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Instruments, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 13 articles

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Review
A Review of Basic Energy Reconstruction Techniques in Liquid Xenon and Argon Detectors for Dark Matter and Neutrino Physics Using NEST
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010013 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Detectors based upon the noble elements, especially liquid xenon as well as liquid argon, as both single- and dual-phase types, require reconstruction of the energies of interacting particles, both in the field of direct detection of dark matter (weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs, [...] Read more.
Detectors based upon the noble elements, especially liquid xenon as well as liquid argon, as both single- and dual-phase types, require reconstruction of the energies of interacting particles, both in the field of direct detection of dark matter (weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs, axions, etc.) and in neutrino physics. Experimentalists, as well as theorists who reanalyze/reinterpret experimental data, have used a few different techniques over the past few decades. In this paper, we review techniques based on solely the primary scintillation channel, the ionization or secondary channel available at non-zero drift electric fields, and combined techniques that include a simple linear combination and weighted averages, with a brief discussion of the application of profile likelihood, maximum likelihood, and machine learning. Comparing results for electron recoils (beta and gamma interactions) and nuclear recoils (primarily from neutrons) from the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST) simulation to available data, we confirm that combining all available information generates higher-precision means, lower widths (energy resolution), and more symmetric shapes (approximately Gaussian) especially at keV-scale energies, with the symmetry even greater when thresholding is addressed. Near thresholds, bias from upward fluctuations matters. For MeV-GeV scales, if only one channel is utilized, an ionization-only-based energy scale outperforms scintillation; channel combination remains beneficial. We discuss here what major collaborations use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Production and Detection in Noble Liquid Detectors)
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Article
A Sustainable Slit Jet FTIR Spectrometer for Hydrate Complexes and Beyond
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010012 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy of cold molecules and clusters in supersonic slit jet expansions complements and extends more sensitive action spectroscopy techniques and provides important reference data for the latter. We describe how its major drawback, large substance and carrier gas [...] Read more.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy of cold molecules and clusters in supersonic slit jet expansions complements and extends more sensitive action spectroscopy techniques and provides important reference data for the latter. We describe how its major drawback, large substance and carrier gas consumption, can be alleviated by one to two orders of magnitude via direct and continuous recycling of the gas mixture. This is achieved by a combination of dry rotary lobe and screw pump compression. The signal-to-noise ratio is boosted by the established buffered giant gas pulse technique with full interferogram synchronization. The buildup of water impurities typically limits the recycling gain, but is turned into a feature for the study of hydrate complexes of volatile molecules. Continuous operation with a single gas filling over several days becomes practical and useful. Decadic absorbances in the low ppm range are detectable and the mid infrared range can be recorded simultaneously with the near infrared. The less straightforward hydration number assignment of spectral features in direct absorption spectroscopy is supported by a gradual water buildup at a rate of less than 0.5 mg/h. A recent reassignment proposal for the water dimer OH stretching spectrum is refuted and vibrational spectra of vacuum-isolated 18O-water clusters are presented for the first time. Methanol docking on asymmetric ketones is used to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the recycling concept. Previous assignments of the hydrate complex of 1-phenylethanol are confirmed. Additional features of the setup await testing and refinement, but the recycling technique already substantially widens the applicability of direct absorption spectroscopy of neutral molecular clusters. It may be attractive for other high-throughput jet spectrometers. Full article
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Article
Validation of a Fast and Accurate Magnetic Tracker Operating in the Environmental Field
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010011 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
We characterize the performance of a system based on a magnetoresistor array. This instrument is developed to map the magnetic field, and to track a dipolar magnetic source in the presence of a static homogeneous field. The position and orientation of the magnetic [...] Read more.
We characterize the performance of a system based on a magnetoresistor array. This instrument is developed to map the magnetic field, and to track a dipolar magnetic source in the presence of a static homogeneous field. The position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame is retrieved together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. A nonlinear best-fit procedure is used, and its precision, time performance, and reliability are analyzed. This analysis is performed in view of the practical application for which the system is designed that is an eye-tracking diagnostics and rehabilitative tool for medical purposes, which require high speed (≥100 Sa/s) and sub-millimetric spatial resolution. A throughout investigation on the results makes it possible to list several observations, suggestions, and hints, which will be useful in the design of similar setups. Full article
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Article
A New High-Throughput Focused MeV Ion-Beam Analysis Setup
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010010 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
The analysis of material composition by ion-beam analysis (IBA) is becoming a standard method, similar to electron microscopy. A pool of IBA methods exists, from which the combination of particle-induced-X-ray emission (PIXE), particle induced gamma-ray analysis (PIGE), nuclear-reaction-analysis (NRA), and Rutherford-backscattering-spectrometry (RBS) provides [...] Read more.
