Next Issue
Volume 5, March
Previous Issue
Volume 4, September

Instruments, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 10 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Study of the FTM Detector Performance with Garfield++
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040037 - 06 Dec 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The Fast Timing Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (FTM) has been recently introduced as a promising alternative for applications that require improved time resolution, such as high-luminosity accelerators and medical imaging. The FTM consists of a stack of several coupled gas layers alternating drift and [...] Read more.
The Fast Timing Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (FTM) has been recently introduced as a promising alternative for applications that require improved time resolution, such as high-luminosity accelerators and medical imaging. The FTM consists of a stack of several coupled gas layers alternating drift and multiplication stages. The time resolution is determined by the time of the fastest signal among all amplification stages, read out by external electrodes through capacitive couplings. In the present work, we use the Garfield++ simulation toolkit in order to investigate and optimize the FTM performances. Gain, timing, and efficiency of the FTM are studied as a function of different parameters, such as detector geometry, gas mixture, and applied electric fields. The simulations that are presented in this paper show that a time resolution as low as 160 ps can be reached with a 32-layers FTM. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Overview of CMOS Sensors for Future Tracking Detectors
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040036 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Depleted Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are emerging as one of the main candidate technologies for future tracking detectors in high luminosity colliders. Their capability of integrating the sensing diode into the CMOS wafer hosting the front-end electronics allows for reduced noise and higher [...] Read more.
Depleted Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are emerging as one of the main candidate technologies for future tracking detectors in high luminosity colliders. Their capability of integrating the sensing diode into the CMOS wafer hosting the front-end electronics allows for reduced noise and higher signal sensitivity, due to the direct collection of the sensor signal by the readout electronics. They are suitable for high radiation environments due to the possibility of applying high depletion voltage and the availability of relatively high resistivity substrates. The use of a CMOS commercial fabrication process leads to their cost reduction and allows faster construction of large area detectors. In this contribution, a general perspective of the state of the art of CMOS detectors for High Energy Physics experiments is given. The main developments carried out with regard to these devices in the framework of the CERN RD50 collaboration are summarized. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optical Readout of the ARIADNE LArTPC Using a Timepix3-Based Camera
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040035 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The ARIADNE Experiment, utilising a 1-ton dual-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC), aims to develop and mature optical readout technology for large scale LAr detectors. This paper describes the characterisation, using cosmic muons, of a Timepix3-based camera mounted on the ARIADNE detector. [...] Read more.
The ARIADNE Experiment, utilising a 1-ton dual-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC), aims to develop and mature optical readout technology for large scale LAr detectors. This paper describes the characterisation, using cosmic muons, of a Timepix3-based camera mounted on the ARIADNE detector. The raw data from the camera are natively 3D and zero suppressed, allowing for straightforward event reconstruction, and a gallery of reconstructed LAr interaction events is presented. Taking advantage of the 1.6 ns time resolution of the readout, the drift velocity of the ionised electrons in LAr was determined to be 1.608 ± 0.005 mm/μs at 0.54 kV/cm. Energy calibration and resolution were determined using through-going muons. The energy resolution was found to be approximately 11% for the presented dataset. A preliminary study of the energy deposition (dEdX) as a function of distance has also been performed for two stopping muon events, and comparison to GEANT4 simulation shows good agreement. The results presented demonstrate the capabilities of this technology, and its application is discussed in the context of the future kiloton-scale dual-phase LAr detectors that will be used in the DUNE programme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Argon Detectors: Instrumentation and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tungsten Thermionic Emission as a Gauge for Low Pressures of Cesium Vapor
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040034 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Heated metal filaments under electric fields and low pressures of alkali metal gas eject electrons by thermionic emission as a function of the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the filament. To explore this process in a program to develop large-area [...] Read more.
Heated metal filaments under electric fields and low pressures of alkali metal gas eject electrons by thermionic emission as a function of the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the filament. To explore this process in a program to develop large-area alkali metal photocathodes, we have designed and built a gauge following the studies of Taylor and Langmuir. We present proof-of-principle measurements of the thermionic emission of a tungsten filament in cesium vapor. We describe a second-generation design that corrects flaws in the first gauge. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of Tagged Neutron Method for Detecting Diamonds in Kimberlite
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040033 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 543
Abstract
The results of testing a prototype of a separator for detecting diamonds in kimberlite ore using tagged neutron method are discussed. Kimberlite ore was irradiated with fast tagged neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV. The elemental content of the tray with kimberlite [...] Read more.
The results of testing a prototype of a separator for detecting diamonds in kimberlite ore using tagged neutron method are discussed. Kimberlite ore was irradiated with fast tagged neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV. The elemental content of the tray with kimberlite ore was determined. The criterion for detecting diamond was the presence of excess carbon concentration in a certain region of a kimberlite sample. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Polyethylene Identification in Ocean Water Samples by Means of 50 keV Energy Electron Beam
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040032 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
This study presents a new methodology to reveal traces of polyethylene (the most common microplastic particles, known as a structure of C2H4) in a sample of ocean water by the irradiation of a 50 keV, 1 µA electron beam. [...] Read more.
