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Article

Growth, Chemical Composition, Histology and Antioxidant Genes of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Whole or Pre-Processed Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis sp.

1
Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8026 Bodø, Norway
2
Zheijang NHU Co., Ltd., Shaoxing 312500, China
3
Cermaq Norway AS, Nordfoldveien 165, 8286 Steigen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vikas Kumar, Beth Cleveland, Janet Genz and Eric Hallerman
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of Nutrition and Physiology in Aquatic Animals)
New sustainable feed ingredients are a necessity for the salmon aquaculture industry. In this study, we examined the effect of pre-extrusion processing of two microalgae, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis sp., on the growth, fatty acid content in the flesh and health of Atlantic salmon. The fish were fed one of the following five diets for nine weeks: (1) CO: a fish meal-based control (basal) diet, (2) NU: a Nannochloropsis diet, (3) NE: a pre-extruded Nannochloropsis diet, (4) TU: a Tetraselmis diet, and (5) TE: a pre-extruded Tetraselmis diet. The algae-incorporated diets contained 30% of the respective microalgae. Our results showed that the best growth performance was achieved by the CO diet, followed by the NE diets. Feeding of unprocessed Nannochloropsis and Tetraselmis resulted in a significant reduction in enterocyte vacuolization compared to the CO feeding. A significant effect of processing was noted in the fillet fatty acid content, the intestine and liver structure and the expression of selected genes in the liver. The expression of antioxidant genes in both the liver and intestine, and the accumulation of different fatty acids in the fillet and liver of the extruded algae-fed groups, warrants further investigation. In conclusion, based on the short-term study, 30% inclusion of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis sp. can be considered in Atlantic salmon feeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; feed ingredients; fishmeal replacement; novel ingredients; nutrition aquaculture; feed ingredients; fishmeal replacement; novel ingredients; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sørensen, S.L.; Ghirmay, A.; Gong, Y.; Dahle, D.; Vasanth, G.; Sørensen, M.; Kiron, V. Growth, Chemical Composition, Histology and Antioxidant Genes of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Whole or Pre-Processed Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis sp. Fishes 2021, 6, 23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6030023

AMA Style

Sørensen SL, Ghirmay A, Gong Y, Dahle D, Vasanth G, Sørensen M, Kiron V. Growth, Chemical Composition, Histology and Antioxidant Genes of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Whole or Pre-Processed Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis sp. Fishes. 2021; 6(3):23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6030023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sørensen, Solveig L., Ateshm Ghirmay, Yangyang Gong, Dalia Dahle, Ghana Vasanth, Mette Sørensen, and Viswanath Kiron. 2021. "Growth, Chemical Composition, Histology and Antioxidant Genes of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Whole or Pre-Processed Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis sp." Fishes 6, no. 3: 23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6030023

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