The analysis of material composition by ion-beam analysis (IBA) is becoming a standard method, similar to electron microscopy. A pool of IBA methods exists, from which the combination of particle-induced-X-ray emission (PIXE), particle induced gamma-ray analysis (PIGE), nuclear-reaction-analysis (NRA), and Rutherford-backscattering-spectrometry (RBS) provides the most complete analysis over the whole periodic table in a single measurement. Yet, for a highly resolved and accurate IBA analysis, a sophisticated technical setup is required integrating the detectors, beam optics, and sample arrangement. A new end-station developed and installed in Forschungszentrum Jülich provides these capabilities in combination with high sample throughput and result accuracy. Mechanical tolerances limit the device accuracy to 3% for RBS. Continuous pumping enables 5 × 10−8 mbar base pressure with vibration amplitudes < 0.1 µm. The beam optics achieves a demagnification of 24–34, suitable for µ-beam analysis. An in-vacuum manipulator enables scanning 50 × 50 mm² sample areas with 10 nm accuracy. The setup features the above-mentioned IBA detectors, enabling a broad range of analysis applications such as the operando analysis of batteries or the post-mortem analysis of plasma-exposed samples with up to 3000 discrete points per day. Custom apertures and energy resolutions down to 11 keV enable separation of Fe and Cr in RBS. This work presents the technical solutions together with the quantification of these challenges and their success in the form of a technical reference. Full article
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Article
Space Charge Effects in Noble-Liquid Calorimeters and Time Projection Chambers
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010009 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The subject of space charge in ionization detectors is reviewed, showing how the observations and the formalism used to describe the effects have evolved, starting with applications to calorimeters and reaching recent, large time-projection chambers. General scaling laws, and different ways to present [...] Read more.
The subject of space charge in ionization detectors is reviewed, showing how the observations and the formalism used to describe the effects have evolved, starting with applications to calorimeters and reaching recent, large time-projection chambers. General scaling laws, and different ways to present and model the effects are presented. The relations between space-charge effects and the boundary conditions imposed on the side faces of the detector are discussed, together with a design solution that mitigates some of the effects. The implications of the relative size of drift length and transverse detector size are illustrated. Calibration methods are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Argon Detectors: Instrumentation and Applications)
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Article
HTS Accelerator Magnet and Conductor Development in Europe
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010008 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
In view of the preparation for a post-LHC collider, in 2010 the high-energy physics (HEP) community started to discuss various options, including the use of HTS for very high-field dipoles. Therefore, a small program was begun in Europe that aimed at exploring the [...] Read more.
In view of the preparation for a post-LHC collider, in 2010 the high-energy physics (HEP) community started to discuss various options, including the use of HTS for very high-field dipoles. Therefore, a small program was begun in Europe that aimed at exploring the possibility of using HTS for accelerator-quality magnets. Based on various EU-funded programs, though at modest levels, it has enabled the European community of accelerator magnet research to start getting experience in HTS and address a few issues. The program was based on the use of REBa2Cu3O7−x (REBCO) tapes to form 10 kA Roebel cables to wind small dipoles of 30–40 mm aperture in the 5 T range. The dipoles are designed to be later inserted in a background dipole field (in Nb3Sn), to reach eventually a field level in the 16–20 T range, beyond the reach of Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS). The program is currently underway: more than 1 km of high-performance tape (Je > 500 A/mm2 at 20 T, 4.2 K) has been manufactured and characterized, various 30 m long Roebel cables have been assembled and validated up to 13 kA, a few dipoles have been wound and tested, reaching 4.5 T in stand-alone (while a dipole made from flat race track coils exceeded 5 T using stacked tape cable), and tests in background field are being organized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Instruments in 2020
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010007 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Instruments maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Applications and Perspectives of Ultrasonic Multi-Gas Analysis with Simultaneous Flowmetry
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010006 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 834
Abstract
We have developed ultrasonic instrumentation for simultaneous flow and composition measurement in a variety of gas mixtures. Flow and composition are respectively derived from measurements of the difference and average of sound transit times in opposite directions in a flowing process gas. We [...] Read more.
We have developed ultrasonic instrumentation for simultaneous flow and composition measurement in a variety of gas mixtures. Flow and composition are respectively derived from measurements of the difference and average of sound transit times in opposite directions in a flowing process gas. We have developed a sound velocity-based algorithm to compensate for the effects of additional gases, allowing the concentrations of a pair of gases of primary interest to be acoustically measured on top of a varying baseline from ‘third party’ gases whose concentrations in the multi-gas mixture are measured by other means. Several instruments are used in the CERN ATLAS experiment. Three monitor C3F8, (R218), and CO2 coolant leaks into N2-purged environmental envelopes. Precision in molar concentration of better than 2 × 10−5 is routinely seen in mixtures of C3F8 in N2 in the presence of varying known concentrations of CO2. Further instruments monitor air ingress and C3F8 vapor flow (at high mass flows around 1.1 kg s−1) in the 60 kW thermosiphon C3F8 evaporative cooling recirculator. This instrumentation and analysis technique, targeting binary pairs of gases of interest in multi-gas mixtures, is promising for mixtures of anesthetic gases, particularly in the developing area of xenon anesthesia. Full article
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Article
Luminescence Response and Quenching Models for Heavy Ions of 0.5 keV to 1 GeV/n in Liquid Argon and Xenon
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010005 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Biexcitonic collision kinetics with prescribed diffusion in the ion track core have been applied for scintillation response due to heavy ions in liquid argon. The quenching factors q = EL/E, where E is the ion energy and EL [...] Read more.