This study presents a new methodology to reveal traces of polyethylene (the most common microplastic particles, known as a structure of C2H4) in a sample of ocean water by the irradiation of a 50 keV, 1 µA electron beam. This is performed by analyzing the photon (produced by the electrons in water) fluxes and spectra (i.e., fluxes as a function of photon energy) with different types of contaminated water using an adequate device and in particular looking at the peculiar interactions of electrons/photons with the potential abnormal atomic hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and phosphorus (P) compositions present in the water, as a function of living and nonliving organic organisms with PO4 group RNA/DNA strands in a cluster configuration through a volumetric cells grid. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
TITUS: Visualization of Neutrino Events in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040031 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 564
Abstract
The amount and complexity of data recorded by high energy physics experiments are rapidly growing, and with these grow the difficulties in visualizing such data. To study the physics of neutrinos, a type of elementary particle, scientists use liquid argon time projection chamber [...] Read more.
The amount and complexity of data recorded by high energy physics experiments are rapidly growing, and with these grow the difficulties in visualizing such data. To study the physics of neutrinos, a type of elementary particle, scientists use liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors, among other technologies. LArTPCs have a very high spatial resolution and resolve many of the elementary particles that come out of a neutrino interacting within the argon in the detector. Visualizing these neutrino interactions is of fundamental importance to understanding the properties of neutrinos, but also monitoring and checking on the detector conditions and operations. From these ideas, we have developed TITUS, an event display that shows images recorded by these neutrino detectors. TITUS is a piece of software that reads data coming from LArTPC detectors (as well as the corresponding simulation) and allows users to explore such data in multiple ways. TITUS is flexible to enable fast prototyping and customization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Argon Detectors: Instrumentation and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of Radiation-Tolerant HTS Magnet for Muon Production Solenoid
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040030 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Superconducting magnets are widely used in accelerator science applications. Muon production solenoids are applications that have recently attracted considerable public attention, after the approval of muon-related physics projects such as coherent muon to electron transition or muon-to-electron-conversion experiments. Based on its characteristics, muon [...] Read more.
Superconducting magnets are widely used in accelerator science applications. Muon production solenoids are applications that have recently attracted considerable public attention, after the approval of muon-related physics projects such as coherent muon to electron transition or muon-to-electron-conversion experiments. Based on its characteristics, muon production solenoids tend to be subjected to high radiation exposure, which results in a high heat load being applied to the solenoid magnet, thus limiting the superconducting magnet operation, especially for low-temperature superconductors such as niobium titanium alloy. However, the use of high-temperature superconductors may extend the operation capabilities owing to their functionality at higher temperatures. This study reviews the characteristics of high temperature superconductor magnets in high-radiation environments and their potential for application to muon production solenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Conceptual Design of a HTS Dipole Insert Based on Bi2212 Rutherford Cable
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040029 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The U.S. Magnet Development Program (US-MDP) is aimed at developing high-field accelerator magnets with magnetic fields beyond the limits of Nb3Sn technology. Recent progress with composite wires and Rutherford cables based on the first generation high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2 [...] Read more.
The U.S. Magnet Development Program (US-MDP) is aimed at developing high-field accelerator magnets with magnetic fields beyond the limits of Nb3Sn technology. Recent progress with composite wires and Rutherford cables based on the first generation high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8−x (Bi2212) allows considering them for this purpose. However, Bi2212 wires and cables are sensitive to transverse stresses and strains, which are large in high-field accelerator magnets. This requires magnet designs with stress management concepts to control azimuthal and radial strains in the coil windings and prevent the degradation of the current carrying capability of Bi2212 conductor or even its permanent damage. This paper describes a novel stress management approach, which was developed at Fermilab for high-field large-aperture Nb3Sn accelerator magnets, and is now being applied to high-field dipole inserts based on Bi2212 Rutherford cables. The insert conceptual design and main parameters, including the superconducting wire and cable, as well as the coil stress management structure, key technological steps and approaches, test configurations and their target parameters, are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Heat Diffusion in High-Cp Nb3Sn Composite Superconducting Wires
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments4040028 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 665
Abstract
A major focus of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets is on significantly reducing or eliminating their training. Demonstration of an approach to increase the Cp of Nb3Sn magnets using new materials and technologies is very important both for particle accelerators [...] Read more.
A major focus of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets is on significantly reducing or eliminating their training. Demonstration of an approach to increase the Cp of Nb3Sn magnets using new materials and technologies is very important both for particle accelerators and light sources. It would improve thermal stability and lead to much shorter magnet training, with substantial savings in machines’ commissioning costs. Both Hypertech and Bruker-OST have attempted to introduce high-Cp elements in their wire design. This paper includes a description of these advanced wires, the finite element model of their heat diffusion properties as compared with the standard wires, and whenever available, a comparison between the minimum quench energy (MQE) calculated by the model and actual MQE measurements on wires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop