Tropical, División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), Villahermosa TAB 86039, Mexico
2
Developmental Physiology Laboratory, Developmental Integrative Biology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-5017, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
Alterations in fish developmental trajectories occur in response to genetic and environmental changes, especially during sensitive periods of development (critical windows). Embryos and larvae of Atractosteus tropicus were used as a model to study fish survival, growth, and development as a function of temperature (28 °C control, 33 °C, and 36 °C), salinity (0.0 ppt control, 4.0 ppt, and 6.0 ppt), and air saturation (control ~95% air saturation, hypoxia ~30% air saturation, and hyperoxia ~117% air saturation) during three developmental periods: (1) fertilization to hatch, (2) day 1 to day 6 post hatch (dph), and (3) 7 to 12 dph. Elevated temperature, hypoxia, and hyperoxia decreased survival during incubation, and salinity at 2 and 3 dph. Growth increased in embryos incubated at elevated temperature, at higher salinity, and in hyperoxia but decreased in hypoxia. Changes in development occurred as alterations in the timing of hatching, yolk depletion, acceptance of exogenous feeding, free swimming, and snout shape change, especially at high temperature and hypoxia. Our results suggest identifiable critical windows of development in the early ontogeny of A. tropicus and contribute to the knowledge of fish larval ecology and the interactions of individuals × stressors × time of exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: ancestral fish; developmental phenotypic plasticity; heterokairy; sensitive periods; critical windows ancestral fish; developmental phenotypic plasticity; heterokairy; sensitive periods; critical windows
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez, G.; Peña, E.; Martínez, R.; Camarillo, S.; Burggren, W.; Álvarez, A. Survival, Growth, and Development in the Early Stages of the Tropical Gar Atractosteus tropicus: Developmental Critical Windows and the Influence of Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Availability. Fishes 2021, 6, 5. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010005

AMA Style

Martínez G, Peña E, Martínez R, Camarillo S, Burggren W, Álvarez A. Survival, Growth, and Development in the Early Stages of the Tropical Gar Atractosteus tropicus: Developmental Critical Windows and the Influence of Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Availability. Fishes. 2021; 6(1):5. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez, Gil, Emyr Peña, Rafael Martínez, Susana Camarillo, Warren Burggren, and Alfonso Álvarez. 2021. "Survival, Growth, and Development in the Early Stages of the Tropical Gar Atractosteus tropicus: Developmental Critical Windows and the Influence of Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Availability" Fishes 6, no. 1: 5. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010005

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