Biexcitonic collision kinetics with prescribed diffusion in the ion track core have been applied for scintillation response due to heavy ions in liquid argon. The quenching factors q = EL/E, where E is the ion energy and EL is the energy expended for luminescence, for 33.5 MeV/n 18O and 31.9 MeV/n 36Ar ions in liquid Ar at zero field are found to be 0.73 and 0.46, compared with measured values of 0.59 and 0.46, respectively. The quenching model is also applied for 80–200 keV Pb recoils in α-decay, background candidates in direct dark matter searches, in liquid argon. Values obtained are ~0.09. A particular feature of Birks’ law has been found and exploited in evaluating the electronic quenching factor qel in liquid Xe. The total quenching factors qT for 0.5–20 keV Xe recoils needed for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) searches are estimated to be ~0.12–0.14, and those for Pb recoils of 103 and 169 keV are 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In the calculation, the nuclear quenching factor qnc = Eη/E, where Eη is the energy available for the electronic excitation, is obtained by Lindhard theory and a semi-empirical theory by Ling and Knipp. The electronic linear energy transfer plays a key role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Production and Detection in Noble Liquid Detectors)
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Review
Wavelength Shifters for Applications in Liquid Argon Detectors
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010004 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Wavelength shifters and their applications for liquid argon detectors have been a subject of extensive R&D procedures over the past decade. This work reviews the most recent results in this field. We compare the optical properties and usage details together with the associated [...] Read more.
Wavelength shifters and their applications for liquid argon detectors have been a subject of extensive R&D procedures over the past decade. This work reviews the most recent results in this field. We compare the optical properties and usage details together with the associated challenges for various wavelength shifting solutions. We discuss the current status and potential future R&D directions for the main classes of wavelength shifters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Argon Detectors: Instrumentation and Applications)
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Article
Fast, Cheap, and Scalable Magnetic Tracker with an Array of Magnetoresistors
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010003 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
We present the hardware of a cheap multi-sensor magnetometric setup, where a relatively large set of magnetic field components is measured in several positions by calibrated magnetoresistive detectors. The setup is developed to map the (inhomogeneous) field generated by a known magnetic source, [...] Read more.
We present the hardware of a cheap multi-sensor magnetometric setup, where a relatively large set of magnetic field components is measured in several positions by calibrated magnetoresistive detectors. The setup is developed to map the (inhomogeneous) field generated by a known magnetic source, which is measured and then discerned from the background (homogeneous) geomagnetic field. The data output from this hardware can be successfully and reliably used to retrieve the position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame, together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. Possible applications of the setup are briefly discussed, and a synthetic description of the methods of data elaboration and analysis is provided. Full article
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Review
Calibration of Calorimetric Measurement in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010002 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The liquid argon time projection chamber provides high-resolution event images and excellent calorimetric resolution for studying neutrino physics and searching for beyond-standard-model physics. In this article, we review the main physics processes that affect detector response, including the electronics and field responses, space [...] Read more.
The liquid argon time projection chamber provides high-resolution event images and excellent calorimetric resolution for studying neutrino physics and searching for beyond-standard-model physics. In this article, we review the main physics processes that affect detector response, including the electronics and field responses, space charge effects, electron attachment to impurities, diffusion, and recombination. We describe methods to measure those effects, which are used to calibrate the detector response and convert the measured raw analog-to-digital converter (ADC) counts into the original energy deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Argon Detectors: Instrumentation and Applications)
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Article
The Electric Field Detector on Board the China Seismo Electromagnetic Satellite—In-Orbit Results and Validation
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/instruments5010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
The aim of this work is to validate the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite 01 (CSES-01) Electric Field Detector (EFD) measurements through the analysis of the instrument response to various inputs: (a) geomagnetic field variations, (b) plasma density depletions, and (c) electromagnetic signals from natural [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to validate the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite 01 (CSES-01) Electric Field Detector (EFD) measurements through the analysis of the instrument response to various inputs: (a) geomagnetic field variations, (b) plasma density depletions, and (c) electromagnetic signals from natural and artificial sources such as Schumann resonance and VLF (Very Low Frequency) antennas. The knowledge of the geomagnetic induced electric field vs×B (where vs is the satellite speed and B and the local magnetic field), and the plasma variations effect, described by the Orbit Motion Limited (OML) theory, are key parameters to determine the expected theoretical values of the EFD sensors potentials data. Based on the CSES on-board measurements of plasma parameters and geomagnetic field, a direct quantitative validation is presented. In addition, the electromagnetic signals detection capability is checked but only qualitatively confirmed, since the ionospheric complexity does not allow an accurate theoretical computation of waves modulation. The quantitative comparison highlights the very good agreement between observed and theoretical potentials values during average condition. Conversely, in case of strong electric fields, the OML theory shows partial inability in reproducing the actual space plasma conditions resulting in a reduced theoretical values reliability. Finally, both natural and artificial electromagnetic signals are satisfactorily identified showing a reliable sensitivity in different frequency bands. Full article
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