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The Glass Ceiling in the Sport Industry: Spanish Version of the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS)

1
Department of Didactics of Physical Education and Health, Faculty of Education, Universidad Internacional de la Rioja-UNIR, Avenida de la Paz, 137, Logroño, 26006 La Rioja, Spain
2
Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Health, Universidad Camilo José Cela, Calle Castillo de Alarcón, 49, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain
4
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, Villaviciosa de Odón, 28670 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Nicolas Volff
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 15 April 2021
The pace of women’s access to leadership positions is very different from country to country. With 69.4 out of 100 points, Spain ranks fourth in the European Union (EU) on social power, first measured in the 2020 edition of the Gender Equality Index. However, a need of deepening the reasons for gender inequalities remains. The Women As Managers Scale (WAMS) is a useful tool that allows for the measurement of the attitudinal factors that hinder access to managerial positions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the WAMS among sport managers through three factors: acceptance of women in key positions, features for business success, and barriers to access to managerial positions. For that purpose, a questionnaire—as is the original WAMS—was distributed to 401 managers working within sports organizations in the community of Madrid, Spain. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Student’s test were performed to analyze the stability of the scores. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha, the Homogeneity Index, and Discriminability Index. The construct validity was completed through exploratory factor analysis using principal components. The results show that the WAMS serves as a reference for use as a measure of attitudinal factors that hinder access to an executive position. Therefore, this work generates an instrument with adequate properties in the Spanish context. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender; validation; management; leadership; barriers; glass ceiling gender; validation; management; leadership; barriers; glass ceiling
MDPI and ACS Style

Gallardo-Pérez, J.; Romero-Moraleda, B.; Paredes-Hernández, V.; León-Quismondo, J. The Glass Ceiling in the Sport Industry: Spanish Version of the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS). Sexes 2021, 2, 163-173. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sexes2020014

AMA Style

Gallardo-Pérez J, Romero-Moraleda B, Paredes-Hernández V, León-Quismondo J. The Glass Ceiling in the Sport Industry: Spanish Version of the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS). Sexes. 2021; 2(2):163-173. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sexes2020014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gallardo-Pérez, Jana, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Víctor Paredes-Hernández, and Jairo León-Quismondo. 2021. "The Glass Ceiling in the Sport Industry: Spanish Version of the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS)" Sexes 2, no. 2: 163-173. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sexes2020014

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